Transcript for NASA Connect - Dancing In The Night Sky

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[Alex Trebek:] The category

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for final Jeopardy is
the Sun-Earth Connection

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and the answer is; the gostly
light that produces the dance

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of colors in the night sky
in the northern hemisphere.

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The correct question of course
what is the Aurora Borealis

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or Northern Lights?

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Hello everyone I am
Alex Trebek the host

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of the popular quiz
show "Jeopardy".

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You know as a child growing
up in Northern Ontario,

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Canada I was always
fascinated about the mystery

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of the Northern Lights.

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In this episode of NASA
Connect host Jennifer Pulley

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and special co-host Dr. Sten
Odenwald will take you all

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on an adventure to explore
the Aurora Borealis.

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You will learn about the many
legends and midst that revolve

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around the Aurora throughout
the history of mankind.

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You will also learn
how NASA scientists

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and engineers use satellite
technology to measure

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and analyze Aurora data.

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You'll visit Norwegian scientists

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at the Andoya rocket range located
just inside the Arctic Circle

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in Norway.

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And in your classroom you'll use
data analysis and measurement

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to plot the Aurora oval and
to the turn of the heights

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of the Northern Lights, all in
this episode of NASA Connect,

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"Dancing in the Night Sky".

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer:] Hi!

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Welcome to NASA Connect, the
show that connects you to math,

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science, technology and NASA.

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I am Jennifer Pulley.

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[Sten:] And I am Sten
Odenwald astronomer

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of the NASA Guard
Space Flight Centre.

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[Jennifer:] On this episode of NASA
Connect we are filming on location

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in Norway, a Scandinavian country
located in Northern Europe.

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Today, Sten and I are at the
Viking Ship Museum in Oslo Norway.

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And right beside us is an ancient
Viking burial ship called the

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Oseburg and we know, it dates
back to the ninth century.

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[Sten:] Wow.

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[Jennifer:] So Sten let's
film in, why we are in Norway.

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[Sten:] Because Norway is one of
the best countries in the world

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to see the Northern Lights.

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[Jennifer:] Or the Aurora Borealis.

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Aurora was a Roman
goddess of the dawn

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and Boreal is a Latin word meaning
north thus the Northern Light.

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There is a lot of folklore
about the Northern Lights

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in various cultures from around
the world have explained them

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as dancing spirits or blood
raining from the clouds.

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The Vikings believe the Northern
Lights were beams reflected

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from the shields of the Valkyries.

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Female warriors serving their god
Oden the aboriginals of Scandinavia

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or the Sami believed that the
Northern Lights have supernatural

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powers to resolve conflicts.

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The Sami painted a war
symbols on their magic drums.

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In middle age Europe the
Northern Lights were thought

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to be reflections of heavenly
warriors as a reward the soldiers

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that gave their lives for their
king or country were allowed

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to battle on the skies forever.

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There are so many myths and
legends and superstitions

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that have revolved around the
Northern Lights throughout the

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history of mankind.

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[Sten:] By the mid-1800
scientists finally began

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to explain many of their mysteries.

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Like lightening or earthquakes
they are natural events not

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supernatural ones.

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By the turn of the twentieth
century scientist actually created

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artificial aurora in
their laboratories.

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Christian Burkland a famous
Norwegian scientist created this

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device called the Torella a
magnetic sphere representing

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the earth.

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Currently housed at the Norwegian
technical museum this device

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creates artificial Aurora by
using an electronic gun similar

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to the one in your TV picture tube.

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Burkland believed that
currents of electrons

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from the sun caused the aurora.

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He laid the ground work
for the modern day's study

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of the Northern Lights.

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Today, thanks to modern
research satellites.

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We now have a deeper and
more complete understanding

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of how the Northern Lights work.

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[Jennifer:] Say, do you remember
what the final Jeopardy category

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was at the beginning
of the program.

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Well, if you don't, it was
the Sun-Earth Connection

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and Sten isn't it true that the
sun is the source of the Auroras.

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[Sten:] That's right Jennifer.

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The sun does play a role
in producing the aurora.

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The auroras are the only visible
evidence that we have that the sun

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and the earth are insistent,
that are connected by more

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than just gravity and sunlight.

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You see the sun gives off
charged particles called ions.

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These ions travel out in the
space, it speeds up three hundred

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and fifty to seven hundred
kilometers per second.

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A cloud or gas of such ions and
electrons is called the plasma.

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The stream of plasma coming from
the sun is known as the solar wind.

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The sun's corona or outer most
atmospheres continuously emits the

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solar wind, a stream of
electrically charged particles.

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Mostly protons and electrons,
flowing out in all directions,

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it is commonly said that the
aurora's gorgeous curtains

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of light are caused by particles
flowing directly from the sun.

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But this is not the case at all.

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When a major solar storm interacts

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with the earth's magnetic field
it causes some parts of this field

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to rearrange itself like rubber
bands pulled to breaking point.

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The magnetic energy that is
released causes powerful currents

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of particles to flow
from distant parts

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of the magnetic field
into the atmosphere.

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These currents flow
along the magnetic field

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into the Polar Regions
and collide with nitrogen

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and oxygen atoms in the atmosphere.

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The color of the aurora
depends on which gas,

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oxygen or nitrogen is being
excited by the electrons.

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Oxygen emits either a greenish
yellow light the most familiar

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color of the aurora or a red light.

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Nitrogen generally
gives off a blue light.

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The blending of these colors
can also produce purples,

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pinks and whites.

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[Jennifer:] Sten,
that is fascinating

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and of course it's beautiful.

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[Sten:] That's right
it is beautiful

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and you know the Northern Lights
are always moving like giant

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curtains of light, weaving
and swaying across the sky.

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[Jennifer:] So Sten how
do scientist study the

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Northern Lights.

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[Sten:] Well, besides
photographing them from the ground,

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there are three other ways that
scientist like to study them;

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ground based measuring devices,
sounding rockets and satellites.

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Data can be collected from
these three methods and analyzed

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by scientist to get a complete
picture of the Aurora Borealis.

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To get a better idea of how
ground based instruments

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and sounding rockets are
used, let's visit Professor

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[inaudible] at the
Andoya Rocket Range.

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[Jennifer:] But before
we visit Prof.

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[inaudible] and learn more
about the rocket range,

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let's review the two math
concepts for today's program,

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data analysis and measurement.

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Data analysis and measurement
are two important math concepts

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to scientist and engineers.

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You see before things can
be analyzed they must first

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be measured.

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Scientist and engineers
take measurements,

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so they can collect data.

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Think about what you measure
everyday; link, volume,

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mass or temperature to name a few.

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Once scientist and engineers
collect the data they need,

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then they must analyze that data.

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Scientists are constantly
on a look out for patterns

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that can help them
understand how things work.

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By analyzing data they can
construct relationships among

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numbers and the scientific
principles they are investigating.

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Now that you understand the
importance of data analysis

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and measurement, let's
go meet with Prof.

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[inaudible]

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>> How is the

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[inaudible] used to
measure auroral activity?

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>> In analyzing the graph, what
indicates a great disturbance

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in the earth's magnetic field?

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>> How are sounding rockets useful
to scientists and engineers?

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[Jennifer:] Prof.

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[inaudible], how are you?

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>> Fine, thank you and
how are you Jennifer?

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[Jennifer:] I am wonderful.

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I am wonderful.

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This is Dr.

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[inaudible]

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>> Hello Prof.

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>> Hello Dr.

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[inaudible] nice to meet you.

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>> Meet you too.

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[Jennifer:] You know the Andoya
Rocket Range is an exciting

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facility can you tell
us some more about it?

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>> Andoya Rockets Range is the
furthest north permanent located

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rocket range where we launched
rocket and scientific balloons.

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It's located here because it's
just under the royal depth.

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And this is the place where we
do all the launching of rocket

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and balloons from Norway.

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The range provides complete
services for launch operation,

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data acquisition, recovery and
ground instrumented support.

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Since 1962 more than eight
hundred rockets have been launched

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from this range.

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We have also hosted scientist
and engineer for more

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than seventy institute and
university around the world.

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>> Professor, what kind of ground
based measurements do you take here

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at the range?

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>> Well we take a lot of
different measurements,

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but I think the most
important is the recording

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of the earth magnetic
filed and for that type

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of recordings we use
a magnetometer.

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[Jennifer:] A magnetometer,
sounds like an instrument

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that measures magnets or
may be a magnetic field?

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>> You are on the
right track Jennifer.

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A magnetometer can be used to
measure weak, short term variation

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in the strength of the earth

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[inaudible] field.

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It was first used in the
year 1800 by Alexander from

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[inaudible] to start the aurora
and what he called magnetic stones.

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These variations are
due to electric currents

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in the upper atmosphere.

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The electrons and ions
flowing in from distant region

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of the earth's magnetic
field cause currents to flow

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in the ionosphere and also
course the aurora currents.

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So, a magnetometer measures a
quantity that is directly related

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to the Northern Lights,

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the stronger the magnetic
variation the higher the

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auroral activity.

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[Jennifer:] Professor, this is
just type of magnetometer, correct?

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>> That's correct, yes.

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[Jennifer:] Now how do
you analyze the data

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that you collect from
a magnetometer?

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>> What we do is, well we reproduce
some graphic representation

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and if there is a big deviation
from the local standard field,

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we call them magnetic stone.

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And I just want to show
you one example here

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of the big magnetic stone.

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And here you can really
see big deviation

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from the local standard field.

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Following graph shows a
relative weak magnetic stone.

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The magnetometer measure the
geomagnetic field along three axis;

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north, south or 'H' component
east-west or 'D' component and up

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down or 'Set' component.

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This graph is a magnetic field
strength versus time clock.

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Now there is a block of a
relative stone, magnetic stone,

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probably caused by a
disturbance in the solar wind.

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What can we conclude
from the two graphs?

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[Jennifer:] Now let me see.

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The second graph shows
more magnetic activity

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than the first graph.

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So I would say the more
magnetic activity the greater the

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auroral activity.

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>> That's correct, Jennifer.

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Notice in this section of the graph
the deviations are at the maximum,

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if the night sky was clear
we can view the mysterious

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and beautiful aurora colors.

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Magnetometers locate
here at a range

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of continuously taking measurements

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of the local geomagnetic field.

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In fact anyone from around the
world can visit the following

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website to analyze the
geo-magnetic activity around

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and their rocket range.

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>> Professor you mentioned
that this facility is known

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for aurora research
using sounding rockets?

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>> Yes, that's correct.

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As a matter of fact that's the
main purpose for the rocket range,

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we can study the Aurora
from the ground,

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but then we just look
on the bottom aurora.

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If you studied aurora
from a satellite,

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you will study the
top of the aurora.

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But by using instrumented
rocket you can study the inside

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of the aurora, that's why sounding
rocket is such a unique platform

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for the auroral studies.

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Other instruments under
rocket, register electric field

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and magnetic field and
count particles coming

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into the atmosphere from distance
part of the earth magnetic field.

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Consequently, the energy

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that produces the Northern
Light can be calculated.

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During an ordinary
winter night in Norway,

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the Northern Light involves
more energy than the country use

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in one year as severe the
auroral storm can produce billions

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of joules of energy per second.

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[Jennifer:] Prof.

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[inaudible], thank you,
we learned so much.

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>> Its really my pleasure, thank
you too or as we say Norway,

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[inaudible].

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[Jennifer:] Okay, guys, now it's
a time for a cue card review.

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1. How is the magnetometer used
to measure auroral activity?

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2. In analyzing the graph, what
indicate a great disturbance

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in the earth's magnetic field?

[00:13:30.863]
3. How are sounding rockets useful
to scientists and engineers?

[00:13:35.913]
So, did you get all the
answers to the questions,

[00:13:38.663]
good, now let's review.

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We've learned about the myths

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and legends surrounding
the Northern Lights

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and we also learned how
ground based instruments

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and sounding rockets are
used to study the auroras.

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Now, we turn our focus
to space later

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in the program Dr. Nikki Fox
will tell us how data analysis

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and measurement are used to
study the auroras with the help

[00:14:01.613]
of two NASA satellites
Polar and Timed.

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But first Sten, will give
us the scoop on image.

[00:14:09.763]
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[Sten:] Thanks, Jennifer,
aurora tell us in a dramatic way

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that something invisible is
happening above our heads in space

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to light up our skies.

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We can use sophisticated earth
orbiting satellites to learn more

[00:14:22.473]
about the causes of the aurora.

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The imager for magnetosphere
to aurora global exploration

[00:14:28.633]
or image is a NASA satellite that
lets us see the invisible activity

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that swirls around the earth and
eventually causes aurora to appear.

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When a solar storm collides with
earth one of the first signs

[00:14:39.683]
of the disturbance is a collection

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of particles called
the wind current.

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It's an invisible river of
charged particles extending

[00:14:45.913]
over thirty thousand
kilometers from earth.

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Much of the matter in this
current actually comes

[00:14:51.313]
from the earth's upper atmosphere
in gigantic plumes and fountains

[00:14:54.713]
of gas from the Polar Regions.

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But we still don't know how
the particles get their energy;

[00:14:59.783]
another part of the upper
atmosphere seen by image

[00:15:02.323]
for the first time is what
scientist calls the plasma sphere.

[00:15:06.083]
It extends out in to space at
least ten thousand kilometers;

[00:15:09.653]
you should think that it is the
outer limits to the ionosphere.

[00:15:12.703]
During severer storms parts of the
plasma sphere are stripped off,

[00:15:16.523]
but then reform as new gas flows
out of the earth's upper regions

[00:15:21.213]
and of course image
also provides scientists

[00:15:24.173]
with movie like high
resolution views

[00:15:26.313]
of the aurora seeing from space.

[00:15:28.543]
Over the South Pole, the satellite
dips down to a thousand kilometers

[00:15:32.283]
to show as never before seen
details in auroral structure.

[00:15:36.293]
The Aurora in the South Pole
is called Aurora Australis.

[00:15:40.373]
Over the North Pole we see a more
distant view any bigger picture we

[00:15:44.763]
can relate this big picture
with views of the wind current

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and plasma sphere to
track the evolution

[00:15:49.493]
of an Aurora from cradle to grave.

[00:15:52.673]
The reason why we are so keen
to understand the aurora is

[00:15:55.773]
that the aurora are kind of
like a final examination;

[00:15:58.853]
if we can really understand
how they work,

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that means we also
understand all the other things

[00:16:03.273]
about earth's environment as well.

[00:16:05.213]
We have billions of dollars
of satellite technology

[00:16:07.663]
in space astronauts
living and working in space

[00:16:10.863]
and on the ground
many kinds of systems

[00:16:12.973]
that are affected by solar storms.

[00:16:15.203]
An electrical blackout
in Canada back

[00:16:16.473]
in 1989 cost billions of dollars.

[00:16:20.083]
We have lost over two billion
dollars of expensive communication

[00:16:23.413]
and research satellites in
the last ten years alone.

[00:16:26.173]
Solar storms have tremendous
potential to cause damage to us.

[00:16:29.773]
Only by understanding Aurora and
the events that lead up to them,

[00:16:33.133]
can we improve our
ability to predict how

[00:16:35.293]
to avoid the harmful effects
of space weather storms?

[00:16:38.883]
The real challenge is to
get enough early warning

[00:16:41.413]
that a storm is approaching that's
why it's also important to look

[00:16:44.673]
at the sun for clues
to the next storm.

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[Jennifer:] Thanks Sten.

[00:16:48.233]
Okay guys.

[00:16:49.093]
Now it's your turn to apply data
analysis and measurement skills

[00:16:52.503]
with this really collectivity.

[00:16:54.293]
Sten they are gorgeous aren't they?

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[Sten:] Aren't they amazing?

[00:17:00.593]
[00:17:02.393]
>> Hi! We are students from

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[inaudible] school right here I am

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[inaudible].

[00:17:06.293]
>> NASA Connect also to show
you this activity it's called

[00:17:09.313]
[inaudible] and aurora.

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>> You can download
data on listed materials

[00:17:12.703]
from the NASA Connect Website.

[00:17:14.483]
>> Here are the main objectives.

[00:17:17.633]
[Jennifer:] Students will
find and plot locations

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on map using geographic coordinate.

[00:17:23.583]
Draw conclusions based on graphical
information, convert centimeters

[00:17:28.403]
to kilometers using
the given scale,

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here are some terms
you will need to know.

[00:17:33.423]
Latitude, a geographic coordinate
measured from the equator

[00:17:37.263]
with positive values going north
and negative values going south.

[00:17:41.133]
Longitude, a geographic coordinate
measured from the prime meridian

[00:17:45.023]
which is a longitude that
runs from Greenwich England

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with positive values going east
and negative values going west.

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>> Good morning class.

[00:17:54.153]
The Northern Lights are seen
with dramatic colors and only

[00:17:57.023]
in certain places in
the Northern Hemisphere.

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Today you will plot the
location and boundaries

[00:18:03.693]
of a typical auroral oval
in the arctic region.

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You will see its geographic extent
and determine its relationship

[00:18:11.483]
to familiar continents
and countries.

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Distribute all of student material.

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Students can work alone or in pair.

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Students label the latitude lines
beginning at the center point

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with ninety degrees, then mark
each circle ten degrees west

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in the previous circle
ending at twenty degrees.

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Next, label the unmarked
longitude lines; plot the points

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on to the geographic
grid for the outer ring.

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The geographic data-points
can be found

[00:18:37.243]
on the student activity sheet.

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The points are identified as
order pair longitude, latitude.

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For example, the order pair one
eighty-sixty means one hundred

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eighty degrees longitude
and sixty degrees latitude.

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Connect the points in the
outer ring, now plot the point

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on to the geographic grid for the
inner ring and connect the points.

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Using the scale one centimeter
equals fourteen hundred kilometers

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measured in kilometers the
approximate width of the shortest

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and longest distances between
the inner and outer range

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and determine the range.

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Record these values on the
student activity sheet.

[00:19:13.583]
>> Okay class.

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From the analysis of your
graph, how far is the center

[00:19:19.493]
of the auroral oval
from the North Pole?

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>> I calculated that the center
of the auroral oval over is

[00:19:25.533]
about five hundred
kilometers from the North Pole.

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>> Very good

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[inaudible] and where would
you travel in North America

[00:19:32.703]
to see the Northern Lights.

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>> From the graph either Canada
or Alaska are the best places

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to view the Northern Lights.

[00:19:40.043]
[00:19:41.493]
>> Students once you complete
the hands-on activity,

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check out the web activity

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for today' program called the
NASA Northern Nights challenge.

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It can be accessed at
the NASA Connect website.

[00:19:52.003]
This activity is created
to be fun, interactive

[00:19:55.073]
and will challenge your
ability to solve problems.

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During the course of the activity
we will use various probes

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to explore properties of the
planets and our solar system.

[00:20:03.933]
There are eight interactive probes

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in different color boxes along
the two sides you'll learn

[00:20:08.633]
about the temperature, magnetic
field strength solar wind density,

[00:20:13.223]
atmospheric gases, mean
distance, mean density, gravity

[00:20:18.123]
and speed on other planets.

[00:20:19.943]
Upon exploring each planet
you will apply what you learnt

[00:20:23.143]
to solve the following problem,

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what other planets may
have the Northern Lights.

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Special thanks to the students from

[00:20:29.163]
[inaudible] School and

[00:20:29.753]
[inaudible] School
and Virginia Beach,

[00:20:32.243]
Virginia for demonstrating
this web activity.

[00:20:36.053]
[00:20:37.283]
>> Super job you guys.

[00:20:39.083]
So what is NASA doing
to study the auroras.

[00:20:42.183]
Well Nikki Fox a Senior Scientist

[00:20:44.863]
at the John Hopkins University
Applied Physics laboratory

[00:20:47.933]
in Baltimore Maryland
can tell us all about it.

[00:20:52.323]
[00:20:53.853]
>> Why do Scientist view satellite
images to monitor the auroras?

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>> In analyzing the graph when
do aurora activities increase?

[00:21:00.843]
>> What are the phases
of the aurora?

[00:21:03.193]
>> This is the John
Hopkins University,

[00:21:07.223]
Applied Physics Laboratory
and Laurel Maryland.

[00:21:10.063]
I am the Operation Scientist
for the Polar Mission.

[00:21:12.973]
The Polar Mission is part of
NASA's Sun-Earth Connections fleet,

[00:21:16.373]
within the Sun-Earth Connections
fleet Polar has the responsibility

[00:21:19.943]
for multi-wave length imaging of
the aurora measuring the entry

[00:21:23.453]
of the material into the Polar
Regions the flow of material to

[00:21:27.243]
and from the ionosphere and
the discharge of the energy

[00:21:30.293]
in the ionosphere and
the upper atmosphere.

[00:21:32.983]
Scientist use satellite
images to monitor the position

[00:21:36.103]
of the various auroral features.

[00:21:38.303]
In particular the latitudinal
location of the edge closest

[00:21:42.193]
to the equator of the aurora
determines the amount of activity.

[00:21:46.273]
The further the aurora moves
towards the equator the bigger the

[00:21:49.363]
event, also the extent
and speed of the expansion

[00:21:53.033]
of the aurora tells us a lot
about the amount of activity.

[00:21:56.603]
The further and faster it
moves the larger the events.

[00:22:00.293]
Polar is a unique space craft

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because it carries four different
cameras to study the aurora.

[00:22:05.553]
There is a high resolution visible
imager, which allows us to look

[00:22:08.893]
at the aurora in different
wave lengths,

[00:22:10.613]
or colors in this way we can
simultaneously image the red,

[00:22:14.603]
blue and green components
of the aurora.

[00:22:16.883]
There is also a global imager
which allows us to look

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at the whole earth at once.

[00:22:22.293]
This camera takes
pictures in ultra violet

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so we can see what the
aurora is doing even

[00:22:27.633]
when there is sunlight in the way.

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Auroras do occur during
the day time,

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we just can't see them
with the naked eye.

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But from the images of this
camera we can see the size

[00:22:37.713]
of the auroral oval.

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For example, the following
graph shows you the latitude

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in a auroral extent to selected
its coronal mass ejection events.

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Coronal mass ejections or CME's
are gigantic explosions caused

[00:22:51.073]
by the sun that can reach speeds
of millions of kilometers per hour.

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It takes around three days
for CME to reach the earth.

[00:22:59.493]
The vertical axis of the graph
is the geomagnetic north latitude

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from forty degrees to
fifty eight degrees.

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On a globe forty degrees North
latitude is closer to the equator

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and fifty eight degree
North latitude is closer

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to the geomagnetic North Pole.

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The horizontal axis represents
the dates of selected CME events

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from analysis of this
graph we can determine

[00:23:23.993]
that the latitudinal auroral
extent generally increased

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from 1997 to 2000.

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Be careful in the way you
interpret this growth.

[00:23:32.543]
The function appears

[00:23:33.713]
to be decreasing even though the
data show a downward trend the

[00:23:37.753]
auroral oval extended
closer to the equator.

[00:23:40.453]
For this particular
graph it tells us

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that the auroral activity
increased lets look

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at two data points.

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From the data on January10th
1997 there was am auroral event

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in the Northern Hemisphere
that extended to a latitude

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of fifty seven point three degrees.

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Do you know the name of the country
that the auroral oval covered?

[00:24:01.723]
If you said Canada,
then you were correct.

[00:24:06.153]
On July 15th, 2000, there was
an auroral event that extended

[00:24:10.053]
to latitude forty one
point two degrees.

[00:24:13.073]
The auroral activity was so intense
that the auroral oval stretched

[00:24:16.863]
in to the southern part
of the United States.

[00:24:19.573]
The eleven years solar cycle

[00:24:20.893]
of the sun reached its
maximum in the year 2000.

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So we expected auroral activity
to increase from 1997 to 2000.

[00:24:30.383]
With all these cameras and the data
we collect we can photograph the

[00:24:33.953]
evolution of an Aurora.

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The evolution of every aurora
tends to follow a similar sequence.

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We call this an auroral sub storm.

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The following images show a typical
sequence of an auroral sub storm.

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The first image shows a quiet oval
before any activity begins this is

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called the quiet phase.

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Right before we see any bright
emissions we can observe the oval

[00:24:57.873]
getting bigger and to moves
further towards the equator.

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This is called the growth
phase, the activity truly begins

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with a small spot of light
or onset event followed

[00:25:08.843]
by the lighting of whole
ring and an expansion

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to a more forward location.

[00:25:13.823]
The large bright region you can
see is called the auroral bulge.

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When we the Aurora reaches its
maximum expansion you can see

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that the large bulge
begins to break up

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and the small discrete
features appear.

[00:25:26.523]
Finally, the whole aurora dims and
recovers it will eventually return

[00:25:30.983]
to the initial stage
to quiet phase.

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The whole process may
repeat over and over again

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until the activity
dies out completely.

[00:25:39.633]
Now all the images you've
seen so far have been

[00:25:41.893]
from the Northern Hemisphere
of the Northern Lights

[00:25:44.593]
or the Aurora Borealis.

[00:25:46.413]
But did you know that there
was also a Southern counterpart

[00:25:48.993]
of the Aurora called the Southern
Lights or the Aurora Australis

[00:25:53.133]
and here we are seeing
a unique movie taken

[00:25:55.273]
by the Polar space craft
that shows us both the North

[00:25:58.223]
and the South at the same time.

[00:26:00.313]
This allows us to see that
the activity is occurring

[00:26:03.463]
at the same time in both
hemispheres we call this

[00:26:06.793]
the conjugate Aurora.

[00:26:08.793]
Now we've seen data from
many different cameras

[00:26:10.843]
on the Polar space
craft and learned

[00:26:12.733]
that when you add them
all together you can learn

[00:26:14.403]
and often lot more
about the aurora.

[00:26:16.623]
Now we are looking at an animation

[00:26:18.133]
which shows the polar
auroral image underneath

[00:26:21.373]
with the time spacecraft
flying over the top.

[00:26:24.343]
Time is taking images in very
high resolution and you can see

[00:26:27.973]
that every time the
spacecraft flies

[00:26:30.003]
through the oval it suddenly
illuminates all the fine scaled

[00:26:33.153]
features that you
couldn't see before.

[00:26:35.253]
So now we know that when you add

[00:26:36.723]
to data sets together you
get even more information now

[00:26:39.913]
with the addition of data from
ground based observatories

[00:26:42.533]
and sounding rockets we
can look at the aurora

[00:26:44.853]
with full perspective.

[00:26:46.693]
>> Okay now it's time
for a cue card review.

[00:26:48.923]
1. Why the scientists use satellite
images to monitor the auroras?

[00:26:54.513]
2. In analyzing the graph when
do auroral activities increase?

[00:26:58.803]
3. What are the phases
of the Aurora?

[00:27:01.933]
>> Well, that wraps up another
episode of NASA Connect.

[00:27:04.783]
>> We'd like to thank everybody,
who to help make the show possible.

[00:27:07.503]
>> Got a question or comment or
perhaps a suggestion then write us

[00:27:11.953]
at NASA Centre for Distance
Learning NASA Langley Research

[00:27:15.283]
Centre, Mail Stop four
hundred, Hampton Virginia 23681.

[00:27:20.693]
You know each year here on

[00:27:22.383]
[inaudible] they celebrate
the beauty of the auroras

[00:27:25.083]
with the Northern Lights festival.

[00:27:27.323]
>> We leave you know with
some images of the festival

[00:27:29.883]
and the people of Norway.

[00:27:31.523]
>> So until next time stay
connected to math, science,

[00:27:35.933]
technology and of course NASA.

[00:27:38.043]
We will see you then
good bye from Norway.

[00:27:40.213]
>> Alright.

[00:27:40.553]