Transcript for NASA Connect - Geometry of Exploration - Eyes Over Mars

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Hey

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[inaudible] in the
science guy here.

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When you dream about going places,
what is your mind taking somewhere

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on earth or to the stars?

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If you spend time looking

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at the stars you'll notice
one there is a bit red.

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It's actually not a star off the
planet Mars it's the next place

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humans are going to
explore, of course none

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of these exploration could be done
without science and mathematics.

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On this episode of NASA Connect,

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NASA will show you how the
principles of geometry are used

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to survey and map our planet
earth and the planet Mars.

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So hang tight as Van, Jennifer and
the NASA science guys survey earth

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and Mars on this episode
of NASA Connect.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer:] Hey guys
welcome to NASA connect,

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the show that connects
you to the world of math,

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science, technology and NASA.

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I am Jennifer Pulley.

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[Van:] And I am Van Hughes.

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Today we are here at the
Virginia Living Museum

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in New Port East Virginia.

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And right now we are
standing on a sundial

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which is basically
a plate marked with

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[inaudible] is a raised projection
that casts a shadow from the sun.

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Jennifer why don't you come

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[inaudible].

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According to your shadow
it's time to start the show.

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[Jennifer:] Well Van this is
you know, bad way to tell time

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but you I think I
rather use my watch.

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You know through our
history the sun

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and stars governed people's
days, years and even their lives.

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Using sundials and observing
shadow was one way ancient people

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told time.

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Get this, you can even
measure height and distance

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with shadows passed from the sun.

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[Van:] In fact you can even
measure the circumference

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of an entire planet like also
earth and or mars and something

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as simple as a shadow.

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[Jennifer:] And geometry, on today
NASA Connect we will examine how

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NASA researchers use the principles
of geometry to survey the world

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around us and the world beyond us.

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[Van:] We will focus of
telescope to see how geometry

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and satellites are used to measure,

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map and survey other
planets like mars.

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[Jennifer:] Which by the way can be
seen quite well in the planetarium?

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Anyway we will visit some students
from George Washington University

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who are studying and
surveying the martial landscape

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at NASA Langley Research
Centre in Hampton Virginia.

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[Van:] And we will
visit a researcher

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from NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

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Who will show us how geometry is
used by NASA's Mars global survey.

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Later on in this show students
from Central Middle School

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and Charlotte Courthouse
Virginia will join us.

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They have got now some
experiment they want to try.

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[Jennifer:] Plus NASA's educational
technology program manager Dr.

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[inaudible] will introduce
that to some students

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from Davis Middle school
in Hampton Virginia.

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These students are
using the internet

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to create their own Mars
surveyor to learn more

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about this web based
activity later in the show.

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[Van:] Hey as we go to the show our
friend Norbert will visit you too.

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Every time he appears with a
Q-card that's your Q to think

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about the answers to the
questions he gives you.

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Got it?

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[Jennifer:] Plus we will go
to NASA Ames Research Centre

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in Mountain View California
there we'll get all the latest

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information on research for life
on Mars and learn all about.

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[Van:]

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[inaudible]

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[Jennifer:] So hand tight
as NASA Connect takes you

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on a global surveyor mission
to our planet earth and -- -

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>> Well it's surveying.

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>> How to survey measures geometry?

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>> Surveying is the measurement
of angles and distances,

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elevation and direction.

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This is especially
useful for locating

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[inaudible] boundaries,
construction layout and map making.

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>> Okay, Terry, can you tell me
how surveyors use this equipment

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and geometry to survey land?

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[Terry]: Yeah, just look at this
transit that contains a telescope,

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a compass and a protractor
and is used

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in major horizontal
and vertical angles.

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You can measure angles in the field

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with this they measure
those same angles

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[inaudible] with a protractor.

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The first one is used to layout
objects like football fields,

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baseball fields, soccer fields.

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Today let's demonstrate
how we use this by laying

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out this football field.

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>>: Alright.

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[Terry]: First we take a
starting point inside the transit

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over to the point.

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We call this point
corner number one,

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then we measure three hundred
feet to the next corner

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and call it corner number four.

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We mark this corner
with the colon mark.

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With zero on the scale we
look through the telescope

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and lineup corner number four.

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We noted the angle
between the sides

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of the rectangle is ninety degrees.

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So we turned the telescope
towards corner number two

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until we can read ninety degrees
on the transit circle or scale.

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Now we measured the width of
the football field, one hundred

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and fifty feet and more corner
number two, next we move to transit

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over corner number two with
zero on the scale we look

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through the telescope at
corner number one marker.

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Return the telescope
towards corner number three

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until we can read ninety
degrees on the scale.

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We measure three hundred feet
in north corner number three.

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You now have all of
the corners north,

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applying one of the basic rules
of geometry, we noted the sum

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of the interior angles of the four
sided polygon is three hundred

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and sixty degrees.

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So our last angle must
measure ninety degrees

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for a correct layout.

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The rule for checking the angles
of any object is that the sum

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of the interior angles of
the close polygon is equal

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to the number of side minus two
as one hundred ninety degree.

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You know Jennifer the olden
science of survey had been used

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for over 3400 years
in map and measure

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[inaudible].

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Today, scientist at NASA
of the preventive measure

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and map the planets
of our solar system.

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[Jennifer:] Who knows,
maybe one day,

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one of you will help survey Mars.

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>> Did you know that George
Washington was a surveyor,

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before he became President?

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Did you know

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[inaudible] on the
expression mission?

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>> To understand angles
and circumference,

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let's look at something we
can all relate to pizza.

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Take the slice of pizza, can
you tell, just by looking at it,

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how many slices were
in the original pizza

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and how we around it was?

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Sure you can, all it takes
is a little geometry.

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A pizza usually has eight
identical slices, but not all.

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Oh, so let's measure the
angle with of the slice.

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That's a part you put
in your mouth first.

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Excuse me sir.

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What is this protractor read?

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>> The protractor reads an
angle with forty five degrees.

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>> Right, so what
is the measurement

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of all the other angles
touching the center?

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>> They have to be equal

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or the same measurement
forty five degrees.

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>> Right, now most
pieces are circular

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and circles measures three
hundred and sixty degrees.

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If you divide, three hundred sixty
degrees by forty five degrees,

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the original pizza
had eight slices.

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Now let's review the
circumference of this pizza.

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Most pizzas are measured in
inches, so using the pizza

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with eight slices, if the
links of the crust arc is five

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and a half inches how
round is your pizza?

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[Child:] If there eight slices

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and the crust arc measures five
point five inches long then eight

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and five point five inches
equals to forty four inches?

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The Pizza has circumference
of forty-four inches!

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>> Great! Try this one.

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What if the angle width of your
Pizza slice measures thirty degree

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and the crust arc is
two and a half inches.

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How may slices would there
be in the original pizza

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and what is the circumference?

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[Child:] I've got it, three
hundred and fifty degrees divided

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by thirty degrees
equals twelve slices.

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Twelve slices times
two point five inches

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because of circumference
of thirty inches.

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>> So, Sir, would you rather
read out twelve slice pizza

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or an eight slice pizza?

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>> I'll choose the eight slices
as I couldn't possibly eat twelve.

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>> Did you know that over 2000
years ago a Greek librarian use

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geometry to determine the
circumference of the earth.

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[Child:]

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[inaudible] circumference
of the earth,

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what are the angle relationship

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between parallel lines
and a transversal?

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>> The concept of the earth being
a large sphere was not unknown

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to the ancient Greeks.

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And everyday observations
such as the disappearance

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of ships below the
horizon indicated

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that the earth might
be spherical or round.

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But how large was it?

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The person who figured it
out was a librarian named

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[inaudible] who lived in Alexandria
Egypt about 300 B.C. While looking

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to a scroll one day he read
that at noon on the longest day

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of the year, a vertical
column cast no shadow in

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[inaudible] a city
south of Alexandria.

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[inaudible] knew that this
did not happen in Alexandria.

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He talked to himself, how was
it possible to have shadows

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in Alexandria and not in

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[inaudible] at the
same time of day?

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[inaudible] figured out that the
sun must be directly overhead in

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[inaudible] but not in Alexandria.

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Aha! here was proved that the
earth's surface is curved.

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Using a little geometry

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[inaudible] set out to determine
the circumference of the earth

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and find out just how big it is.

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>> Just like our pizza
example if our friend

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[inaudible] could determine
the central angle at the center

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of the earth and the length of the
edge or arc then he could figure

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out the circumference of the earth.

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Now, finding the length of the
edge or arc was fairly simple math.

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[inaudible] asked a friend
to walk from Alexandria to

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[inaudible] to measure the
distance between the two cities.

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His friend estimated
the distance to be

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around eight hundred kilometers
or about five hundred miles.

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Finding the central angle
however will take some geometry.

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First

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[inaudible] assumed correctly
that the sun's rays are parallel.

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Since the sun is so far
away check this out.

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In this diagram, we can see
that there is no shadow at

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[inaudible] while there
is a shadow in Alexandria.

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The line that is formed by
the no mark or vertical column

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at Alexandria and the
centre of the earth cuts

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or intersects the two parallel
lines formed from the sun's rays.

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A line that intersects two parallel
lines is called a transversal.

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The two angles formed
from the transversal line

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and the parallel lines are
called alternate interior angles.

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And according to geometric rule
they are equal, let's prove it.

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Take a piece of paper of any width
and draw a diagonal line on it.

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Label the angles A
and B just like this.

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Now cut the paper
along the diagonals

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so you have two triangles.

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Compare angles A and B by placing
one angle on top of the other.

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Hey, what do you notice?

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[Child:] The angles are equals

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in no matter what side
paper you started with.

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>> Right! When two parallel lines
are intersected by a transversal,

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the alternate interior
angles are equal.

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[inaudible] who is
quite a geometer.

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From his measurements, Aristophanes
calculated the suns rays made an

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angle of seven and a half
degrees at Alexandria.

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Now since this angle was
formed by two parallel lines

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and a transversal the central angle

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of the earth must also be
seven and a half degrees.

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By knowing these two
things the central angle

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and the distance from

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[inaudible] calculated
circumference of the earth.

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Three hundred sixty
degrees divided by seven

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and a half degrees equals forty
eight slices of the earth.

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Are you still with me, okay,
hang tight we are almost there.

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Now if you remember that
the estimated distance

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between Alexandria and Seine
is eight hundred kilometers

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and you multiply that distance by
the number of slices in the earth.

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Forty eight, what is the
circumference of the earth?

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Well, if you estimated
that distance

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to be thirty eight
thousand kilometers,

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you are absolutely right.

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[inaudible] estimate was really
close to the earth's circumference

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which is forty thousand
seventy four kilometers.

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This percentage air was about
five percent and was probably due

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to an error in the distance
between the two cities.

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Five percent, that's
pretty good considering

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[inaudible] used only his
feet, his eyes, his imagination

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and of course his
knowledge of geometry.

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>> There are other ways that
we survey the earth which

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[inaudible] never dreamed of.

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NASA scientists use aero
planes and satellites.

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>> But what if you want to
survey other planets like Mars.

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>> NASA scientists are doing
that right now, but first.

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Let's have the Central
Middle School

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in Charlotte Court house Virginia

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where students are following
in the foot steps of

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[inaudible]

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>> Hi, welcome to
Central Middle school

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in Charlotte, Court House Virginia.

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>> NASA Connect asked us to
show how did the stage activity

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for the show.

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>> In this lesson you
work in small groups

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to take accurate measurements
of shadows using geometry

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to determine the size of an angle.

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Here are the materials you
will need for each group.

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A straight take of approximately
ninety one centimeters long.

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[inaudible] a piece of strain
approximately ninety one

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centimeters and

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[inaudible].

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A scientific calculator index hard.

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Compass, copies of the
student data chart

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[inaudible] Lets begin, divide
the class in research groups

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of three to five members.

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Set your measurement
station by first placing the

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[inaudible].

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For your measurement to be accurate
and it's critical vertical.

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To check the vertical
position tie the rock or

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[inaudible] to the string and

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[inaudible].

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Next, measured the height of

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[inaudible] place an index
card under the station to mark

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where the shadow is,

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take measurements every
two minutes beginning

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at least ten minutes
before local noon.

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When this is a time that
we sanitized in the sky.

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This we most likely not in you,

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as indicated on your
time measuring device.

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Students should know that
when the sun is highest

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in the sky the shadow
length is the shortest.

[00:15:32.979]
Since the edge of the shadow is
fussy and the shadow is moving

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from east to west in Northern
Hemisphere, be careful in deciding

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where to question mark.

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Record your data on data chart one.

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Now back in your classroom
locate the latitude and longitude

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of your school location and
reported on dated chart number one.

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Identify your best shadow link.

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This is the best shadow
link at local noon time.

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Next calculate the

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[inaudible] by dividing the length
of the shadow by the height of the

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[inaudible].

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Locate this number

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[inaudible] round the
number on the tent of table.

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The measure at the

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[inaudible] can also be found by
the dividing the length of a shadow

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by the height of an object
on the scientific calculator.

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Record T&J or student data chart.

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Make a scale drawing of

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[inaudible] and shadow,
complete the triangle

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and measure the tangent
with the protector

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to verify the calculations.

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What's next Jennifer?

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[Jennifer:] Let's analyze the
data by reviewing the results

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of this activity and by responding
to the following questions?

[00:16:49.399]
Did the weather conditions effect
the results of this activity?

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If so how?

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As the shadow lengthens overtime,
how would be angle be affected?

[00:17:05.319]
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If each group uses a

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[inaudible] with a
different length,

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how would that affect the
results of this activity?

[00:17:13.839]
For more activities like
this, check out our website

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at edu.larc.nasa.gov/connect.

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>> NASA connect would like to
the special thanks to the mentors

[00:17:27.549]
from the AIAA Chapter at Howard
University in Washington DC.

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We appreciate all your help
to the student activity.

[00:17:34.989]
>> Okay, let's review.

[00:17:36.179]
We have seen how the
sun's position satellites

[00:17:39.339]
and geometry help
us survey the earth,

[00:17:42.199]
but what if we wanted
to survey Mars?

[00:17:45.789]
>> Well we don't live on
Mars so how do scientist

[00:17:48.659]
and NASA survey the red planet.

[00:17:50.999]
>> I thought you've never asked.

[00:17:53.139]
Let's visit NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory

[00:17:55.269]
in Pasadena California
and find out.

[00:18:00.229]
>> What is the Mar global
surveyor and where is it?

[00:18:04.469]
>> How does the Mars global
surveyor use geometry

[00:18:08.479]
to survey the Mars landscape?

[00:18:11.199]
>> Mars global surveyor is a space
craft that is in orbit around Mars.

[00:18:16.389]
Its purpose is to take pictures
of Mars, measure the temperature

[00:18:20.469]
of the surface and
the atmosphere of Mars

[00:18:23.089]
and to pass laser signals
off the surface of Mars

[00:18:26.729]
to precisely determine
the shape of Mars.

[00:18:30.259]
You might think of Mars as
simply being a sphere by looking

[00:18:33.549]
at pictures of it,
but the scientist

[00:18:35.759]
that it has lots of
bumps and bridges.

[00:18:38.389]
For example, the poles
of Mars are so cold

[00:18:42.149]
that the atmosphere actually
condenses out to form dry ice

[00:18:47.139]
at the pole and as much
as twenty five percent

[00:18:51.099]
of the atmosphere condenses out
in to the drier aside the pole.

[00:18:54.799]
So there is quite a lot of
change in the atmosphere.

[00:18:58.509]
Also Mars is known for having a
large poles on the side of it,

[00:19:03.669]
the largest volcano in the solar
system known as a Olympus Mars.

[00:19:09.049]
And so one of the functions of
the Mars global surveyor was

[00:19:12.369]
to measure the shape of Mars

[00:19:14.509]
to carefully determine
how big is this bulge.

[00:19:17.079]
It has a huge effect on the
orbits of space craft it's just

[00:19:20.969]
such a large bulge on the side.

[00:19:22.929]
The way that we use geometry
to convert the laser pulses

[00:19:28.699]
into the shape of Mars what we
have to do is carefully time,

[00:19:32.979]
I want to tick for the
pulses to reach mars

[00:19:35.629]
and bounce back to the space craft.

[00:19:37.959]
And then we combine that
with the shape of the orbit

[00:19:40.879]
which we determine by looking
at how the radio signal changes

[00:19:44.959]
as the space craft
goes around Mars.

[00:19:49.959]
>> What is aero breaking?

[00:19:52.259]
How does geometry
influence aero breaking?

[00:19:55.749]
>> Aero breaking is when we
use drag from the atmosphere

[00:19:59.719]
to gradually shrink the orbit down.

[00:20:03.389]
So what we have to do is use
the drag from the atmosphere

[00:20:06.779]
to gradually slow the orbit
down so that it would shrink

[00:20:10.249]
from this highly electrical
forty five hour orbit

[00:20:13.959]
down to a very circular
two hour orbit around Mars.

[00:20:18.389]
This is geometry inaction.

[00:20:21.849]
[Jennifer:] How when you
like to try your hand

[00:20:26.139]
at design your own
Mars global surveyor.

[00:20:28.419]
Before introducing you to
our featured ad tech activity

[00:20:31.579]
in Middle school, I want to give
you a quick tour of Norbert's lab.

[00:20:35.749]
You already know Norbert.

[00:20:37.039]
In fact when you care to the
providers with the Q-cards

[00:20:39.659]
and other going activities in

[00:20:41.049]
[inaudible] to help us
understand with the math, science

[00:20:43.639]
and technology concepts
presented in each

[00:20:45.749]
of the NASA Connect programs.

[00:20:47.659]
His lab is your interactive
length to activities and resources

[00:20:51.149]
on the web, so you will get
the most out of NASA Connect.

[00:20:54.549]
Just click on the rooms to
enter areas like courier corner

[00:20:57.689]
where you need some of our guest
and numbers of our television team.

[00:21:01.109]
There is a study room, with terms
and definitions related to the show

[00:21:04.749]
and a page with links to
other cool sites and this is

[00:21:08.069]
where you will get to the online
activity especially created

[00:21:11.479]
in partnership with NASA's
running technologies team.

[00:21:14.479]
To introduce us to the web activity

[00:21:16.299]
for this show let's
pop in on a teacher

[00:21:18.909]
[inaudible] Davis Middle
school in Hampton Virginia.

[00:21:22.399]
[Viviane:] Thanks
Jelly, my name Viviane

[00:21:24.089]
[inaudible].

[00:21:24.089]
I am a math and science teacher
here at Davis Middle School.

[00:21:27.219]
My students love coming
to the computer lab.

[00:21:29.779]
They used up a reinforcement
and enrichment of many skill

[00:21:33.379]
at most of the content areas.

[00:21:35.669]
Now I would like to
introduced to the

[00:21:37.679]
[inaudible].

[00:21:38.229]
Ruby, Tell us how do
you use technology?

[00:21:41.349]
[Ruby:] Technology is a tool
that we use in several ways

[00:21:44.079]
for communication with others to
e-mail, for conducting research,

[00:21:47.759]
using the internet, proving papers,

[00:21:50.509]
and preparing electronic
presentations of our work

[00:21:53.329]
and for participating and
problem solving on the projects

[00:21:56.719]
such as NASA Connect to the
re-emplace where we are going to

[00:22:00.509]
[inaudible] and the all our
component for this show,

[00:22:02.949]
we are learning well goals into
the design, our space graph use,

[00:22:06.359]
for planetary observation.

[00:22:08.319]
To do this we may our
different instruments used

[00:22:11.349]
for observing planetary
services on space.

[00:22:14.729]
One of these is

[00:22:15.879]
[inaudible].

[00:22:16.439]
We get to pick out what we think
are the ripe berries to use as well

[00:22:21.609]
as the sort of panels required
to run the space craft.

[00:22:24.489]
We will also have to consider
the cost and way of the vehicle

[00:22:28.869]
as we tried to put together

[00:22:30.649]
that that is possible planetary
observer, we can well --

[00:22:33.749]
all the vehicles giving
to us in the activities.

[00:22:36.989]
[Viviane:] Well Jennifer this team

[00:22:38.099]
through Davis Middle School
leave you and our views

[00:22:40.469]
with the challenge to assemble
and test their very own

[00:22:43.199]
of Mars surveyor in
a cost effective way

[00:22:46.039]
that produces the best results.

[00:22:48.239]
Viewers can find that
challenge in Norbert's lab

[00:22:50.359]
on the NASA Connect website.

[00:22:52.819]
See on the web.

[00:22:54.379]
>> Let's have the NASA
Langley research center

[00:22:56.159]
in Hampton Virginia, and meet

[00:22:57.259]
up with some Gorge Washington
University graduate students,

[00:22:59.969]
they are using pictures from
the Mars global surveyor

[00:23:02.159]
and geometry to survey Mars.

[00:23:08.339]
[00:23:09.649]
>> How shadows measure a Mars?

[00:23:12.679]
>> How is geometry used
to determine the height

[00:23:16.129]
of land formation on Mars?

[00:23:18.849]
>> Hey guys I wanted to meet

[00:23:22.119]
[inaudible].

[00:23:22.419]
They are graduate students at
Gorge Washington University.

[00:23:24.929]
Thus what you have
studying over there?

[00:23:27.689]
>> Well with simple geometry on
shadows, we are able to determine

[00:23:30.729]
that elevation on Mars surface,

[00:23:32.939]
such as a mountain Olympus
that's three times the size

[00:23:36.079]
of mount Everest or valley of

[00:23:38.599]
[inaudible], which is the
size of the United States.

[00:23:41.409]
>> Wow! This is some
pretty large information.

[00:23:43.659]
So let me give this try, what you
are telling is the geometry is used

[00:23:47.129]
to determine the elevation
of land formations on Mars?

[00:23:49.859]
>> Yes, we have certain example
here for you to demonstrate this.

[00:23:52.759]
If this is amount on the surface
of Mars, this is the protractor

[00:23:57.379]
to measure the angel of the
sun this is a magic ruler

[00:24:00.859]
to measure the length
of the shadow.

[00:24:03.209]
If this flash light represents
the sun, we know that like here

[00:24:06.829]
on earth, sun is directly overhead
at ninety degrees at high noon

[00:24:10.489]
and as day goes on it goes
under zero degrees at sunset.

[00:24:14.259]
>> So,

[00:24:14.459]
[inaudible] what you are telling
me is this model creates a

[00:24:16.609]
right triangle?

[00:24:18.469]
>> The bottom leg can be
represented by the length

[00:24:20.819]
of the shadow which been
get and taking your picture

[00:24:23.369]
with the Mars Globus are there.

[00:24:25.009]
Now the sun makes an
angle between the

[00:24:26.809]
[inaudible] and the bottom leg.

[00:24:28.939]
So let's pretend its
mid-afternoon on Mars.

[00:24:31.809]
The sun would be at about an
angle of forty-five degrees which

[00:24:36.179]
[inaudible] our shadow?

[00:24:37.049]
>> It gives us about
seventeen centimeters.

[00:24:39.939]
>> Yeah, you get triangle there.

[00:24:41.589]
>> Yes, so using our formula,
remembering the tangent

[00:24:45.169]
of forty-five degrees is equal
to one which you can find

[00:24:48.399]
by scientific calculator
or tangent tables.

[00:24:51.209]
We can find the height
of a mountain

[00:24:52.769]
to be seventeen centimeters.

[00:24:54.899]
So to double check your
answer, we can see that the

[00:25:00.099]
[inaudible] is seventeen
centimeters.

[00:25:02.299]
>> That's the about
what you calculated,

[00:25:03.599]
that's pretty cool Corey.

[00:25:05.249]
>> Well I look in Mars through the
telescope and it is definitely red,

[00:25:08.789]
but could green slam have once
existed on the red planet.

[00:25:12.239]
That's one of the many reasons
NASA Ames Research Centre

[00:25:15.059]
in Mountain View California
is studying Mars.

[00:25:17.939]
So now let's join research at Chris
McCay with the latest on the Rain

[00:25:22.449]
[inaudible].

[00:25:22.769]
>> I am interested in Mars
and particular life on Mars.

[00:25:27.639]
You know that early Mars
history had water, lots of water.

[00:25:30.609]
We can see the rivers and
lakes that were formed by

[00:25:33.599]
[inaudible].

[00:25:34.119]
The question is when it had
water, did it have life?

[00:25:36.969]
To understand how life might have
survived on cold planet like Mars,

[00:25:41.009]
we have to look for --
we go to places on earth

[00:25:43.739]
where life is survived in
very cold dry condition,

[00:25:46.429]
Mars like conditions.

[00:25:47.709]
This is a rock from the Antarctic
dry valleys of Antarctica,

[00:25:51.599]
most Mars like place on earth.

[00:25:53.689]
In this rock there is life,

[00:25:55.559]
but it's hidden inside the rock
just below the surface there is

[00:25:58.449]
layer green and these are

[00:26:00.589]
[inaudible] lightning and they
are growing inside the rock,

[00:26:03.079]
because the rock provides
them the first of moisture

[00:26:05.469]
about the same time allowing
enough light to come through.

[00:26:08.419]
By studying life forms
in these environments,

[00:26:11.519]
we learn about the strategies that
life can use in a cold dry place.

[00:26:15.339]
We might apply those strategies
to the search for life on Mars

[00:26:18.649]
and maybe we will find the
evidence that there is life there,

[00:26:20.579]
when Mars was not too much colder
than the dry valleys of Antarctica.

[00:26:25.789]
>> Well, looks like
the sun has shifted,

[00:26:28.029]
that's about all we
have time for today.

[00:26:30.059]
>> But before we go, Jennifer
and I would love to hear from you

[00:26:32.869]
with your comments and ideas.

[00:26:34.279]
So why don't you drop us
a line at NASA Connect.

[00:26:37.519]
NASA LRC MS, 400 Hampton
Virginia, 23681 or if you are

[00:26:43.579]
on the web e-mail us at
connect@eduedu.larc.nasa.gov

[00:26:50.299]
>> We would like to thank
everyone who helped us today.

[00:26:52.739]
The Virginia Living Museum,
George Washington University,

[00:26:56.169]
our NASA Researchers from
NASA Langley Research Center,

[00:26:59.179]
NASA Ames Research Center and
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

[00:27:03.229]
Dr.

[00:27:03.889]
[inaudible] and specially
the student

[00:27:05.819]
and teachers from Middle School.

[00:27:07.439]
Thanks guys.

[00:27:08.989]
If you would like a video tape
copy of this NASA Connect show

[00:27:12.629]
and the educators
guide lesson plans,

[00:27:15.239]
contact for The NASA
Central Operation

[00:27:18.569]
of Resources for Educators.

[00:27:20.719]
All this information
and more is located

[00:27:23.389]
on the NASA connect website.

[00:27:24.919]
For the NASA connect series
I am Jennifer Pulley.

[00:27:27.789]
>> And I am Van Hughes.

[00:27:28.969]
>> See you next time.

[00:27:31.689]
>> Its slice of Pizza.

[00:27:33.629]
[laughter].

[00:27:33.629]
>> What is survey

[00:27:36.299]
[laughter].

[00:27:36.569]
>> One of the functions of
the Mars level surveyor was

[00:27:43.839]
to watch it follow up.

[00:27:46.969]
>> How

[00:27:47.829]
[inaudible] used to measure?

[00:27:51.589]
>> Today we are uses the

[00:27:54.469]
[laugh]

[00:27:55.199]
>> What's are the angles --

[00:27:56.989]
>> To sun to be -- would be at
about an angle forty-five degrees

[00:28:04.769]
[laugh].

[00:28:04.769]
>> How shadows --

[00:28:06.329]
>> Okay,

[00:28:06.929]
[inaudible]

[00:28:07.119]
>> Welcome to NASA Connect.

[00:28:13.939]
>> [inaudible]

[00:28:13.999]
>> Welcome to NASA Connect.

[00:28:16.179]
>> Sorry.

[00:28:16.709]
>> And I am van Hughes, today we
are here at the, oh -- Alright.

[00:28:21.259]
>> I think I see, wow!

[00:28:23.709]