Transcript for NASA Connect - Personal Satellite Assistant - The Astronaut's Helper

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[Robot:] I am monitor, to
respond to the name Roby.

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I was created by Dr. Mobius on
the main sequence star Altair

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as documented in the classic
science fiction movie,

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"Orbited in Planet".

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On earth, I have been staring
in movies and television

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for nearly fifty years and I am
the most famous robot of all time.

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Modest too.

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Well, enough about me, when
I heard that NASA was a need

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of robot helper for the astronauts,

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I volunteer for the job.

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But wouldn't you know, NASA is
already creating their own robot

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design to meet their special needs
and space flight requirements.

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I guess NASA is not ready for
any famous robotic actor like me

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to work on space station.

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On this episode of NASA
Connects, you will be introduce

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to the systems on this robot and
the math, sciences and technology,

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that go into designing of robot
for astronauts in a spacecraft.

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In your classroom, you'll
do a cool hand on activity

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to solve the problem the
engineers are facing.

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How to reduce the size of the robot
and using the online activity,

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to learn about the forces

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that affect how the
robot moves in space.

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Stay tuned as host
Jennifer Pulley takes you

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on another exciting
episode of NASA Connect.

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PSA, the Astronauts' Helper.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer:] Hi, I
am Jennifer Pulley

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and welcome to NASA Connects.

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The show that connects you to
math, science, technology and NASA.

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We are here at the Tech
Museum of Innovation,

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in San Jose, California.

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Then you know, this episode of
NASA Connect is all about robots

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in NASA's space program.

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Now you may think about robots
as a mechanical creature?

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They walk around, but did you
know that the first person

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to use the word robot,
was a scientist at all,

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in fact he was a Czechoslovakian
writer named Karel Capek.

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In Czech, the word
robota means forced labor.

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Now in his play Rossum's Universal
Robots, Capek used the word

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to describe electronic servants,

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who turn on their master,
when given emotions.

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In 1941, science fiction
writer Isaac Asimov,

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first choose the word robotics, to
described the technology of robots

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and predicted the rise of
a powerful robot industry.

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In the 1950, it seems
like robots were featured

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in nearly every science
fiction movie and TV show.

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[Robot:] Like me.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] But since
then, robots have moved

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from science fiction to science,

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UNIMATE was the first
industrial robot,

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used in a General Motors
automobile factory in 1961.

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Since then, the field
of robotics has advanced

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as computers have become
more powerful and compact.

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With powerful computers
scientists can program robot

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with artificial intelligence,
so that they can make decisions.

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[Robot:] When I let go it
will straight away start again

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into the right slinky action.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] During
the course of this program,

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you will be asked several
enquiry base questions.

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After the question
appear on the screen,

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your teacher will pause the
program to allow you time to answer

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and discuss the questions.

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This is your time to explore
and become critical thinkers.

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But before we take a look at all
the different types of robot,

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here are some questions for
you to think about and discuss.

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If you could have your
own personal robot,

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what would you like
your robot to do?

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How intelligent would
your robot have to be?

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How would you communicate
with your robot?

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Teachers pause the program and
students write down what you think.

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Okay guys.

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Now let's meet a robotics
engineer and learn about some

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of the different types of
robots being build at NASA.

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[Dr. Ayanna Howard:] Thanks Jen.

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My name is Dr. Ayanna
Howard here at JPL,

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NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory in California.

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This is the Magi, but we
actually test the robots,

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before sending them to Mars.

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NASA used its robots to do things
that are too dangerous for humans.

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Robots are used to explore
planets and even maintain

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and repair the outside of vehicles,

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such as the international
space station.

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[Speaker 1:] Hey guys!

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Did you design your robot to do
things that are too dangerous

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for you to do or too tedious?

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[Dr. Ayanna Howard:] Robots are
the tools that allow scientist

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to reach beyond the
earth to other planet.

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In the 1970, NASA sent a spacecraft
to explore the planet Mercury,

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it was called Mariner 10 probe.

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It flew passed the planet three
times and took thousands of photos.

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For the first time, scientist
could actually see what the surface

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of the planet looks like.

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Rovers, actually robots,
they can land another planets

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and move around.

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Sojourner was the first of the
rovers to land on the planet Mars.

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Its mission was the test
the rocks in the air.

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He takes several minutes
for command signal

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to reach a robot in space.

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Sometimes a robot can't
wait for mission control.

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It has to make decisions
on his own,

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this visibility is called autonomy;

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Sojourner was somewhere autonomist,

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which means it can make
some decisions on its own.

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I worked on autonomy
for Mars exploration.

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You want to

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[inaudible] precisely where
there are good samples for study.

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We wanted to be careful so we
don't hit any cliffs of boarders

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on the surface of Mars.

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We can use airbag, but
we can't land precisely.

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That's why we used
artificial intelligence.

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Now only can we use
artificial intelligence

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to land the spacecraft
safely on Mars,

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but we can use the
same intelligence,

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to give the rover a
little bit more smartness

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when we actually get
to the surface.

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The future's space
exploration depends

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on building, these smart robots.

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[Jennifer:] Thank you Dr. Howard.

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Okay guys, let's head over to the
NASA and its Research Center here

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in California to learn
more about robots

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from researcher Maria Baulat.

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What a cool robot!

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Tell me about K-9.

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[Maria:] K-9 is a prototype
of a Mars exploration rover,

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with video cameras so we can take
3-D pictures and it's got an arm

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that let us practice
putting science instruments

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on rocks and on the soil.

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[Jennifer:] Okay Maria, so how
will K-9 know what to do on Mars?

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[Maria:] It will receive
instructions from Earth

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on what experiments to conduct.

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A robot shape capability
is in method

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of locomotion depend
on, what you want it do.

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[Jennifer:] Well besides K-9,
what other robots does NASA have?

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[Maria:] We are testing
planetary robots in the Rio Tinto

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or the Red River region of Spain,

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where the terrain looks a
lot like the surface of Mars.

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That robot is build to
burl into the ground

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and look for science and life.

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Robots are also being
built to maintain

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and repair the outside
of the space vehicle.

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Robonaut is a humanoid
robot that perform tasks

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that other robots can't.

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From the safety of
the space station,

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an astronauts controls
the movement of Robonaut's

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with the control system
know as tele-presence.

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AirCam is another experimental
robot is being design

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to fly outside the space station
and let's astronauts insides,

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he was going on outside.

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Scientists are also
designing robots

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to help this out here on earth.

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Kismet the sociable robot.

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[Robot:] Oh, oh.

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Did you say he loves me?

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[Child:]

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[inaudible].

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[Robot:] I love you to.

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[Maria:] Scientist of MIT are
working on building a robot,

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they can interact with people.

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[Jennifer:] So there are many
different kinds of robots;

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that are design to work in
many different environments.

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[Maria:] That's right robots mainly
parts they can see, parts to unable

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on to move around and
parts to make decision.

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All this parts is for work
together for the robot function.

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They make up a mechanical system.

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[Jennifer:] Thanks Maria.

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So can you think of
a mechanical system,

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remember mechanical system
is something that made

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up of many different parts
and those parts work together,

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so the system will function.

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Now its time for your teacher
to pause the program and for you

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to answer the following question.

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What is a mechanical system
and what are some examples

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of mechanical systems.

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You know, we use the word system
to describe something that is made

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up of different parts; that
must work together in order

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for the system to function.

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A car is a mechanical system, and
it's made up of different parts,

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like an engine, then the body,
the doors and the wheels.

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Each part can get you
where you want to go,

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but when the parts worked
together as a mechanical system,

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you can go places with it.

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The international space station
is also a mechanical system,

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with parts in it that
worked together as a whole.

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Say, do you know how busy the
astronauts are onboard the

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international space station?

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Well, let me tell you.

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Each astronaut conducts hundreds
of experiments for scientist

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in the United States and
in many other countries,

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so make it use a little help.

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Now let's go to NASA
Ames Research Center

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and meet engineer Yuri
Gawdiak, he thought of a way

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to help the astronauts.

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Yuri tell us about how you can
help the astronauts on station?

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[Yuri:] Well, in addition to do
an experiment the astronauts have

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to do a lot of logistics,
inventory tracking,

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air samples and water samples.

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So as a research team, we want
to help offload those activities.

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So we developed a robot
that we were inspired by,

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by Star Trek with the
tricorder and by Star Wars

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with the floating orb.

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And when we added to that was
the ability to do scheduling,

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procedures, training and also
environmental sensing and we wanted

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to be mobile so it could go follow
the crew or go off on its own

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and actually monitor by itself.

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So what we developed is the
personal satellite assistant.

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[Jennifer:] Yuri that is so
cool, you know lets find out more

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about this robot that NASA is
building to help the astronauts.

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[ Music: ]

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[Jennifer:] As you watch the
program, think about your robot

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as a system and the
possible need in order

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to perform your task,
see the sign to it.

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Now guys this is the PSA

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or Personal Satellite
Assistant laboratory here

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at the NASA Ames Research Center
and this is Dr. Keith Nicewarner.

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[Keith:] Hi!

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[Jennifer:] How are you Keith?

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[Keith:] Good.

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[Jennifer:] Tell us, what
will the PSA be able to do?

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[Keith:] Well the PSA will be
able to check the inventory,

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the temperature, the air pressure

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and your composition
on the space station.

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Its needs to move around
by itself in micro-gravity,

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avoid things that get on its way
and communicate with computers

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and people like mission
control and astronauts.

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It must also understand
the astronauts commands

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and what the astronauts know, when
something needs to be address.

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[Jennifer:] So Keith, it sounds
like the PSA is a system that's

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made up of many other systems
that almost work together.

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[Keith:] That's right.

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Lot of this works,
never been done before.

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We have never had a robot;
that flies around by itself

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in micro-gravity with humans for a
long period of time and knows what

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to do and understand what you say.

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[Jennifer:] What is micro-gravity?

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[Keith:] Micro-gravity means that
you feel very little as a force

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of gravity because the ISS and
everything in it as in free fall

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as the ISS revolves
around the earth.

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[Jennifer:] Want to learn
more about micro-gravity,

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well then checkout the
NASA Connect program,

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"Who added the micro to gravity?"

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Now back to PSA.

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[Keith:] PSA has proportion
system, a sensor system

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for measuring things like
temperature and pressure

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and detecting obstacles.

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There is also a navigation
system for knowing where it is

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in the station and knowing how
to get from place to place.

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It also has an artificial
intelligence systems,

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so it can make decisions
and a communication system,

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so it can communicate with
astronauts and ground control.

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[Jennifer:] How will the
PSA see where it's going,

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so it can avoid obstacles;
that may get in its way?

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[Keith:] The PSA will
use proximity sensor

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to tell us something is near by.

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All this little holes are sensors.

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We are using sonar or sound waves.

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[Jennifer:] Sonar!

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Isn't that what bats use
to navigate and what whales

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and dolphins used to
locate schools of fish.

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[Keith:] Yeah, it's the same idea.

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PSA also has four pairs of
cameras for stereo vision.

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[Jennifer:] What is Stereo Vision?

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[Keith:] The two eyes
unable depth perception,

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with only one eye is difficult to
tell how far away something is.

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Most animals have two eyes
because they has eight cameras,

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were surveys eyes to
perceive that all around it.

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Cameras will also be used to show
mission control what's happening

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on the space station.

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And allow video conferencing
with the astronauts.

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The PSA also has a thermal
imager that looks for hot spots.

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This is a very important for
doing things like looking

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for an over heating rack.

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The PSA will also have
a lazar point on it.

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They can be control
from the ground.

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Engineers on the ground would
be able to point to things

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on the space stations and the
astronauts will know what they

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are referring to.

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[Jennifer:] Wow, the
PSA is kind of busy.

[00:12:56.789]
What other responsibilities
it will have?

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[Keith:] Well, they can keep track
over the astronaut's schedule.

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Alert them when something
needs to be done.

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And give them instructions, when
they need to repair something.

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[Jennifer:] So the
astronauts wouldn't have

[00:13:07.609]
to use their manuals anymore.

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The PSA will tell them what to do.

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[Keith:] That's right; the
manuals are all on electronic form,

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either in the computers on the ISS,

[00:13:15.639]
or the computers at
mission control.

[00:13:17.439]
So the PSA can access the
information from the computers

[00:13:20.099]
and read it to the astronauts or
show it to them on a PSA's monitor.

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[Jennifer:] So the PSA is a system

[00:13:24.539]
that contains other
system, so that it can work.

[00:13:27.749]
[Keith:] That's right; the PSA has
sensor, navigation, proportion,

[00:13:31.199]
communications and artificial
intelligence systems.

[00:13:34.249]
[Jennifer:] Thanks Keith.

[00:13:35.419]
So guys what mechanical
system did you chose.

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Now, is the time for your
teacher to pause the tape,

[00:13:41.309]
so you can discuss
the mechanical system.

[00:13:43.509]
Here some examples of mechanical
systems you probably come

[00:13:48.339]
in contact with everyday.

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[Music:]

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[Jennifer:] Dr. Nicewarner
mentioned several PSA systems.

[00:13:58.509]
[00:14:01.059]
Now it's a time to look in
detail at one of those systems.

[00:14:03.839]
[Music:]

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[Jennifer:] Hi, I am
here with Danny Andrews

[00:14:07.549]
and he is a research
engineer on the PSA team.

[00:14:10.519]
Hey Dan!

[00:14:11.359]
[Danny Andrews:] Hey Jennifer!

[00:14:12.169]
[Jennifer:] Tell me little
bit about what you do here?

[00:14:13.489]
[Danny Andrews:] I am a
control on automation engineer

[00:14:15.899]
in NASA Ames Research Center.

[00:14:17.709]
My team is working on
evolving the PSA robot vehicle

[00:14:21.099]
and designing the proportion
systems for the PSA.

[00:14:23.299]
We had to keep in mind that
things move differently

[00:14:25.519]
on the international space
station from they do here on earth.

[00:14:28.879]
Jen, this will be
a good time to see

[00:14:30.249]
if students can described two
ways in which motion of something

[00:14:33.209]
in space station is different
from the way things move on earth.

[00:14:36.709]
[Jennifer:] Dan, I think
that's a great idea.

[00:14:38.369]
Teachers, now it's a time to
pause the program and students,

[00:14:41.789]
write down two ways, that you
think items move differently

[00:14:44.429]
in space than they
do here on earth.

[00:14:47.669]
If you mentioned something
about microgravity,

[00:14:50.019]
now you are on the right track.

[00:14:51.839]
You may have seen microgravity on
the international space station.

[00:14:55.309]
It appears that items are floating
on the international space station.

[00:14:59.229]
But in fact everything is moving
or falling at the same rate.

[00:15:03.909]
To learn more about microgravity,
checkout the NASA Connect program,

[00:15:07.379]
"Who added the micro to gravity?"

[00:15:10.069]
So did you mention something about
friction, or lack of friction, --

[00:15:12.879]
you are also on the right track.

[00:15:15.649]
[Danny Andrews:] The
motion of an object

[00:15:16.589]
on the space station
is like moving on ice.

[00:15:19.189]
We are throwing the ball versus
rolling it on the ground.

[00:15:22.359]
[00:15:23.469]
This is a functional of
prototype of the PSA,

[00:15:25.419]
which means it's a working model.

[00:15:27.299]
We have also tested the
prototype on a granite table,

[00:15:29.599]
which has very little friction
like an air-hockey table.

[00:15:31.929]
So it's a simulation what
motion is like on the ISS.

[00:15:35.349]
[Jennifer:] So Dan,
how does the PSA move?

[00:15:37.209]
[Danny Andrews:] In this
function of proto type

[00:15:39.459]
with PSA, we are using fans.

[00:15:41.119]
We have six sets of fans
located around the robot.

[00:15:44.369]
Air is joining from one side of the
fans and expel out the other side

[00:15:48.389]
that creates a force on the robot
and unable the PSA robot to move.

[00:15:52.679]
It's important that we use
a quite proportion system,

[00:15:55.259]
because it's relatively
noisy on the space station,

[00:15:57.819]
and we don't want to
aggravate the problem.

[00:16:00.019]
We also need to test the
PSA in three dimensions.

[00:16:04.049]
We need to allow it
to move up and down,

[00:16:06.699]
left and right, forward
and backward.

[00:16:08.909]
Within this facility, we
have created a small crane

[00:16:11.879]
which lets the PSA move
as if it's in space.

[00:16:15.419]
We use this crane to test how
the PSA can do obstacle avoidance

[00:16:19.629]
and just generally get around.

[00:16:21.159]
[Jennifer:] Dan aren't there
some laws or rules of motion;

[00:16:24.379]
that affect the way things move?

[00:16:25.979]
[Danny Andrews:] That's right;
there are laws of motion

[00:16:27.289]
that apply whether you're
here on earth or on the ISS.

[00:16:30.249]
Sir Isaac Newton figured out
the laws of motion way back

[00:16:32.519]
in the sixteen hundreds.

[00:16:33.779]
He said that an object at
rest will remain at rest.

[00:16:36.799]
[Jennifer:] Sure Dan
and that make sense.

[00:16:38.319]
If something is sitting on a table
for instance, it will stay there

[00:16:41.859]
until someone moves it or
some force moves it away.

[00:16:44.039]
[Danny Andrews:] And also said
that once an object is in motion,

[00:16:46.809]
it will keep moving unless
you apply a force to it,

[00:16:49.189]
that even need a push or pull.

[00:16:51.219]
[Jennifer:] No wait a minute,
that doesn't make sense to me.

[00:16:53.439]
Doesn't everything just
stop moving eventually?

[00:16:56.909]
[Danny Andrews:] Things stop moving
because of gravity in friction,

[00:16:59.059]
in microgravity you can really
see these laws are work.

[00:17:02.269]
[Jennifer:] Let me see,
if I have this straight.

[00:17:03.579]
If something is moving it may or
may not have a force acting on it

[00:17:08.059]
and to stop it you
have to apply a force.

[00:17:11.159]
[Danny Andrews:] That's right,
on the ISS the PSA will float

[00:17:13.799]
because of microgravity and it
will keep moving once you push it.

[00:17:17.609]
[Jennifer:] So Newton
was a pretty smart guy.

[00:17:18.989]
I mean he thought this three
hundred years before NASA send

[00:17:22.889]
astronauts in the space.

[00:17:24.549]
[Danny Andrews:] Once you apply
a force like pushing the PSA,

[00:17:26.989]
it will move and keep moving.

[00:17:28.899]
In fact the PSA will keep moving
even if you turn the fan off

[00:17:31.769]
and apply no force at all.

[00:17:33.829]
[Jennifer:] Okay so how
do you stop the PSA?

[00:17:35.399]
[Danny Andrews:] We have to turn
the fans on again and apply a force

[00:17:38.789]
in the opposite direction.

[00:17:41.039]
[Jennifer:] Now you can check

[00:17:42.079]
out the way the PSA
will move on the ISS.

[00:17:45.799]
Here is what Newton said, an object
it rest, will remain at rest,

[00:17:50.549]
and object in motion
will remain in motion,

[00:17:53.529]
unless a force acts on it.

[00:17:56.599]
Now it's your turn to try
the online activity found

[00:17:59.349]
at the NASA Connect website.

[00:18:01.129]
Your challenge is to get the PSA

[00:18:03.269]
to the overheated racks
before the time runs out.

[00:18:07.329]
Each click gives a PSA one
unit of force and the direction

[00:18:11.459]
of the arrows remembers
Newton's law,

[00:18:14.199]
the PSA will keep moving unless
you apply another force to it

[00:18:18.429]
in the opposite direction.

[00:18:20.929]
Your teacher will now pause
the program; so that you can go

[00:18:23.999]
to your computers and
check out the activity.

[00:18:26.839]
[Speaker 1:] I give
the PSA too much force,

[00:18:29.109]
he hit the side of the ISS.

[00:18:30.659]
[Speaker 2:] The PSA keeps moving
if we have applied a force to it.

[00:18:36.249]
[Speaker 3:] You have
to apply a force

[00:18:37.639]
in the opposite direction
to stop the PSA.

[00:18:41.449]
[Danny Andrews:] Newton also has
something to say about motion

[00:18:43.149]
and the mass of objects.

[00:18:44.329]
More massive an object is
the more force is required

[00:18:46.679]
to accelerate or to stop it.

[00:18:49.269]
[Jennifer:] So if the PSA is
very massive for instance,

[00:18:52.549]
it's going to take a lot
of force to get it moving

[00:18:55.139]
and a lot of force to stop it.

[00:18:57.109]
[Danny Andrews:] You're right,
the greater the mass with the PSA,

[00:18:58.889]
the more force it
takes to slow down.

[00:19:01.359]
Fans have to work harder,
if we make the PSA lighter,

[00:19:04.129]
require less force to
slow it down and stop it.

[00:19:07.249]
If the PSA is going to
go to fast, it might bump

[00:19:09.539]
into the side of the ISS.

[00:19:11.429]
So we need to make the
PSA as light as possible.

[00:19:14.819]
The current model that you
see here is the twelve inch

[00:19:17.499]
working prototype.

[00:19:19.129]
Our goal is to reduce the PSA size

[00:19:21.779]
down to this eight
inch diameter model.

[00:19:24.689]
With the invention of
transistor, computers

[00:19:26.329]
and other electronics gadgets
became smaller and smaller.

[00:19:29.289]
[Jennifer:] Oh!

[00:19:29.329]
That's right.

[00:19:30.219]
You know, when our grand parents
were kids, they listen to radios

[00:19:33.529]
that were like large pieces
of furniture, today radios

[00:19:37.119]
and digital players
are really tiny.

[00:19:38.879]
[Danny Andrews:] That's right.

[00:19:40.009]
Computer is same power as this
PDA would fill this huge room.

[00:19:43.609]
The PSA has a computer inside of it

[00:19:45.509]
and in addition the PSA
can connect their computers

[00:19:47.859]
on the space station, while an
earth with a wireless connection

[00:19:51.149]
and use a computing
power of those computers.

[00:19:53.829]
[Jennifer:] So the PSA can be
small because it doesn't need

[00:19:56.699]
of their computer inside of it.

[00:19:58.739]
Well it -- why is it round?

[00:20:00.749]
And how do you make the show round?

[00:20:03.119]
[Danny Andrews:] Round shapes
don't have any sharp corners,

[00:20:04.709]
so the PSA won't accidentally
damage the ISS.

[00:20:07.969]
We designed the round shell

[00:20:08.939]
with the computer programs
for solid modeling.

[00:20:11.399]
Once the design is complete,
we sent electronic file

[00:20:13.949]
to the manufacture
to create a shell.

[00:20:16.599]
The process is called
Stereo Lithography or SLA.

[00:20:20.549]
To make the PSA smaller, we need
to redesign and shrink the parts

[00:20:23.659]
in the PSA, so that they
fit into a smaller sphere.

[00:20:27.069]
[Jennifer:] Oh, Oh!

[00:20:27.429]
Wait a minute.

[00:20:28.399]
I don't know that's
the best way to do it.

[00:20:30.109]
[Danny Andrews:] We make
things smaller though,

[00:20:32.289]
we have to keep something in mind,
for example the computer that's

[00:20:35.319]
in the PSA needs to
have space surround it.

[00:20:37.249]
So that they can stay cool.

[00:20:39.329]
The computer gives off its heat
from the surface area of the board,

[00:20:41.959]
which means we need to
provide space for cooling.

[00:20:44.679]
Additionally, when we
consider shrinking fans to fit

[00:20:46.899]
in smaller PSA we discovered
they became very inefficient,

[00:20:50.419]
forcing us to move
to a blower design.

[00:20:52.629]
It's similar to how leaf floats.

[00:20:55.709]
[Jennifer:] Okay guys let's
review some math concepts,

[00:20:57.999]
so you can figure out, how to
fit your parts into the PSA.

[00:21:02.169]
This is a rectangular prism,

[00:21:04.179]
now each one of its six
sides is a rectangle.

[00:21:07.829]
This surface area of the
rectangular prism is the sum

[00:21:11.019]
of the areas of the six sides.

[00:21:13.649]
The volume of a rectangular
prism is the area of the base,

[00:21:17.469]
times the height of the prism.

[00:21:19.829]
Let's take a look at cylinder; the
base of a cylinder is a circle.

[00:21:25.919]
Let's take a look at
the parts of a circle.

[00:21:28.719]
The circumference is the
distance around the circle.

[00:21:32.219]
The radius is the distance
from the centre of the circle

[00:21:35.609]
to any point on the circle.

[00:21:37.799]
The diameter of a circle
is twice the radius.

[00:21:41.359]
Thousands of years ago
mathematicians measured the

[00:21:44.229]
circumference of circles

[00:21:45.679]
and divided the circumference
by the diameter.

[00:21:49.919]
They always came up with
the same number move

[00:21:52.059]
around three point one four.

[00:21:53.789]
This number is called "Height".

[00:21:56.929]
Now watch this and see how we
can find the area of a circle?

[00:22:01.739]
We cut out circle and
move the pieces around.

[00:22:05.149]
[00:22:06.209]
Now the area is the
width times the height.

[00:22:09.309]
The width is five times the radius
and the height is the radius.

[00:22:14.579]
The surface area of a cylinder
is the sum of the areas

[00:22:17.389]
of the two circles and
the area of the side,

[00:22:20.479]
which is really a rectangle.

[00:22:22.749]
The volume of a cylinder
is the area

[00:22:24.809]
of the circle times the
height of the cylinder.

[00:22:28.129]
Now here is the challenge.

[00:22:30.899]
Find the length, height and
width of a rectangular prism;

[00:22:35.239]
that has a volume of
twenty four cubic inches,

[00:22:38.149]
fits into an eight inch PSA and has

[00:22:40.389]
as much surface area as possible.

[00:22:42.979]
Find out whether a tall cylinder

[00:22:45.549]
or a wide cylinder
has more surface area,

[00:22:48.149]
when the volume stays the same.

[00:22:50.979]
You can download the
files with this activity

[00:22:53.089]
from the NASA Connect website.

[00:22:55.289]
It's now time for your
teacher to pause the program;

[00:22:58.419]
so you can take the challenge.

[00:23:00.409]
Use your imagination draw figures,

[00:23:02.739]
take measurements
and do calculations.

[00:23:09.789]
[Students:]

[00:23:09.789]
[inaudible].

[00:23:09.789]
[Jennifer:] The students
at Graham Middle School

[00:23:11.359]
in Mountain View California,
took the challenge.

[00:23:13.929]
Let's see some of their results.

[00:23:16.129]
Recall the two questions
in this activity.

[00:23:18.559]
One, what are the dimensions of a
rectangular prism that has a volume

[00:23:22.609]
of twenty-four cubic inches
fits into an eight inch PSA

[00:23:25.829]
and has the maximum surface area?

[00:23:28.969]
And two, if the volumes stays
the same, does a tall cylinder

[00:23:33.519]
or a wide cylinder
have more surface area?

[00:23:36.219]
[Music:]

[00:23:36.219]
[Speaker 1:] What you guys
think is there enough space?

[00:23:45.219]
[00:23:46.959]
[Speaker 2:] Remember I
always thinking about, how

[00:23:50.499]
[inaudible] was seventy-seven
point six.

[00:23:53.179]
[Speaker 3:] What are we gonna say?

[00:23:56.419]
What dimensions are
we going to recommend?

[00:24:01.429]
[Speaker 4:] Six by five
by zero point eight.

[00:24:03.469]
[Jennifer:] So guys,
what did you find?

[00:24:05.399]
[Speaker 1:]

[00:24:05.399]
[inaudible].

[00:24:05.899]
[Speaker 2:] You can get
different answers depending

[00:24:07.729]
on how have you make
the rectangular prism?

[00:24:09.909]
[Speaker 3:] When the radius
increases the surface stay

[00:24:12.769]
as the cylinder increases.

[00:24:15.569]
[Jennifer:] Okay let's
summaries, the surface area

[00:24:17.819]
of a rectangular prism is
the sum of the surface area

[00:24:21.419]
of its six sides; the volume

[00:24:23.659]
of rectangular prism is the link
times a width, times the height.

[00:24:27.899]
A rectangular prism has the minimum
surface area, when it's a cube

[00:24:31.999]
and the surface area
increases as you flatten it.

[00:24:35.909]
The surface area of a cylinder is
the sum of the areas of the circles

[00:24:39.589]
at the top and bottom
and the area of the side.

[00:24:43.849]
The volume of a cylinder
is the area of the circle

[00:24:46.619]
at the bottom times the
height of a cylinder.

[00:24:49.599]
When the volume is the same,

[00:24:51.329]
a tall cylinder has less surface
area than a wide cylinder.

[00:24:56.499]
[Danny Andrews:] We have to
do calculation like this,

[00:24:58.059]
when we layout the design of
all the components of PSA.

[00:25:01.699]
[Jennifer:] Okay.

[00:25:01.849]
So Dan, what is the
future of the PSA?

[00:25:04.029]
[Danny Andrews:] Well, once we
are able to make PSA smaller;

[00:25:06.599]
we would like to consider a PSA,

[00:25:07.939]
which to further interact
to the spacecraft.

[00:25:10.389]
Imagine a PSA with arms, they
could actually push buttons,

[00:25:13.439]
retrieve tools and better
interact with the ISS.

[00:25:17.279]
[Speaker 1:] Of developing
effective artificial intelligence,

[00:25:19.669]
it is a big challenge
and being able

[00:25:21.649]
to understand what the astronauts
say is especially difficult

[00:25:24.379]
because our brains
understand things in context

[00:25:26.699]
or the situation we are in.

[00:25:29.279]
[Speaker 2:] All critical
part of the future

[00:25:30.619]
with the PSA is the vision system.

[00:25:32.719]
We need vision for everything
from navigation and control

[00:25:35.949]
to identifying hazards, to doing
inventory tracking and also

[00:25:40.279]
to recognize a crew because
we need to customize schedules

[00:25:43.459]
and training procedures to go
with a particular crew member.

[00:25:46.639]
We also used it as sort of
remove eyes for the ground flocks

[00:25:49.869]
that are running that operation,
so they can inspect the station

[00:25:53.269]
through the eyes of the PSA.

[00:25:54.489]
And being able to interpret,

[00:25:56.639]
what you can see will save
us a great deal of time.

[00:26:01.059]
[Jennifer:] My thanks
to Yuri, Keith and Dan

[00:26:03.389]
for all their information
on the PSA and don't forget,

[00:26:07.309]
keep checking the PSA website
for the latest developments

[00:26:10.539]
on this personal satellite
assistant.

[00:26:13.419]
Well, guys that wraps up
another episode of NASA Connects.

[00:26:17.609]
NASA Connects would
like to thank everyone,

[00:26:19.459]
who helped to make
this program possible.

[00:26:21.689]
So got a comment, a question or
suggestions, well then email them

[00:26:25.759]
to connect@larc.nasa.gov or
pick up a pen and mail them

[00:26:31.699]
to NASA Connect, NASA Langley
Center for Distance Learning,

[00:26:35.179]
NASA Langley Research Center,
Mail Stop four hundred,

[00:26:38.219]
Hampton Virginia, two
three six eight one.

[00:26:41.099]
So until next time, stay connected
to math, science technology

[00:26:45.889]
and NASA and may be one day you
have your own personal assistant.

[00:26:50.599]
See you!

[00:26:50.809]