Transcript for NASA Connect - Shapes of Flight

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[Van:] Have you ever look at
the birds and wish you can fly.

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On the other hand,
as you ever wondered,

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how a hugh airplane is
able to stay up in the air.

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Today on NASA Connect, we are
going to show you, how the shape

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of a plane affects its flight.

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[Music:]

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[Van:] Hi, I am Van Hughes.

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[Shelley:] Hi, and I am Shelley
Kenley, welcome to NASA Connect.

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The show that connects you to the
world of math, science and NASA.

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[Van:] Right now,
we are coming to you

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from this Smithsonian National
Air and Space Museum located

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in Washington D.C. and Shelley,
this is the perfect location

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to talk about the shape of plane.

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[Shelley:] Hey, that's right
Van, if there is a one place

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where you can experience the
entire story of flight, this is it.

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The National Air and Space
Museum is under three hundred

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and fifty six aircraft were
collectively they reflect the

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science of flight.

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[Van:] The museum is home to
the first airplane developed

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by the Wright Brothers.

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Notice how the propellers
are in the back

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and the stabilizing
wings are in the front.

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There is the Fokker
T2 to the first plane

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to cross America coast-to-coast
and Charles Lindbergh's Spirit

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of St. Louis; the first airplane

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to fly non-stop across
the Atlantic.

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[Shelley:] Then there
are other plane,

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which pushed aircraft
design even further.

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The Bell F1 is a cross
between a plane and a rocket.

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It was the first airplane
to break the sound barrier.

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The Grumman X-29 has
backward looking wings.

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It goes so fast that the wings
would deliberately design

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to be unstable in order to enhance
the aircraft's maneuverability.

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The museum also has as the Voyager.

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There is how long the wings
are, this wing-span ratio

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[inaudible] to fly non-stop,
non-refueled around the world.

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[Van:] Well, Shelley, they are all
allotted different shapes here.

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Imagine what the Wright
Brothers would have designed

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if they would have accessed to
today's math and scientific tools.

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[Shelley:] Hey you're right Van.

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You know it's important
to know that science

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and technology are closely
related, are need to know

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and understand, why
scientific research are needs

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to the development of
technological products.

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[Van:] Well Shelley, that's
what our show shapes a flight,

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is all about today.

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You see this interaction between
math and science technology,

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as we look at the process
of air plane design.

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[Shelley:] Hey you
know, what we are going

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to talk this NASA research to
show us the process of a tool

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to research, develop, tests
and evaluate airplane design.

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They will share some challenging
problems they are working on

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and their solutions, which
might result in configuration

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for future aircraft and later on
you will be able to interact live

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with our researchers by calling
them or emailing your questions

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to the researchers in
the NASA Connect studio.

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[Van:] We will also
be joined by students

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from Jones Magnet Middle
School in Hampton Virginia;

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who will conduct the
flight experiment

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and share their data with us.

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And there is much more of
this program on the internet.

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Whenever you see the NASA Connect
website appear on the screen,

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that will be your clue to checkout
the site for more information,

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fun and activities
relating to our discussion.

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[Shelley:] Alright and so
Van my question to you,

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have you ever wanted
to fly like a bird?

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[Van:] Of course

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[Shelley:] You have well, there is
one place I know of that's of close

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to flying like a bird
as you can get.

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It's in North Carolina, not far

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from where the Wright Brothers
flew the first airplane.

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How does would like
to go there and learn

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about the four forces of flight?

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[Van:] I am sure.

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[Shelley:] Alright, first
start, you name the four forces.

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[Van:] Okay we have drag,
lift, weight and thrust.

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[Shelley:] Hey that's
right, drag is a force

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which slows the forward
movement of airplane

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as it pushes through the air.

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Lift is creating when
the air pressure bubble,

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wing is less in a
pressure below it.

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Thrust is created
by a power source,

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which gives an airplane forward
motion and the weight is the force

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of gravity pulling
an airplane down.

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Well, you can learn about this
full force in a real hands

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on way like the hand
gliders interested?

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[Van:] Well how long will
take us to get there.

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[Shirley:] Well about fast
as I can snap my fingers.

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[Van:] I am already.

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[Shirley:] Ready to go, alright
then gang I am going to send Van

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on assignment to Jockeys Ridge,

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State Park in Kitty
Hawk North Carolina,

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to experience filght, first hand.

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In the meantime I going to

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[inaudible] to Deer County to
talk with experimental aviators

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who are pushing the outlook

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of flight just like the
early aviation pioneers.

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Let's go.

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[Van:] I am here Regallo
Kite Festival

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at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

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Peoples from all over the world
come here to fly their kites

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on the same sand dunes that
the Wright Brothers used

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to fly the very first airplane.

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Now did you know that the Chinese
with the first people to fly kites?

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Almost 3000 years ago the Chinese
build kites out of silk and bamboo.

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Three years, the kite has been
thought os as a trivial toy.

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But history tells us that the
kite is so much more than a toy.

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Throughout history kites have
been used by civil engineers

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to construct bridges and perhaps
most famously, by Ben Franklin

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in the study of electricity.

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Why even NASA has study kites.

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Matter of fact, this kite festivals
named for a famous NASA researcher

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and his work with
the flexible wing.

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Mr. Francis Ragalo
known as the father

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of hand gliding created
the paraglider that was one

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of the possible design solutions

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for returning a space
capsule back to earth.

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Mr. Ragalo is here today
for this kite festival.

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He is giving me some background
on how flexible wind works.

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Want to know more visit
the NASA Connect website.

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[Francis:] And you know
Van, would you like to fly,

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we can go out there
and go hang-gliding.

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[Van:] Oh wow, that be great.

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Right now?

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[Francis:] Right now let's go.

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[Van:] All right.

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Let's go.

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[Shirley:] We will be back in just
a few moments to catch up with Van

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but right now, we are here windy

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[inaudible] North
Carolina, actually we are

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at the Deer County airport, where
Air Venture Ninety-Eight is just

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about ready to get underway.

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Air Venture Ninety-Eight,
now that's an airways

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for experimental aircraft.

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But not too far from here is Kitty
Hawk which is the site of the first

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of sort powered air flight in 1903.

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The Wright Brothers
change the world forever.

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When Orville went up into the
air for the first successful,

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heavier than air flight.

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This machine was just one step
in a broad experimental program;

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that became with a glider
kite; that they built in 1899.

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Now did they build the
first successful plane,

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but they build the first wind
tunnel and they have to find

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out for themselves the
dynamics of lift, drag, weight,

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and thrust on a shape.

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Ever since the Wright brothers
successfully tested their flying

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machine off the sand-dunes at Kitty
Hawk, we have seen a multitude

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of designers, builders, adventures
trying to take their machines

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to some place faster,
further and higher.

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So that's what Air Venture
Ninety-Eight, is all about,

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it honors those people.

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They will set off right here
from historic North Carolina

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and set sail across
the skies to Oshkosh,

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Wisconsin where they are set

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to kick off the largest
experimental aircraft air show

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in North America -- Oshkosh.

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Aviation enthusiasts
annually gather at Oshkosh

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to witness first hand new
design concept in technologies;

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that could open up new
visitors to the field

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of aeronautical engineering
and to personal

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and commercial aircraft
venues.Air Venture brings

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out many different personnel

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and many different
extraordinary looking aircraft.

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Joining me right now is a very
special personality, 'Hoot' Gibson,

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who is a former astronauts
was a command on four missions

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and has flown over sixty
different airplanes

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and behind you can
see the airplane,

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he is going to be race in, How
about given us a little low

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down on this big plane.

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[Gibson:] Well Shirley, this air
plane is a Hawker Seafury built

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by the British, right
after World War II;

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so right in the late
forties and early fifties

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as when these air
planes started flying.

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It's a really interesting bird;

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it's a very big heavy
powerful machine.

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It weighs about nine
thousand pounds.

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It has a three thousand horse power
engine in it and as you can see,

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it's got about a fourteen
foot dynameters procured

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as you can see the wings fold.

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[Shirley:] Yeah.

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[Gibson:] At least to be carrier
fighter was what the British use

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to for and you always want to
minimize the size of the airplane,

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when its time to stole the way on
the carrier, so you full the wings

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in it and takes up a lot of space.

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The wings actually cost to you a
little bit weigh because you got

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to put in some mechanism to make
the wings forward and to up wings

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because of course you want to
lock them when they are down,

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you don't want them folding
up by themselves obviously.

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[Shelly:] Yeah, well I have
a final question for you.

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This is what I call a
tortoise and hare question.

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Your planes certainly is bigger

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than any other air plane that's
going to be in this air race,

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so given that which plane
do you think is going

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to be your closest
competitor in this race?

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[Gibson:] I'm not even sure Shirley
that we are going to win this race.

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We do have the biggest most
powerful heaviest airplane

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out here.

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But it doesn't have any kind of
guarantee that we are going to win.

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The other air plane that
I think is really fast

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and may be little
problem for us is the 9.08

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[inaudible] with the
Chevrolet V-8 engine in it

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with the five bladed propeller.

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I think, he is going
to be very fast

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and he is going to
fly a lot higher.

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He can be up in the twenty-five
to thirty thousand feet range.

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We are going to be quite a
bit worry, we are going to be

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down around twenty thousand
feet, somewhere around there,

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so he is going to be
some real competition,

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I think on this length of a race.

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[Shelly:] So there is a lot of
variables here that are going

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to air into this race?

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[Gibson:] There really are.

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[Shelly:] So stay tune and
will see who comes out ahead.

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[Music:]

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[Shelly:] Well gang
as you can see design

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and building air plane takes
an awful lot of work and among

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that it takes some
prompt solving strategies.

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Now that means, you
can't be able to identify

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and understand just look
the question of promise

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that you can began
to investigate it.

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Right now you're going to meet some
of today's researchers who involved

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in the shapes of life, as you
meet this research team consider,

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the role of mathematics
and mathematical tools

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in scientific inquiry, the
value of collaborations

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and team work can
conducting research

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and the engineering process and
its applications in every day life.

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The leader of the design
team is Mike Logan.

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[Mike Logan:] Air plane design is
a team effort like any good team

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every job is important.

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As project engineer, it's my
job to shape at the air craft

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through its stages
in the life cycle.

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To define the problems let's
look at the current challenge.

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Twenty years from now, NASA want
an air plane, that will carry twice

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as many passengers as today's
air liners and transport them

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to their destination
and it has the cost.

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That's a big challenge,
especially when you consider

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that the air plane of the future;
will have to be quieter, safer,

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most fuel efficient and
more environmental friendly.

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The next step in the process
then is to propose solutions.

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This is Paul Gohaus he is one
of our designers on our team,

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Paul why don't you talk about one
of the solutions you working on.

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[Paul:] Well, the solutions

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that appears is the blended
wing-body body concept.

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So radical change from the
seven-forty-seven type air plane,

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which is a tube with wings.

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We gotten rid of the bumps and
some of the bulges that there are

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on the traditional air plane that
has a glide ratio of about eighteen

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and put them into a much
more clean air dynamic shape

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that will have a glide ratio
of twenty three we hope.

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[Mike Logan:] Thanks Paul,

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step three in the engineering
problem solving method is

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to analyze and evaluate solutions
to do that the airplane will,

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we think about the four basic
forces on a airplane, lift,

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drag, thrust and weight.

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Those four forces have to be in
balance for the air plane to work.

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To do that, we are trying
to experts in the field.

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This is Caron Deer, she is
one of our nozzle researchers.

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They help us look at thrust.

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Caron why don't you talk about what
are the nozzle researcher does?

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[Caron:] I design and research
nozzle concepts to determine

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which is the best candidate for
generating thrust for an air plane.

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Sir Isaac Newton's third
principle which states

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for every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction,

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helps us understand thrust.

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We use a balloon to
demonstrate thrust.

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We allow the air inside the balloon
to escape through the opening.

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We see the motion of the balloon
in the opposite direction.

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And nozzle can be
compared to the opening

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of the balloon changing the size,

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changes the amount
of thrust generated.

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nozzles have different shapes
just like airplanes have

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different shapes.

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There is always trade-offs
in the design process.

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[Mike Logan:] They
certainly are Caron.

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In fact one of the trade offs that
we look at is the cost required

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to achieve the capability
that we want to have.

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Sharon Jones is one of the people
that help evaluate these concepts

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from a cost standpoint.

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Sharon, why don't you talk
a little bit about that?

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[Sharon:] Well, Mike what we do is,
we create a model of the aircraft

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on a computer, so
that when we can go in

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and change different
aspects of the aircraft.

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We can look at what type of
materials are we going to use,

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how big is the aircraft
going to be?

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How many passengers will it carry
and also how much it is going

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to cost for the airlines
to operate the aircraft?

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[Mike Logan:] Thanks Sharon,
for last step in the process is

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to select and refine the solution,

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we will take a look
at that in a moment.

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The first let's check
in with Shelly and Van

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or he is getting his own
lesson on the balance

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of the four forces of flight.

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[Van] I am getting suited-up

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in my hand glider outfit thing
here and yeah, all ready.

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We will get hooked up here
getting ready to my first flight.

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And I guess will catch you
all later, back to you Shelly.

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[Shelly] Well, it looks like Van
is giving some final instruction

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before he is going to find
himself airborne and me I am going

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to change my cloths and I meet
you back of the Connect studio.

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And you guys I am sending you first
on our final check and I am going

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to send you to check out
the most powerful tool used

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by aeronautical engineers when
they are doing a investigations

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that tool the wind
tunnel such as those found

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at NASA Langley Research
Center in Hampton Virginia.

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[Mike Logan:] Thanks
Shirley and welcome back.

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It is this point in
our design process

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where we begin to
refine our design.

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We do that by using scales
models of the configuration

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and testing them in
the wind tunnel.

[00:14:18.859]
With me now is Zack
Applan who is head

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of our subsonic aerodynamics
research here at Langley.

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Zack why don't you
take it from here?

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[Zack:] Alright, many models could
be made of an airplane concept.

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That can be part of the
airplanes, such as wing or tail

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or the entire air plane itself.

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These models can range in
size from just few inches

[00:14:36.479]
to as largest twelve feet

[00:14:38.089]
as the seven thirty
seven model behind this.

[00:14:40.539]
We build these models up
in this wind tunnel on top

[00:14:42.709]
of this large eighty
thousand pounds batteries.

[00:14:45.599]
We are ready for test, powerful
jets actually float the entire

[00:14:48.709]
structure about an inch off the
floor we then move the entire

[00:14:52.119]
assembly into the wind
tunnel for testing.

[00:14:54.759]
A wind tunnel is basically
a giant tapered tube

[00:14:57.179]
with the large fan in the circuit.

[00:14:59.089]
The wind tunnel stimulates
the flow of air as it glides

[00:15:01.399]
over the plane surface.

[00:15:02.999]
Doing this in the wind tunnel
gives us very controlled conditions

[00:15:05.979]
to test that concept
from the design people.

[00:15:08.829]
Talking about the blended
wing body, we found the design

[00:15:11.319]
to be very successful so far.

[00:15:13.269]
It holds a lot of
promise for the future.

[00:15:14.749]
[Mike Logan:] Thank Zack.

[00:15:16.629]
Some of the concepts
that you have seen today

[00:15:18.159]
and maybe very well
be the airplanes,

[00:15:19.509]
you are flying in tomorrow.

[00:15:21.099]
Math, science, engineering,
team work

[00:15:23.289]
and problem solving are all
important tools that have

[00:15:26.299]
to be available for these
airplanes to come in the being

[00:15:28.559]
for you in the future.

[00:15:29.939]
Now, back to you Shelly.

[00:15:31.829]
[00:15:33.979]
[Shelly:] Wow, let me tell you

[00:15:35.759]
that was a great trip
visiting 'Hoot' Gibson

[00:15:38.129]
at the Deer County
airport in North Carolina,

[00:15:40.229]
but you know the variables
of being outside in the wind

[00:15:42.989]
in the ring really get to you
and I am glad to be back here

[00:15:45.949]
in the Connect studio.

[00:15:47.529]
Well, as Mike has said,
it is today's students

[00:15:50.479]
that will become NASA's
future researchers,

[00:15:53.309]
so let's go visit Jones

[00:15:55.129]
[inaudible] Middle
School in Hampton,

[00:15:56.389]
Virginia where students are
investigating an aeronautical

[00:15:59.179]
challenge involving surface
area and glide ratio.

[00:16:02.459]
Follow along, and when we come back
we will look at the data collected

[00:16:06.229]
by these students and then you
my friends will be challenged

[00:16:09.489]
to make your own analysis

[00:16:10.909]
and predications based
upon their results.

[00:16:14.009]
[Student 1:] Hi!

[00:16:14.959]
We arew students from Jones

[00:16:16.459]
[inaudible] Middle School and

[00:16:17.239]
[Students:]

[00:16:17.239]
[inaudible]

[00:16:17.239]
[Student 1:] We were asked to
investigate the glide ratio

[00:16:23.779]
for different model
airplane designs to determine

[00:16:26.769]
which design provides
the best glide ratio.

[00:16:29.679]
The glide ratio of a plane
describes the forward distance

[00:16:33.249]
known for drop and altitude in
the absence of power in wind.

[00:16:37.969]
For example, a three to one ration
means that if you are one mile

[00:16:42.329]
up you better be within
three miles of the airport.

[00:16:46.029]
Miss. Dominick and Miss.

[00:16:47.199]
Barnwell our science and math
teachers divided our class

[00:16:50.239]
into four teams.

[00:16:51.659]
The blue team, the red team, the
yellow team and the white team,

[00:16:55.159]
each team will fly
a different region.

[00:16:57.649]
[Student 2:] To do our experiment,
we use the following materials.

[00:17:01.749]
Copy of paper, we use different
colors to identity each team.

[00:17:06.729]
We also used glue and meter
stick and the tape measure.

[00:17:11.659]
Each team was asked
to select one design

[00:17:13.999]
from the four patterns
provided to us by NASA Langley.

[00:17:17.539]
There is shapes included
the e-grade, the flats,

[00:17:20.799]
the basic square and the

[00:17:23.049]
[inaudible].

[00:17:23.049]
Each team constructs a different
model and calculates the total area

[00:17:27.899]
of the paper, used in
creating the model.

[00:17:31.319]
Next we figure how much of the
total area is actually devoted

[00:17:35.059]
to the airplane's wings.

[00:17:36.959]
Now we are ready to
run our flight test.

[00:17:40.609]
[Student 1:] For our base line test
we decide to launch the airplane

[00:17:44.059]
at two and two ten kilo
meters from the ground.

[00:17:47.789]
This becomes the plane's
right altitude.

[00:17:51.109]
Our four groups conduct ten test
slice from this filght altitude.

[00:17:56.019]
We are careful to launch each
flight test from the same altitude

[00:17:59.769]
and to be as consistent as
possible in the first use

[00:18:03.019]
to launch the airplane.

[00:18:04.649]
We then measure the distance
that plane goes from launch point

[00:18:08.899]
to where it first
touches the ground.

[00:18:11.569]
We check out data or the air from
shortest to longest distances

[00:18:16.019]
and then calculate the
median and mean for the data.

[00:18:19.879]
We are now ready to
compute glide ratios

[00:18:22.579]
for the shortest distance
to longest distance.

[00:18:25.419]
The median and then mean, using the
formula horizontal distance divided

[00:18:30.659]
by the change in altitude will
raise to answer the question.

[00:18:34.549]
Which of the glide ratios that you
have completed as the best one use

[00:18:39.099]
and describe your
planes glide ratio?

[00:18:44.379]
[Shelly:] Well, talking
about variables.

[00:18:46.239]
It look like two of our NASA
researchers have now joined us

[00:18:48.979]
in this studio and they
brought some aircraft models

[00:18:51.489]
to share with us.

[00:18:52.669]
And talking about research,
it's time to make you a part

[00:18:55.849]
of our audience research team.

[00:18:57.819]
Over the next several
minutes you will be presented

[00:19:00.049]
with several questions related to
the data collective from our Jones

[00:19:03.089]
[inaudible] Middle School students.

[00:19:04.999]
Then after this segment our
NASA researchers Mike Logan

[00:19:08.219]
and Zack Applan will be taking
your phone calls and e-mails

[00:19:11.079]
through the numbers indicate
at the bottom of the screen.

[00:19:13.729]
Okay, now.

[00:19:14.529]
Look carefully at the data and
working with your fellow students,

[00:19:17.649]
answer the questions as as
read aloud by Zack Applan

[00:19:20.609]
who is the Assistant Head of the
Subsonic Aero Dynamics Branch,

[00:19:24.129]
here at NASA Langley
Research Center.

[00:19:27.979]
[Mike Logan:] Calculate the
glide ratios for the shortest

[00:19:31.049]
and longest distance flown.

[00:19:34.969]
[ Music ]

[00:19:35.969]
[00:20:38.649]
[Mike Logan:] Calculate
the mean and the median

[00:20:41.379]
for the distance flown.

[00:20:43.949]
[ Music ]

[00:20:44.949]
[00:21:48.859]
[Mike Logan:] Predict how far the
airplane would glide if launch

[00:21:51.859]
from a height twice

[00:21:53.409]
to experimental altitude
shown in trial five.

[00:21:56.119]
[ Music ]

[00:21:57.119]
[00:22:59.359]
[Shelly:] So how do
you think you did?

[00:23:01.109]
Well your mathematical computation
and reasoning are important skills

[00:23:04.789]
to answering the last questions.

[00:23:06.609]
Also are you ready with
your own questions?

[00:23:09.609]
Here we are now with me to fill
up my questions are Mike and Zack.

[00:23:14.329]
And shown on your set
are the numbers to use.

[00:23:16.829]
Now please note that the
telephone numbers are good only

[00:23:19.269]
for today's November
tenth broadcast.

[00:23:21.919]
All right, let me begin
I have got a number

[00:23:24.169]
of e-mail questions
that have commenced.

[00:23:25.299]
I am going to start with
the e-mail questions.

[00:23:27.819]
My first question if you
take a look at it is?

[00:23:30.209]
What is glide ratio?

[00:23:32.439]
Mike or Zack could
like to answer that.

[00:23:34.379]
[Mike Logan:] Okay then.

[00:23:35.759]
The glide ratio is as you
saw earlier is the ratio

[00:23:39.459]
of the horizontal distance
flown to the out altitude drop.

[00:23:42.709]
And from a design standpoint
we look at the glide ratio

[00:23:47.019]
as the result of the
(inaudible) efficiency,

[00:23:50.069]
which is basically the lift
versus the drag ratio or L over D.

[00:23:54.909]
So when we design an airplane
glide ratio is important.

[00:23:57.869]
That's the measure of the
air dynamic efficiency

[00:24:00.249]
and how good the airplane is?

[00:24:01.689]
[Shelly:] We had a question
that was related as for,

[00:24:04.299]
look at our second e-mail question.

[00:24:06.099]
Someone wants to know does
weather affect glide ratio?

[00:24:10.719]
[Mike Logan:] It certainly can.

[00:24:12.119]
In fact when earlier you
saw that we end in a range,

[00:24:15.689]
those are two factors that are
very heavily impact the glide ratio

[00:24:18.989]
the more when did you having
the higher the rainfall

[00:24:22.499]
and more likely you are to
have not has did a glide ratio.

[00:24:26.249]
[Shelly:] Okay so wind speed
could be a factor here then.

[00:24:29.139]
All right.

[00:24:29.759]
Well I know that we
have a caller out there.

[00:24:31.449]
So caller, how about giving us
your name please and your question.

[00:24:36.789]
Go ahead caller can you give
us your name and your question.

[00:24:40.889]
[Caller:] Michael Williams.

[00:24:41.579]
Right now how far could the first
air plane that you are showing, go?

[00:24:50.379]
[Shelly:] Good -- turn down your
set and ask the question again.

[00:24:54.199]
I think we would hear
little bit more clearly.

[00:24:55.839]
Could you repeat that again please?

[00:24:57.309]
[Caller:] That's the
phone doing that.

[00:24:59.239]
[Shelly:] Could you ask
the question one more time

[00:25:01.359]
again please?

[00:25:02.089]
[Caller:] How far did
the most model go?

[00:25:05.789]
[Shelly:] How far did the model go?

[00:25:10.499]
Are you referring to
the student's model?

[00:25:13.669]
[Caller:] Yeah!

[00:25:14.849]
[Shelly:] You saw there on the data
that they collected that it went --

[00:25:18.939]
they tried it ten times, so
we saw the data for five times

[00:25:22.069]
and we saw the distance
for five for those flights.

[00:25:25.269]
So your challenge is to go
back and look at that data

[00:25:28.599]
and you could calculate
the mean and the median

[00:25:31.809]
for those five flights.

[00:25:33.399]
And then you will have that answer.

[00:25:34.689]
Good question.

[00:25:35.759]
All right, well let me
go back to my e-mail

[00:25:38.439]
because I know I got several
questions that are coming here.

[00:25:40.799]
Here is a question.

[00:25:42.179]
How do researchers in designing
an airplane decide what is wind

[00:25:46.659]
span should be?

[00:25:47.829]
[Mike Logan:] That's a
good question Shelly.

[00:25:49.659]
It well depends on aircraft mission
typically transport aircraft

[00:25:53.739]
after the long wind spans where
they need half fuel efficiency

[00:25:58.049]
for fighter type aircrafts you
typically have shorter spans you

[00:26:01.479]
require a lot more structural
strength out of the airplane

[00:26:04.789]
so the typical have shorts span
on fighter type configutartions.

[00:26:08.419]
[Shelly:] Okay, All right, we
got another email question kind

[00:26:11.839]
of related to this all right.

[00:26:13.229]
And may be you've
answered this already.

[00:26:14.969]
How important is the
width of a wings span

[00:26:18.629]
in an airplanes performance?

[00:26:21.339]
[Mike Logan:] Very simple sense,

[00:26:22.449]
I guess the longer span typically
the most fluid efficiently

[00:26:25.449]
in aircraft, airplane
configuration would be.

[00:26:27.699]
[Shelly:] Okay.

[00:26:28.089]
[Mike Logan:] That's
why you see long span

[00:26:29.559]
on commercial transport airports.

[00:26:31.479]
[Shelly:] All right.

[00:26:31.889]
I know that another
caller are there.

[00:26:33.219]
So let's go ahead and
go back to the phones

[00:26:35.339]
and caller could you give us your
name please and your question.

[00:26:38.459]
[Caller:] Yes, my name is Eric
Morgan, I have a question for you.

[00:26:42.209]
My question is little
perforated holes and little holes

[00:26:46.499]
on a golf ball that help
break down wind turbulence

[00:26:49.369]
with a golf ball, will that help
on a planes wing to reduce drag..

[00:26:54.229]
[Shelly:] Oh, good question,
who want to take that one.

[00:26:57.329]
Mike, Zack.

[00:26:58.729]
[Mike Logan:] As you
know the little dimples

[00:27:00.119]
on golf ball helps change
the drag of the golf ball

[00:27:03.519]
by creating turbines, now in
fact there is a similar system

[00:27:07.519]
that can be applied to transport
configurations called hybrid

[00:27:10.929]
laminar flow of control or
in fact there is little holes

[00:27:13.989]
that can either suck
air in and blow air out.

[00:27:16.969]
That's helps to create a smooth
layer of air near the surface

[00:27:20.929]
of the skin that actually can
reduce the drag of the airplane

[00:27:24.189]
as much as fifteen
to sixteen percent.

[00:27:26.449]
[Shelly:] All right good question.

[00:27:27.509]
Do you add some something else.

[00:27:28.389]
[Zack Applan:] Yes, an actually
very similar application that's

[00:27:30.689]
developed here in NASA Langley
there is a turbulent drag reduction

[00:27:33.959]
in form of what we called regulates

[00:27:35.899]
which is fairly rough
surfaces of the long airplane

[00:27:38.809]
which actually reduce that
overall drag of the wing.

[00:27:41.579]
[Shelly:] All right well, that's
about all the time when we have

[00:27:44.889]
so I would like to thanks all
the guest that contributes

[00:27:47.539]
to this program including Mike
and Zack, Paul, Karen and Sharon,.

[00:27:51.959]
I would also like to thanks Jones

[00:27:53.449]
[inaudible] Middle School,
Deer County airport,

[00:27:55.869]
Air Venture Ninety-Eight and
'Hoot' Gibson who did win his race,

[00:27:59.579]
and finally this this Smithsonian
National Air and Space Museum.

[00:28:04.979]
Just a final reminder to check
out the shapes of flight website

[00:28:08.129]
where you will see
here and learned more

[00:28:10.469]
about today's topic also
we invite you to camp

[00:28:13.549]
up with like minded students

[00:28:14.769]
in our special virtual
aeronautic scheme.

[00:28:17.169]
Here is the teammates
required just some creativity

[00:28:19.619]
and mathematics and
science know-how.

[00:28:22.269]
Video tape copies
of this show along

[00:28:24.299]
with the lesson plan may be
attend from NASA central operation

[00:28:28.009]
of resources for educators or core.

[00:28:31.129]
And now back to the end for
his final assent into the air.

[00:28:34.519]
I am Shirley Kenley
for NASA Connect.

[00:28:36.749]
Thanks for joining us.

[00:28:38.819]
[Van:] We would like to give a
special thanks to Kitty Hawk kites

[00:28:41.789]
for letting us to choose the hand
glider and Dr. Regalo for appearing

[00:28:45.439]
on our show, so connect
to the next time

[00:28:48.209]
where we connect you
math, science and NASA.

[00:28:50.829]
I am Van Hughes see you later.

[00:28:52.699]