Transcript for NASA Connect - Who Added the Micro To Gravity

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[Jennifer:] Hi I am Jennifer
Pulley and welcome to NASA Connect,

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the show that connects
you to the world of math,

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science, technology and NASA.

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Today we're at NASA Glen
Research Centre in Cleveland Ohio

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and this is the zero
gravity facility and it's

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where NASA conducts
micro-gravity experiment.

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You have seen micro-gravity.

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You have seen it in videos of
the International Space Station

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and a NASA's KC one thirty five.

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On today's program,

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we'll investigate how NASA
researchers conduct research

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in a micro-gravity environment.

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You will observe NASA researchers
are using the math concepts

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of measurements, ratios
and graphing

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to research combustion science
and the importance of Fire Safety

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on the International Space Station.

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In your class room you will do cool
hands on activity to learn more

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about gravity by collecting,
organizing, graphing

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and analyzing data and using the
instructional technology activity

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you will investigate apparent
weight to see how Astronauts

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in space can feel weightless.

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NASA researchers use the math
concepts of ratios, measurements

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and graphing all the time.

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First, let's review ratios.

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A ratio is a comparison
of two quantities.

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For examples, NASA
Glen Research Centre

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and NASA Marshal Space
Light Centre,

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which are the NASA facilities

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that primarily conduct
micro-gravity research,

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are two of ten NASA centers
located across the country.

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A ratio can be written as a
fraction and it can be written

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in any form that is equal or
equivalent to that fraction.

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So, the ratio two tenths can
also be written as two is to ten,

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twenty percent, twenty one
hundred and point two zero.

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When you work with ratios,
you can express fractions,

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decimals and percentages.

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To learn how NASA researchers,
a private concept of ratios

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to the micro-gravity environment
lets go see Doctor Roger

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[inaudible], he is
the senior scientist

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for the International
Space Station.

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[Jennifer:] Hello!

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Doctor

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[inaudible].

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[Roger:] Hello, Jennifer.

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Math is really important
to every one but especially

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to scientist and engineers.

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We use ratios in every
aspect of research

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in a micro-gravity environment.

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[Jennifer:] So Doctor.

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[inaudible], what is microgravity?

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[Roger:] Micro gravity is a
condition where the effects

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of gravity arm appeared
to be very much smaller

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than they normally
are here on Earth.

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The prefix micro comes
from the Greek root micros,

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which simply means 'small' having

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in scientific metrics
system, micro literally

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[inaudible] one part
in a million or one

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to one million .We use
the term micro-gravity

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to describe the environment
on board to spacecraft

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in orbit around the earth.

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Gravity is

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[inaudible], we usually call it
high gravity if it's more than here

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on Earth and low gravity if
it's less than here on Earth.

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And example of low gravity
environment would be the moon;

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the gravity on the moon is about
one sixth of that here on Earth.

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[Jennifer:] Yeh!

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One sixth that's a ratio.

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[Roger:] That's right.

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What is the quantity being
compared in this statement.

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The gravity at the Moon is
about one sixth that on Earth.

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If you said, the Moon's gravity
to the Earth's gravity they

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[inaudible] starting to
understanding ratios.

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Ratio one sixth means
that the gravity

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at the Moon is six times
smaller than gravity on Earth.

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We sometimes use the
term micro-gravity

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to describe the condition
where gravity is not small

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but appears to be small.

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This is a condition experienced on

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[inaudible] space craft such as the
International Space Station or ISS.

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This space shuttle
and all objects in

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[inaudible] that's may appearing

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to floored inside the space
shuttle really I am not floating

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but falling at the same

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[inaudible] of shuttle so to
the observer it looks like

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I'm floating.

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[Jennifer:] So micro-gravity
is not really zero gravity?

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[Roger:] That's right, It
diminishes through out very quickly

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with distance so it's weak

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around the space station
than it is on Earth.

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But it's sixty four hundred
kilometer from the surface

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to the sinner of the earth
which is considered the origin

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of the Earth's gravity field.

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Then the ISS is only another four
hundred kilometer above the surface

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of the Earth, so at that altitude
the gravitational acceleration

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still about eighty nine percent
or eight nine one hundreds of that

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of the Earth's surface.

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If the gravitational
acceleration on the surface

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of the Earth is nine point
eight meter per seconds square.

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What would be the gravitational
acceleration be four hundred

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kilometers above the
surface of the earth?

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[Jennifer:] Let's see, you would
approximate the gravitational

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acceleration at four
hundred kilometers

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above the Earth's surface
by calculating the product

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of nine point eight
and point eight nine

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or eighty nine one hundred.

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[Roger:] That's correct, that
not applying nine point eight

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and point eight nine we see
the gravitational acceleration

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at four hundred kilometer
above the Earth's surface is

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about eight point seven
meter per seconds square,

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comparing nine point eight

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and eight point seven meter
per seconds square gravity

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at the altitude

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[inaudible] this is nearly
the same is that on Earth.

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But given the images of
floating Astronaut it appears

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that gravity is reduced by
much more than eleven percent.

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[Jennifer:] So Dr.

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[inaudible] what is happening?

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[Roger:] Gravity attracts
all objects toward the sinner

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of the Earth at the same rate.

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If I release two objects at
different ways they have room

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to fall, they will accelerate
towards the sinner of the Earth

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at the same rate until they meet
to resistance in the form of the

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[inaudible] in other words

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that will hit the
floor at the same time.

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It supports of the floor that we
feel is our way then gravity is the

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only force acting on a object

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[inaudible] said to be a

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[inaudible] called 'free fall'.

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Object in 'free fall' can
be said to be weightless.

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Imagine you have an
apple on the scale

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which displays the apples weight,
if you drop the scale the apple

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on the scale will fall together,

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but the apple will no
longer compress to scale,

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so the scale will show zero weight.

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In the same way Astronauts
inside the ISS

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or the space shuttle are
falling around the earth.

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Unlike the apple on the
scale both the Astronauts

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in the space craft free
fall by circling the earth

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at approximately seven
thousand eight hundred

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and seventy meter per second or
seventeen thousand miles per hour.

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They are falling towards the
earth, they just never get there.

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[Jennifer:] How are the concepts of
measurement and graphing important

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to NASA researchers and scientists?

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[Roger:] Research in space
environment gives scientist a tool

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for looking at phenomenon ways as
just not possible here on Earth.

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But these just gravities won't
take place without understanding

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and applying the math concepts
of measurement and graphing.

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To demonstrate how scientists

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and researcher use these
concepts, Dr. Sandra

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[inaudible] a micro-gravity
conversion scientist

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at the NASA Glen Research
Center will tell us more.

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[Jennifer:] Oh!

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Great, thank you so much Dr.

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[inaudible].

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[Roger:] Thank you
Jennifer, I enjoyed it.

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[Jennifer:] Now, before
we visit Dr.

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[inaudible] let's
review the math concepts

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of measurement and graphing.

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Measurement; it usually tells us
the size of something and consists

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of a number and the unit.

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For example, the gravitational
acceleration at the surface

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of the earth is nine point
eight meters per second square,

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nine point eight is the number

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and meters per seconds
square is the unit.

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The unit in the measurement
is a fixed quantity

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with the size that is understood.

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The number in a measurement
tells how many units there are

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and what is being measured.

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This allows us to compare the
size of what's beings measured

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to the size of the unit.

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For example, Dr.

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[inaudible] indicated that the
gravitational acceleration four

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hundred kilometers above the earth
surface is eight point seven meters

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per second square units compared
to the gravitational acceleration

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at the earth's surface which
is nine point eight meters per

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second square units.

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Notice that the unit of measurement
is the same for both numbers

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and in case you are wondering
what does the unit meters per

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second square mean.

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Well one meter per Second Square

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or one meter per second per
second means that for very second

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of travel, the velocity
increases by one meter per second,

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so if the acceleration due

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to gravity is nine point eight
meters per second square then

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for every second of travel
the velocity increases

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by nine point eight
meters per second.

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Okay guys, the next math concept
for today's show is graphing

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and graphing is really important

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because it creates a visual
representation or relationships

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that may not be easily
determined using numbers alone

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and there are many
different types of graphs

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that can be used visually
represent data.

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There are biographs, circle
graph, line graph, victor graphs

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and scatter graph,
just the name appeal.

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For member who inducted graph
told us that gravity diminishes

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as we get further and
further away from the earth,

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we can represent this
visually with the graph.

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The X-axis or horizontal axis
represents distance and the Y-axis

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or vertical axis represents
gravity.

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From the graph you can
see the gravity decreases

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with increasing distance.

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So are you with me so far.

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Good, let's go chat with the
Dr Sandra Elson here at NASA

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[inaudible] research center.

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>> How do you files in space travel
differently complies on earth.

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From the position
versus time graph,

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what type of relationship
exists to look frame rates?

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For

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[inaudible]

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>> Hey Dr Elson.

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Hello Jennifer.

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>> I am glad you able to
convince you facility today.

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Thank you for asking me to
explain how use measurement

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and graphing techniques
in our research?

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>> So what kind of
research do you do here?

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>> I do experiments in microgravity
combustion especially as it relates

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to spacecraft fire safety.

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You know Jennifer, we thought
as children that if it is a fire

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in our house which first
to get out of the house

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and call the fire department.

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But in space factors is an option,
there are no fire departments

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in space and you just
can walk outside.

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A bad fire actually happens on
Russian Mere Space Station in 1997.

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We need to understand fire
behavior in microgravity

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so that we ill no harder will
avoid the fire as much as possible

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and survive it, if it does occur.

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>>And doctor Elson its sound
to me like you are saying

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that fire behaves differently in
space and it does here on earth.

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>> Very differently Jennifer.

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>> Gravity is such a dominant
force and fires here on earth

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that we take it for granted.

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For example a wild
fire gravity dependent.

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On earth wild fire spread uphill
much faster than downhill.

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The reason for this is that the
heated air from the fire rises

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up the hill and heats
the fuel like the grass,

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trees and shrubs ahead of the
fire, blown into the wind,

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the fires reach as long
and it can spread very fast

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over the nice one fuel.

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On the other hand, going downhill
the wind id fresh cool air being

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drawn into the fire to
replace the rising how gases.

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The vegetation remains cool
until the flames are very close.

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The flames reach is very short and
it longer to heat up the cold fuel

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and the flames spread more slowly.

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In space fires like to go in
the exact opposite direction,

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they like to spread against the
wind, while wild fires are blown

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by the wind because
hot air doesn't rise

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in a microgravity
environment, the only airflows

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in an orbiting spacecraft
come from ventilation fans,

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cooling fans and crew movements.

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A fire, given a choice in this
microgravity environment will

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preferentially spread
into the fresh air.

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The flame doesn't have any
control over the airflow,

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so it has to seek
out the fresh air.

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The wind blown or down inside

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of this flame is only receiving
polluted air that can changed smoke

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and carbon-dye-oxide
but not much oxygen

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because that's already
been consumed by the

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up going further plan.

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So, when the air flows from
the ventilation pans are low,

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the down wind inside of the plan
cast spread off even not has fuel

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and heat, it doesn't
have the oxygen.

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In a microgravity environment

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if we reduce the air flow even the
oxygen siding up on inside the plan

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as trouble getting of
oxygen and it break

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up into little frame works.

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>> Okay, so how do you
measured or collected

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on this instead flame less.

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>> You know experiment we
use to drop in a wind tunnel.

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>> The study with effective
air flow on the flame less.

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>> When we dropped this
miniature wind tunnel,

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we can get break period as you
of micro gravity here on earth.

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>> We can measured the
effective air flow on the flame

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by applying very lows to air flow

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to a flame is it's basis
cloze attempt to a paper.

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At this present we can measured
its position as function of time

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and flat time and
position on a graph.

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The following graph allows us to
compare the position versus time

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from flame attracting.

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The x-excess for horizontal excess
is the time measured in seconds

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and the y-excess was vertical
excess is the position

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of flame measured in
nanometers miters.

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This graph represents of flame
that starts have uniformed

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and after five seconds of travel
breaks up into the flame less.

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The quick zero-zero represents

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for the location whether uniformed
flame breaks up into flame less.

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>> Okay Dr. Elson from
this there are PSPL

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[inaudible] many relationships
between position and time.

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Why as the slopped of the line
representing the uniformed flames

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stepper the no line
representing the flame less?

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>> That's a great
question Jennifer,

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this strictness is slopped of
line tell thus the spread rate

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or velocity of the flame.

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So on this if I get this as
the slop of the line decreases

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in the spread rate or
velocity decreases.

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>> That's correct.

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>> For this particular
test from the velocity

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of the uniformed flame
was calculated

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to be brief point formal need
for second and the velocity

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of the flame rates was calculated
to be one point zero no for circum.

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Over the flame with speared more
slowly they are very hard to detect

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and they can fear up into big fear
again if we turn up the air flow.

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Imagine if the action was
put out the player and turn

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out the air circulation
system to clean up this smoke.

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The player good play up again
allow I can see how important your

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researches to the
safety of the Astronauts

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on the bold the international
space station

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and the space shuttle.

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>>thank you so much Dr Elson

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>> Thank you Jennifer.

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>> Hi kids its now time
for our two cardio

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[inaudible]

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>> [inaudible] fires and space
shuttle differently compare

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on earth.

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>>From the position
versus time graph,

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look at the relationship
exist from you frame less.

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>> What it this type of a
position versus time back tell you

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>> Okay, let's review; we
highlighted the maths concept

[00:14:53.249]
of ratios, measurement and graphic.

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Dr. Crow to apply the
concept of ratios to help us

[00:14:58.519]
to find mental gravity and Dr.
Elson explain you importance

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of measurement in graphic well
conducting space graph fire

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safety research.

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Now, it your turn to apply this
maths concept in your classroom,

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check out this programs
all some hands on activity.

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>> Hi,

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[inaudible]no side no school
and hear and North of Virginia.

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>> NAASA connects as that to
show you these programs hands

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on activity.

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>> You can download the lesson
guide and listed material

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to be NASA connect website.

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>> Here to manage at this.

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>> Students well apply techniques
to determine measurements,

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use matrix measurement,
build mathematical knowledge

[00:15:39.349]
to investigation and
experimentation.

[00:15:42.929]
Collect, organized and
upgrade for analysis.

[00:15:47.199]
Build in understand
of macro-gravity.

[00:15:50.319]
>> Good morning class today's NASA
I said investigate our graphic

[00:15:54.659]
techniques, our help though

[00:15:55.899]
and understanding the
conceptual position,

[00:15:58.329]
velocity and acceleration

[00:16:00.099]
>> Teacher will find a location for
dropping three selected audience.

[00:16:04.269]
A set of

[00:16:04.959]
[inaudible] provides a
good variation in heights

[00:16:07.219]
without using ladders.

[00:16:08.439]
Mark-to-drop location in
even increments, if possible,

[00:16:12.729]
eight-ten drop stations
create a good graph

[00:16:15.339]
that students can easily view.

[00:16:17.669]
Measure each station
in meters or inches

[00:16:20.369]
and use a conversion one meter
equals three point two eight

[00:16:24.099]
one feet.

[00:16:25.199]
Organize students into group of
four, once each group selected

[00:16:29.039]
in different balls to use were
all their test graphs distributes

[00:16:32.159]
the student materials.

[00:16:33.099]
A student record or writes down
the height of each drop station

[00:16:36.669]
on the data collection chart.

[00:16:38.479]
A student timer records five drops

[00:16:40.749]
at each drop station only
the ball dropper should climb

[00:16:44.129]
to the drop site with the rest
remaining at ground level.

[00:16:47.399]
The student counter returns
to the ball to the dropper

[00:16:49.849]
and begins the countdown again

[00:16:51.429]
when everyone is ready average
the time for each drop station

[00:16:55.369]
and record on the
data collection chart.

[00:16:57.529]
Square the average time for
each drop station and record

[00:17:00.649]
on the data collection chart,
using height and average time data

[00:17:04.039]
for each drop station plot
a distance versus time graph

[00:17:07.809]
on drop data chart one using
height and average square time data

[00:17:11.769]
for each drop station plot a
distance versus time square graph

[00:17:15.759]
on drop data chart two.

[00:17:17.529]
The teacher will collect the
drop data charts from each group,

[00:17:20.989]
and compare the data on drop
data chart one for each ball.

[00:17:24.489]
And discuss the shape
the data points create.

[00:17:26.949]
Next overlay all drop data chart
one transparencies compare the

[00:17:31.479]
data simultaneously.

[00:17:32.669]
In the next comparison compare
the data on drop data char two

[00:17:36.609]
for each ball, and discuss the
shape the data points create.

[00:17:40.279]
Again overlay all drop data
chart two transparencies

[00:17:43.959]
to compare the data simultaneously.

[00:17:45.539]
>> Its time for questions.

[00:17:47.419]
Based on your observations project

[00:17:49.249]
[inaudible] will happen to
the acceleration, if you

[00:17:51.609]
[inaudible] drop from
a greater height.

[00:17:54.269]
[00:17:56.139]
Christine.

[00:17:57.089]
[Christine:] I love thinking
the matter where each

[00:17:58.579]
of the ball from that

[00:17:59.849]
[inaudible] to the same.

[00:18:01.939]
>> Great answer Mr.

[00:18:04.329]
[inaudible] thank you.

[00:18:05.339]
>> Do the shape or surface of
the object drop have any affect

[00:18:08.979]
on the results explain?

[00:18:12.519]
John.

[00:18:13.679]
[John:] I don't think that will
have any effect on this experiment

[00:18:16.369]
because reason object
such as a ball and the

[00:18:19.469]
[inaudible] is negligible.

[00:18:20.849]
But on the other hand if we really
use an object such as a piece

[00:18:23.829]
of paper or it will float down and

[00:18:25.749]
[inaudible] longer tape the ground.

[00:18:27.619]
>> Teachers if you
would like to help

[00:18:29.109]
to perform the preceding lesson
or any other NASA Connect weapon,

[00:18:32.559]
simply listen how weapon AIMM

[00:18:34.529]
[inaudible] who will be glad

[00:18:35.919]
to assist your class
and these activities.

[00:18:41.599]
>> Super job you guys hay did
you know that NASA is working

[00:18:46.299]
with the students to
develop new products

[00:18:48.879]
and new experiments
for Space Research.

[00:18:51.839]
Doctor John Plowmen a Professor
of Chemistry and Bio-Chemistry

[00:18:55.249]
at the University of Southern
Mississippi has some cool

[00:18:58.289]
applications for Micro Gravity
Research, which students just like

[00:19:02.069]
[inaudible] can be
working on some day.

[00:19:05.669]
[00:19:07.609]
>> Where is point

[00:19:08.259]
[inaudible] connection?

[00:19:08.859]
>> What is the relationship
between density and volume?

[00:19:13.459]
>> What is the trend in the
density versus temperature graph?

[00:19:16.879]
>> Hi! NASA's reduced
gravity program began in 1959,

[00:19:21.559]
but in the past five years students

[00:19:23.549]
from over one hundred schools
have performed experiments

[00:19:26.499]
in the micro gravity environment.

[00:19:28.389]
Several of my students
and I have flown

[00:19:29.959]
on the KC 135 NASA's
flying laboratory.

[00:19:33.869]
Its science has interesting,
challenging and fun.

[00:19:37.169]
One experiment we are conducting
involves making new space age

[00:19:40.179]
materials by a really cool process
called Frontal Polymerization

[00:19:44.899]
and the other involves studying
how molecules attract each other

[00:19:47.929]
in fluid that mix.

[00:19:49.899]
Everything is made up of
very, very small pieces

[00:19:52.119]
of stuff called molecules.

[00:19:54.249]
Molecules attract each other how
stronger they attract determines

[00:19:57.419]
if the stuff is a
liquid, solid or gas.

[00:20:00.549]
Some materials mix
completely, others do not.

[00:20:03.519]
Here something you can
try at home yourself.

[00:20:05.699]
We have waters here which has food

[00:20:07.649]
[inaudible] and syrup.

[00:20:08.889]
And as call syrupy and steered up,
it will make one continues liquid.

[00:20:17.889]
[00:20:19.169]
What if I take something that im
mixable with water like mineral oil

[00:20:24.539]
and poured into the water with food

[00:20:28.239]
[inaudible] and mix this
solution up, to a separate

[00:20:31.999]
into two layers with tank.

[00:20:34.499]
Water molecules attract
each other more strongly

[00:20:36.799]
than they attract older molecules
instead of water stay separate.

[00:20:40.019]
A

[00:20:40.069]
[inaudible] is a small molecule

[00:20:41.739]
that can be made upon
long chains of

[00:20:43.779]
[inaudible] connected end
to end called the polymer.

[00:20:46.879]
It's sort of like box cars
put together to form a train.

[00:20:49.519]
The mixing process
is called convection;

[00:20:51.879]
it's a term for liquid motion.

[00:20:53.859]
>> There are two ways in which
convection can spontaneously occur

[00:20:56.559]
in a liquid, one is
caused my gravity

[00:20:58.809]
and is called buoyancy
induce conduction.

[00:21:02.019]
Difference is between the
densities of the liquid,

[00:21:04.569]
make the lighter fluid rise and
separate from the heavier fluid,

[00:21:08.029]
another type of convection
is called interfacial tension

[00:21:10.989]
induce conduct.

[00:21:12.329]
>> Interfacial what's.

[00:21:13.629]
>> Interfacial tension
induce conduction.

[00:21:16.039]
>> Let's further term up.

[00:21:17.599]
First interfacial tension is like
the surface tension which holds

[00:21:21.479]
up a water bug when it
skittles crosses high.

[00:21:24.509]
The surface is a result

[00:21:25.429]
of the water molecules
attracting each other.

[00:21:27.789]
The healing surface here on earth
causes buoyancy induced conduction.

[00:21:32.009]
How can we study only
the convection cause

[00:21:34.149]
by interfacial affects level,

[00:21:36.059]
we need to eliminate
gravity or its affects.

[00:21:39.069]
We can never eliminate gravity

[00:21:40.969]
but by free following we can
create a system that acts has

[00:21:43.559]
as if there were no gravity.

[00:21:45.899]
Performing experiments
in way business allows us

[00:21:48.249]
to study phenomena
we can study on it

[00:21:50.689]
and to answer questions
we can answer down here.

[00:21:53.559]
>> By eliminating
buoyancy use conduction,

[00:21:55.979]
we sometimes can creates
a pre approaching crystals

[00:21:58.269]
and way business, they can help
researchers design new drugs,

[00:22:01.569]
eliminating buoyancy induce
convection can also help

[00:22:04.139]
to understand how to make better
semiconductors here on earth,

[00:22:07.079]
like the ones used
in your computer.

[00:22:09.339]
We take a lesson from
computer chip manufactures,

[00:22:11.979]
who use like to makes
the circuit pad,

[00:22:14.399]
Michel Gravity Research shows
us that you can create paddles

[00:22:17.339]
on fluids which would
not be allowed on earth,

[00:22:19.999]
where buoyancy convection mixes
up the apparent zero gravity.

[00:22:23.379]
My students and I have studying how
forces between molecules include

[00:22:26.979]
that mix and cause convection.

[00:22:28.819]
We use light as initiating
agent to make the

[00:22:31.479]
[inaudible] turning to the polymer.

[00:22:33.009]
By exposing the

[00:22:33.749]
[inaudible] to light
with the specific panel,

[00:22:36.119]
we hope to observe how the

[00:22:37.549]
[inaudible] in polymer
molecules flow on each other

[00:22:40.189]
for many minutes, we predicted
the two fluids will act like oil

[00:22:43.239]
on water but in the
long run the molecules

[00:22:45.839]
with refuses each other
can make a single fluid.

[00:22:48.279]
Why can we do the
experiment in the lab?

[00:22:50.709]
Because buoyancy during
convection was smear everything

[00:22:52.949]
out so there really is no way
on earth do the experiment,

[00:22:56.089]
we also studied a process called,

[00:22:58.139]
[inaudible] polymerization in
which plastic informs can be made

[00:23:01.299]
with the chemical reaction that
spreads out like a liquid plant.

[00:23:05.119]
Gases can be released by the
half reaction and makes bubbles

[00:23:07.969]
which can formed the foam,
of course bubbles float

[00:23:10.529]
in the liquid because of gravity.

[00:23:11.649]
But without the buoyant force
bubbles can become larger

[00:23:14.879]
in a microgravity environment.

[00:23:16.789]
>> Honey is math in you work.

[00:23:18.189]
>> Math is essential to our work.

[00:23:20.999]
For example, in order to predict
how gravity will cause convection

[00:23:24.299]
in our systems, we need to
prepare glass of the density

[00:23:27.069]
of our materials as a
function of temperature.

[00:23:29.619]
We use a special instrument
called a densitometer,

[00:23:33.039]
but we have to know how to use
a math to make sense of about

[00:23:35.759]
[inaudible].

[00:23:36.439]
Let's look at some of
the data from my lab.

[00:23:38.599]
Here we applied density in the

[00:23:39.949]
[inaudible] and the
polymer in the Y-axis

[00:23:41.759]
and the temperature on the X-axis.

[00:23:44.209]
First notice at the density of
the polymer is higher than a

[00:23:47.279]
[inaudible].

[00:23:48.979]
Next we can draw straight
line to the points.

[00:23:51.839]
The slope of which line is a
ratio of the changing density

[00:23:55.139]
to the change in temperature.

[00:23:56.129]
The density of the polymer
decreases zero point zero three

[00:24:00.719]
grams per cubic centimeters

[00:24:02.639]
for a fifty degree centigrade
increase in temperature.

[00:24:05.499]
The density of the

[00:24:07.699]
[inaudible] also decreases,

[00:24:09.009]
but it decreases point zero
four gram per cubic centimeter

[00:24:12.069]
for the same temperature change.

[00:24:13.869]
Remember that we said buoyancy
driven convection happens

[00:24:16.809]
because of differences in density.

[00:24:18.989]
And at the less density
liquids will float to the top.

[00:24:21.979]
The information from this graph,

[00:24:23.709]
tells us how the density
changes when we heat the

[00:24:26.329]
[inaudible] power and so we can
predict how much buoyancy driven

[00:24:29.409]
convection will occur
during experiments on Earth.

[00:24:32.839]
The graph also tells us
how much the volume changes

[00:24:35.669]
as we heat the liquids,
essential information

[00:24:38.059]
for designing our experiment on
the International Space Station.

[00:24:41.149]
>>: As we go farther and
farther from Earth into space,

[00:24:44.499]
we're going to be
required eventually

[00:24:45.909]
to make own materials in space.

[00:24:47.999]
Forms are just one of
the things we to look at.

[00:24:50.459]
Gaining and understanding

[00:24:51.459]
of the opportunities the
microgravity research today will be

[00:24:54.519]
valuable knowledge for you
young researchers of tomorrow

[00:24:58.429]
when we are ready for our
first man fly to Mars?

[00:25:00.919]
>>: Alright guys, its now
time for a Q card review.

[00:25:08.089]
>>: Where is buoyancy
in this connection?

[00:25:10.849]
>>: What is the relationship
between density and volume?

[00:25:13.439]
>>: What is the trend at the
density versus temperature graph?

[00:25:17.609]
>>: Okay, did you get all that.

[00:25:19.089]
Let's go visit

[00:25:20.039]
[inaudible] in his web domain.

[00:25:21.519]
>>: Hi and welcome to my domain.

[00:25:29.549]
NASA Connect has created a
really cool web activity help you

[00:25:32.989]
understand apparent way and to
see our Astronauts in outer space,

[00:25:36.789]
be awareless we also
have a second activity

[00:25:39.589]
to help you make an important
elevator design decision.

[00:25:42.709]
First be sure you have
the squeak plug in.

[00:25:45.319]
It can be downloaded
at www.squeakland.org

[00:25:49.329]
for free installation.

[00:25:51.149]
Once you have squeak plug

[00:25:52.329]
in installed you can
access the activity

[00:25:54.729]
at the NASA Connect website under

[00:25:56.649]
[inaudible] domain.

[00:25:57.619]
This activity is designed for use
by students, teachers and parents

[00:26:01.359]
in this school or home settings.

[00:26:03.069]
Now, you are ready to
start the activity.

[00:26:06.489]
On this site Norbert and

[00:26:08.609]
[inaudible] waiting in an elevator
for you to investigate what happens

[00:26:11.869]
when you accelerate the elevator.

[00:26:13.899]
[inaudible] your hands on
tight and want to try it

[00:26:16.209]
out on your own first.

[00:26:17.689]
Read the brief directions along the
left side of the screen and start

[00:26:21.169]
by trying to make Norbert and

[00:26:23.089]
[inaudible] weightless.

[00:26:24.109]
Then you should read the book
on the right side of the screen

[00:26:26.589]
for important definitions
brief interactivities,

[00:26:30.069]
exploration you should do and
challenges you should consider.

[00:26:33.589]
If you want more directions
before you start again

[00:26:36.729]
by reading the book.

[00:26:37.769]
Starting with the first page
and click the little right arrow

[00:26:40.869]
at the top center to go on.

[00:26:42.209]
To help you get a head start
velocity is the distance traveled

[00:26:46.389]
divided by the time it takes.

[00:26:48.289]
If the elevator moves Norbert and

[00:26:50.109]
[inaudible] downwards you will say
the velocity is a positive number.

[00:26:53.799]
To accelerate is to
change the velocity.

[00:26:56.289]
If you increase the velocity

[00:26:57.629]
in the downward direction you
will say the acceleration is a

[00:27:00.769]
positive number.

[00:27:02.149]
Then, if you increase the velocity

[00:27:04.089]
in an upward direction
the acceleration will be a

[00:27:06.629]
negative number.

[00:27:07.899]
Positive and negative numbers are
essential to describe motions.

[00:27:11.169]
Have fun and explore.

[00:27:12.979]
>> Well guys that wraps up
another episode of NASA Connect.

[00:27:20.279]
Got a comment question or
suggestion then e-mail us

[00:27:24.089]
at connect@lark.nasa.org or
pick up a pen and write us

[00:27:29.659]
at NASA Connect, NASA Center
for Distance Learning,

[00:27:33.419]
NASA Langley Research Center Mail
Star four hundred Hampton Virginia

[00:27:37.919]
two three six eight one.

[00:27:39.799]
Teachers if you would like
a video tape of this program

[00:27:42.419]
and the accompanying
educators guide check

[00:27:44.699]
out the NASA Connect website.

[00:27:46.769]
So, until next time stay connected
to Math, Science, Technology

[00:27:52.079]
and NASA see you then.

[00:27:55.229]
>>: The gravity of the moon.

[00:28:01.579]
>>: Yeah.

[00:28:02.149]
>>: The gravity of the moon.

[00:28:03.389]
>>: The young researchers
of tomorrow.

[00:28:06.019]
>>: Blah, blah, blah, blah.

[00:28:08.929]
Laugh.

[00:28:09.339]
>>: What.

[00:28:10.149]
>>: Laugh.

[00:28:11.209]
>>: Let me look at it

[00:28:14.479]
[inaudible].

[00:28:15.359]
>>: Dr

[00:28:17.319]
[inaudible], Jennifer.

[00:28:18.889]
>>: Captioning Funded by the
NEC Foundation of America

[00:28:28.469]