**Transcript for NASA Connect - Geometry of Exploration: Water Below the Surface of Mars**

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[ Music ]

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[Garrett Wong] Hi.

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I'm Garrett Wong.

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I play the part of Ensign

Harry Kim on Star Trek Voyager.

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On my show, Voyager and its crew

stars, planets, and galaxies.

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Of course, when NASA

scientists navigate spacecraft

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through our solar system,

it's a little more complicated

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than just punching

coordinates into a computer.

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In this episode of NASA Connect,

NASA scientists will show you how

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to use math, like geometry,

to launch spacecraft to Mars.

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And how geometric shapes contribute

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to the exploration

of the red planet.

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So fasten your seat belt

as hosts Jennifer Poli

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and Dan Hughes navigate

you at warp speed

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through another episode

of NASA Connect.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer] Hi.

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Welcome to NASA Connect, the show

that connects you to the world

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of math, science,

technology, and NASA.

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I'm Jennifer Poli.

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[Dan] And I'm Dan Hughes.

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We're here at the Virginia

Air and space Center,

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located in Hampton, Virginia.

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[Jennifer] Get a load of all the

cool exhibits they have here.

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There's an Apollo spacecraft

that took astronauts to the moon.

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They have models of many rockets

from when space flight began.

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And behind us, there's an exact

replica of the Viking spacecraft

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that landed on Mars in 1976.

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I was just a kid then.

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[Dan] So how did NASA

get from the earth

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to the fourth planet from the sun?

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Now obviously there are no

roads or signs in space.

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Is the path a straight line?

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[Jennifer] Or is it a curve?

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In today's NASA Connect,

we'll learn how engineers

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and scientists use a branch

of mathematics called geometry

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to navigate a spacecraft to Mars.

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We'll also learn about the

role that circles, angles,

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and ellipses play in

the exploration of Mars.

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We'll talk with researchers at

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

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in Pasadena, California and NASA

Langley in Hampton, Virginia,

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who are all working

on that very thing.

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We'll explore past, present,

and future missions to Mars

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and see how geometry is

used to get us there.

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[Dan] Plus, we'll explore

the age old question,

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is there life on Mars?

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Later in the show, we'll

be joined by students

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from Bridge Street Middle School

in Wheeling, West Virginia.

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NASA Connect asked them to conduct

a geometry activity using ellipses

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and circles.

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They'll share their data with you

so you can repeat the activity

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and obtain your own results.

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[Jennifer].

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Plus, we'll go on location

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with NASA's educational

technology program manager,

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Dr. Shelley Cainwright,

who is with some students

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in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

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These students are using the

Internet to conduct a Web quest

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on the future colonization of Mars.

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We'll also learn how intelligent

spacecraft are being developed

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to explore Mars in the

Mars Millennium Project.

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Stay tuned to learn more

about this awesome project.

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[Dan] And to stimulate your

brain, every time Norbert appears

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with a cue card, that your

cue to think about answers

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to questions he gives you.

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Got it?

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[Jennifer] So, are you ready?

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Let's get this story angle

on the world of geometry.

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[Voices] Who was Pythagoras, and

what did he contribute to geometry?

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Explain how geometry is

used in your everyday life.

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[Jennifer] The word geometry

comes from two Greek words.

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Geo, which means the earth, and

metron, which means to measure.

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Today, geometry is more

the study of shapes

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that it is the study of the earth.

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Basically, geometry is the

branch of mathematics that deals

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with the position, the size,

and the shape of figures.

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[Dan] One of the greatest

mathematicians was an ancient Greek

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and Pythagoras.

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He discovered some of the most

important mathematical concepts

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that came to be called geometry.

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[Jennifer] One observation

he made was that gravity....

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is vertical.

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Or, 90 degrees to the horizon.

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From this observation,

Pythagoras discovered

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that the 90 degrees angles

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from four right-sided

triangles make up a square.

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Watch this.

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If I have one right angle and it

plays three other right angles

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around it, like this, I

eventually wind up with...

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ta da. A square.

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That's pretty neat.

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Let's do the math.

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Knowing what Pythagoras

discovered about the right angle,

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can you calculate how many

degrees are in this square?

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If you multiplied 90 degrees

times four, you're right.

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This square has 360 degrees.

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What other shape has 360 degrees?

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[Dan] A circle.

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You know, Pythagoras proved

that there are relationships

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between different geometric shapes.

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What relationships can you see

between other geometric shapes?

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[Jennifer] Get this.

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Pythagoras found out even more

laws about the right triangle.

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If we look at the same square,

but just a little different,

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we can see that half the area of

the square equals a right triangle.

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Now, how can we use math

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to calculate the remaining

angles of a right triangle?

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Simple. Squares are 360 degrees.

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We know this.

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We divide it in half; this

triangle must equal 180 degrees.

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Now we know this is

a right triangle.

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This equals 90 degrees.

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If we subtract that from

180, we get 90 degrees.

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These two angles must

add up to 90 degrees.

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This is true for every

right triangle.

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It's true for this right triangle,

it's true for this right triangle.

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And it's even true for right

triangles that look like this.

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In order to calculate the remaining

angles of a right triangle,

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you have to use math and geometry.

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[Dan] Geometry is used

in everything we do,

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from constructing roads and

buildings to play football or pool.

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OK. Here's a big play.

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It's you and me.

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OK. I'll toss the big pass

to you, you go down and out.

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Got it?

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[Jennifer] OK.

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[Dan] Now, let's see.

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If I toss the ball directly to

Jennifer and don't anticipate

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where she'll be, I'll

miss her completely.

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However, if I know she's cutting

right, and I throw the ball

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at the correct angle, I

should get the ball to her.

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Hey. My perfect pass just

created a right triangle.

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Geometry is everywhere.

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[Jennifer] Hey, way to go, Dan.

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Without geometry, it

would be impossible

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to organize precise patterns and

play a simple game of football.

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My friend Lynn Chapel is an

eighth grade math teacher

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at Huntington Middle School

in Newport News, Virginia.

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Let's see what information she

has about Pythagoras and geometry.

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[Lynn] The most important discovery

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that Pythagoras made

was the relationship

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between the longest

side of a right triangle

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and the two shorter sides.

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The longest side of the right

triangle is called the hypotenuse.

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Remember that Pythagoras's

Theorem is A squared plus B squared

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equals C squared.

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Now who can tell me

what that means?

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Charmaine.

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[Charmaine] The sum of squares

of the two other sides, A plus B,

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equals the square of the longest

side, C, which is the hypotenuse.

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[Lynn] Good answer.

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Now, we're going to

mark the right triangle

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that we have in this paper.

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And the shorter sides, also

called the legs, are A and B.

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And the longest side

is C. Remember,

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we called that the hypotenuse.

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Now what Pythagoras did was

draw a square on the side

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of A. Remember a square

is a number times itself.

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A times B. And he drew a square

on the side of B. B times B.

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And he drew a square on

the side of C. C times C.

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And what we're going to do is

we're going to cut A squared off

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of the side and then we are going

to cut B squared and make them fit

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into C squared to prove

that Pythagoras was right.

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First take your straight edge and

we're going to draw some parts of B

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so we can cut it and it will fit.

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Come along the side of C, come

straight down through B squared

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until you touch the edge.

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Now connect the lower corner of B

to the bottom edge of A squared.

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This will form a perpendicular

line.

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Now take your scissors and

cut out A squared in one piece

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and B squared in the pieces

that you have cut it into.

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Then we'll fit it all

on to C squared to prove

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that Pythagoras was right.

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Have all of you put

your pieces together?

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[Voices] Yes.

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[Lynn] Then I guess

Pythagoras was right.

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[Jennifer] And you know Pythagoras

also believed or postulated

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that the shortest distance between

two points is a straight line.

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[Dan] How come if you threw a

ball from point A to point B,

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then I it curves or arcs?

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[Jennifer] Well, Dan,

that's really very simple.

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Ever heard of something

called gravity?

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[Dan] In 1600, Johannes

Kepler, a famous astronomer,

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proved that the planets

orbit the sun in an ellipse.

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That's another geometric shape.

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If you take a circle and squash

it a bit, you get an ellipse.

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Like our football example, if

we want to navigate from Earth

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to Mars, we have to take into

account where Mars will be

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within its elliptical orbit.

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[Speaker] What information

did scientists first discover

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about Mars?

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[Jennifer] Humans have known about

Mars since before recorded history.

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In 1609, a man by the name

of Galileo first viewed Mars

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with his newly invented telescope.

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Although his telescope was

no better than a modern toy,

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it revealed enough to prove

that Mars was a large sphere,

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a world shaped like the earth.

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Could this other world

be inhabited?

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[Speaker] Besides

using the telescope,

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how do scientists collect

information on Mars?

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[Jennifer] Let me tell you.

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NASA's Mariner 4 was

the first spacecraft

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to take close-up pictures

of the red planet.

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As it flew past Mars in 1965, it

showed a heavily cratered surface.

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Six years later, in 1971,

Mariner 9 arrived at Mars

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and became the first

artificial object ever

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to orbit another planet.

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Mariner 9 saw the Vallas Marineris,

a canyon that stretches 4500 km,

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or 2800 miles, across

the face of Mars.

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It is so long that if it were on

earth, it would stretch all the way

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from Los Angeles, California

to New York, New York.

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All these discoveries

by Mariner were seen

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from above the surface of Mars.

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What we really needed was a

view from the Martian surface.

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[ Music ]

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[Speaker] How did NASA

scientists use geometry

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to navigate spacecraft

from Earth to Mars?

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Explain the golden accomplishments

of NASA's ranking mission.

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[Dan] All right, guys.

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I want you to meet

Dr. Israel Taybach.

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He was one of the engineers

who worked on Project Viking,

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NASA's mission to Mars,

which landed two spacecraft

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on the surface in 1976.

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[Jennifer] Dr. Taybach, since

we've been talking about geometry,

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could you tell me how geometry was

used to get the Viking to Mars?

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[Dr. Taybach] Oh yes.

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It's really relatively simple.

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You know, most orbits around

the sun are fairly circular.

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So if we start from Earth, for

example, and want to go to Mars,

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we use what's called a

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[unclear], which is an

ellipse which takes us

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from the Earth's orbit

out to Mars orbit.

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And we meet Mars when

it gets there.

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[Jennifer] So if you shot directly

at Mars, it wouldn't get there.

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[Dr. Taybach] No, it would go

to the sun and heat up too much.

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[Jennifer] And that's the most

efficient way to get there.

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[Dr. Taybach] Yes, it is.

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[Jennifer] Less money,

less time....

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[Dr. Taybach] Smaller booster.

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[Jennifer] So Dr. Taybach,

let us get this straight.

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Circles, ellipses, angles, geometry

really helps with the navigation

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of a spacecraft to

Mars like the Viking.

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[Dr. Taybach] All very essential.

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[Jennifer] Here's an

experiment you can try at home,

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with a responsible adult, that

will show you how curves and angles

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of set the path of a projectile.

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Have you ever tried to aim

a dart at a dart board?

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Pretend the dart is a rocket

and the dart board is Mars.

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Now, there are two variables

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that affect the results

of this activity.

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If you throw the dart in a straight

line, at an angle of 0 degree,

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gravity will curve the path

down, away from the dart board.

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And you miss.

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But if you can aim a little

higher than the dart board,

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or at an increased angle,

you should hit the target.

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So, if the angle is

one of the variables

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that affects this experiment,

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what do you think the

second variable is?

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If you guessed speed, or

how fast I throw the dart

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as the other variable,

then you are right.

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The combination of speed and an

increased angle determines whether

[00:14:18.812]

or not I hit Mars, I

mean the dart board.

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[Dan] What did the

Viking mission accomplice?

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[Dr. Taybach] Well, the Viking

mission really consisted

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of four spacecraft, two

orbiters and two landers.

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Viking was the first spacecraft

to land on the surface of Mars.

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And we got some samples

from the surface,

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and found that the

samples were all oxides.

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Mostly iron.

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And that's why Mars is so red.

[00:14:45.982]

Rust.

[00:14:47.002]

[Dan] How long did

this mission last?

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[Dr. Taybach] Well, they

guaranteed it for 90 days,

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but it lasted for six years.

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[Dan] Well, it looks like

Mars is a pretty cool place.

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[Dr. Taybach] Yes, it really is.

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[Jennifer] Don't Taybach,

thank you so much.

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[Dr. Taybach].

[00:14:57.842]

You're welcome.

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[Jennifer] We really appreciate you

helping us understand how you used

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geometry to navigate to Mars.

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Speaking of navigation,

NASA Connect took a trip

[00:15:08.932]

to Bridge Street Middle School

in Wheeling, West Virginia

[00:15:11.962]

to see how students

there are using geometry

[00:15:14.382]

to understand the

orbits of planets.

[00:15:16.882]

Ready for blast off.

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[Voices] Hi.

[00:15:18.062]

We're from Bridge Street Middle

School in Wheeling, West Virginia.

[00:15:23.282]

NASA Connect asked us to

show you the student activity

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for this program.

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When you think of the earth

or Mars orbiting the planet,

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you might think that the orbit

is in the shape of a circle.

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It's really in the shape of a

squashed circle or an ellipse.

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The German mathematician

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and astronomer Johannes Kepler

discovered this a long time ago.

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In this activity, we'll use

measurement and observation

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to understand the meaning of

the eccentricity of the ellipse.

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You will calculate the

distance between Earth and Mars,

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determine the length

of their orbits,

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and learn about their

orbital rates as compared

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to their distances

in the assignment.

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But before we get started, here

are the materials you will need.

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A computer with a spreadsheet

program or calculators.

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Centimeter graph paper, push prints

for each group, a string 25 cm long

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for each group, cardboard, and

one metric ruler for each group.

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Kepler stated that the orbit of

Mars or any planet is ellipse

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with the sun at one focus.

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The other focus is

an imaginary point.

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There is nothing there.

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During part of its orbit around

the sun, Mars is closer to the sun

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than it is at other times.

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This relationship can be seen

in solar system data charts

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that show the maximum

and minimum distances

[00:16:43.472]

from the sun to each planet.

[00:16:45.632]

Astronomers often use the average

or mean distance from the sun

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as instead of the

minimum or maximum.

[00:16:52.262]

Enter the data from the chart

into your spreadsheet program

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or use a calculator

and for each planet,

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find the mean distance

from the sun.

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Now make a sketch of the orbits of

the Earth and Mars around the sun.

[00:17:05.342]

Another column of data on the

planet chart list, the eccentricity

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of each planet's orbit.

[00:17:11.162]

Eccentricity gives an

indication of the roundness

[00:17:14.212]

or squashiness of each ellipse.

[00:17:16.652]

To understand what

this number means,

[00:17:19.162]

here's an experiment

to do with your team.

[00:17:22.322]

In a piece of centimeter

graph paper, draw two lines:

[00:17:26.112]

one near the middle vertically,

[00:17:27.932]

and one near the middle

horizontally.

[00:17:30.082]

The lines intersect

at the center point.

[00:17:33.162]

Measure and cut a piece of

string about 25 cm long.

[00:17:37.582]

Tie a knot near the ends of

the string to form a loop.

[00:17:41.732]

Place the graph paper

on a piece of cardboard.

[00:17:44.752]

Then place two push pins

along the horizontal line,

[00:17:48.422]

each 1 cm from the center point.

[00:17:51.592]

These pins represent the foci.

[00:17:54.272]

At this point, the

foci are 2 cm apart.

[00:17:58.342]

Loop the string around

the push pins.

[00:18:00.652]

Then use a pencil to keep the

string tight, and draw an ellipse.

[00:18:04.652]

Measure in centimeters the length

[00:18:06.982]

of the ellipse along

its major axis.

[00:18:10.182]

Record the distance between

the two foci and the length

[00:18:13.442]

of the major axis in a chart.

[00:18:15.972]

Then divide the distance

between the foci and the length

[00:18:19.202]

of the major axis and record

the quotient on the chart.

[00:18:23.532]

Now repeat these steps using the

following distances between foci:

[00:18:30.232]

3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm,

choose your own distance.

[00:18:34.602]

After you have recorded the

distances between the foci

[00:18:37.712]

and the length of the major axes

in the data chart, use a calculator

[00:18:42.142]

to divide the use by

the major axis length.

[00:18:45.992]

The quotient will give you the

eccentricity for the ellipses.

[00:18:49.712]

Remember, the value of the

eccentricity should be a decimal

[00:18:53.352]

with a value of less than one.

[00:18:55.882]

On the chart, make sketches of

the ellipses you've created.

[00:19:00.342]

[Jennifer] Analyze your data, guys.

[00:19:01.732]

This would be a great

time to stop the video

[00:19:03.792]

and consider the following

questions: How does the distance

[00:19:07.132]

between the foci affect

the shape of the ellipse?

[00:19:10.452]

What is the relationship between

the value of the eccentricity

[00:19:14.032]

and the roundness or

squashiness of the ellipse?

[00:19:17.842]

Although the orbits of both

Earth and Mars are ellipses,

[00:19:20.822]

these orbits are close

enough to being circles

[00:19:23.482]

that we can estimate the

distance from the Earth to Mars.

[00:19:27.042]

Let's assume the planets are

on the same side of the sun.

[00:19:30.692]

Consider the mean distance

from the sun to each planet

[00:19:33.722]

as the radius of a circle.

[00:19:35.852]

Use the mean distance you

calculated from the sun to Earth

[00:19:38.922]

and the sun to Mars to determine

the estimated direct distance

[00:19:42.602]

between the Earth and Mars.

[00:19:44.692]

What if Earth and Mars

were on opposite sides

[00:19:46.942]

of the sun, like this?

[00:19:49.502]

These activities and

more are located

[00:19:51.372]

in the educator's lesson

guide, which can be downloaded

[00:19:54.222]

from our NASA Connect web site.

[00:20:00.782]

[ Music ]

[00:20:01.742]

[Voices] Why do we explore Mars?

[00:20:05.372]

What tools and techniques

does NASA use to explore Mars?

[00:20:09.872]

[Jennifer] Why are

we exploring Mars?

[00:20:11.682]

Hey, that's a great question.

[00:20:13.382]

Let's go to NASA's Jet

Propulsion Laboratory at Pasadena,

[00:20:16.302]

California to learn more

[00:20:17.872]

about America's commitment

to Mars exploration.

[00:20:21.552]

[Speaker] NASA is

committed to exploring Mars.

[00:20:24.512]

In fact, they will

be sending a robot

[00:20:26.322]

to Mars once every two

years for the next decade.

[00:20:29.522]

Mars is very interesting, because

not only is it right next door,

[00:20:33.442]

but it's the planet with

the most hospitable climate

[00:20:35.762]

in the solar system.

[00:20:37.952]

So hospitable, in fact, that

it may once have been the home

[00:20:41.732]

to primitive bacterial life.

[00:20:44.542]

These pictures show dried

up river and lake beds.

[00:20:47.632]

And so we know that

liquid water flowed

[00:20:49.462]

on the surface billions

of years ago.

[00:20:51.802]

[Speaker] So where has

all the water gone?

[00:20:53.692]

Has it just floated off into space?

[00:20:56.162]

[Speaker] Scientists

think that a lot

[00:20:57.382]

of the water may be

chemically bound to the soil,

[00:20:59.922]

or underneath the surface in

either liquid or ice form.

[00:21:03.322]

Understanding where the water

currently is can help us understand

[00:21:06.682]

the history of water on Mars,

which is important in determining

[00:21:10.362]

if there is or ever was

last on that planet.

[00:21:15.132]

[ Music ]

[00:21:15.242]

[Voices] Why do scientists suspect

that there was once water on Mars?

[00:21:22.932]

What is the Mars Microprobe,

[00:21:24.262]

and how will it navigate

below the surface of Mars?

[00:21:27.282]

What is the relationship between

geometry and the Mars Microprobe?

[00:21:32.402]

[Jennifer] OK, guys.

[00:21:33.242]

I'm here with Dr. Robert

Mitcheltree, who is working

[00:21:35.792]

on current explorations

into the Martian landscape.

[00:21:38.652]

Right now, we're on top of NASA

Langley's impact dynamics facility.

[00:21:43.332]

Back in the 1960s, this is where

they tested the lunar landers.

[00:21:46.502]

Pretty cool.

[00:21:47.552]

Dr. Mitcheltree, what on

earth are we doing up here?

[00:21:50.762]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well,

I like it up here.

[00:21:52.202]

You can look down on the surface

of the Earth from up here.

[00:21:55.562]

Like you can look out at the

water and how it meanders

[00:21:58.702]

across the land there.

[00:22:00.882]

And we know that even if

you removed that water,

[00:22:03.002]

there would still be a distinctive

shape to the pattern it makes.

[00:22:07.122]

And it's those kind of patterns

that we see on the surface of Mars.

[00:22:10.952]

But none of them have

any water in them.

[00:22:13.442]

And we wonder, where

did the water go?

[00:22:15.882]

[Jennifer] So where do

scientists think the water went?

[00:22:18.232]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] Some of

them think it seeped beneath

[00:22:20.332]

the surface.

[00:22:21.642]

And that's the purpose of Mars

Microprobe: to go to Mars and look

[00:22:25.072]

for water beneath the surface.

[00:22:27.192]

[Jennifer] Is that the Microprobe?

[00:22:28.702]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well, this is

just a model of the Microprobe.

[00:22:30.892]

The actual Microprobe

is much larger,

[00:22:32.692]

about the size of a basketball.

[00:22:34.542]

But it has this same shape.

[00:22:35.912]

And it's this shape that's

actually like a right triangle,

[00:22:40.172]

that is used to fly through

the atmosphere of Mars.

[00:22:43.792]

As it approaches the

planet, it'll be tumbling.

[00:22:45.592]

And then when it hits

the atmosphere,

[00:22:47.612]

no matter how it hits

the atmosphere,

[00:22:49.002]

it'll reorient itself

and fly nose forward.

[00:22:52.262]

And it'll continue to fly

like that all the way down,

[00:22:55.032]

decelerating from 17,000 miles

an hour to 400 miles per hour

[00:22:59.182]

when it strikes the surface.

[00:23:00.852]

This outer shell breaks away,

and the inside penetrometer,

[00:23:05.352]

that fist shaped instrument,

pierces down through the soil

[00:23:09.682]

and begins looking for water

underneath the surface.

[00:23:13.292]

[Jennifer] So once the

Microprobe penetrates the surface,

[00:23:16.122]

how does it find water

or look for water?

[00:23:18.612]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well, this really

small fist shaped instrument has a

[00:23:22.152]

small drill in it.

[00:23:23.842]

When it's down in the dirt,

it digs with the drill,

[00:23:27.532]

pulling some dirt inside of it.

[00:23:29.222]

And it has even a laser in there

also, and it uses the laser

[00:23:33.512]

to shine some energy on the

dirt, and it measures the

[00:23:36.702]

out gassing of the dirt.

[00:23:38.182]

And that's how it looks for water.

[00:23:39.972]

[Jennifer] OK, big deal.

[00:23:41.032]

So what if it finds water on Mars?

[00:23:42.602]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] Water is the key

[00:23:43.212]

to understanding several

interesting aspects about Mars.

[00:23:46.332]

We don't go there just to

understand if there's water there.

[00:23:48.872]

It's what affect water

has on other things.

[00:23:52.572]

The more interesting question

is the question of life.

[00:23:56.942]

All life we know on earth, is

tied some way to liquid water.

[00:24:01.082]

And if we can find water on

Mars, we're one step closer

[00:24:04.382]

to understanding if life ever

existed there or still does.

[00:24:08.602]

[Jennifer] Well, that's definitely

something to think about.

[00:24:10.342]

Thanks, Dr. Mitcheltree.

[00:24:11.172]

[Dr. Mitcheltree] My pleasure.

[00:24:11.752]

[Jennifer] I appreciate it.

[00:24:12.652]

Hey, you. If you're interested

in topics like life on Mars

[00:24:15.522]

and other Mars explorations,

[00:24:17.042]

just check out the web site

address on your screen.

[00:24:19.792]

Speaking of the Web, let's go

on location to Virginia Beach,

[00:24:22.802]

Virginia with NASA's educational

technology program manager,

[00:24:26.412]

Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

[00:24:27.362]

[Dr. Cainwright] I'm here

at Bayside high school

[00:24:30.042]

in Virginia Beach,

Virginia where students

[00:24:31.992]

from Bayside middle school

along with their partner school,

[00:24:34.972]

Brandon middle school, have been

involved in a quest as participants

[00:24:38.142]

in the Mars Millennium Project,

a national arts, sciences,

[00:24:41.382]

and technology education

initiative.

[00:24:43.562]

Let's check in with the students

to learn about their quest.

[00:24:47.182]

[Voices] The Mars millennium

Project challenges teens

[00:24:49.932]

across the nation to

design a community

[00:24:52.402]

for a hundred people arriving

on Mars in the year 2030.

[00:24:56.252]

We have used this challenge to

create an online activity to work

[00:24:59.742]

on one aspect of building a

Mars community: the development

[00:25:03.792]

of a public relations campaign

[00:25:05.592]

to gather public support

for the Mars mission.

[00:25:08.592]

Our quest can be broken

down into five simple steps.

[00:25:12.592]

Step one, reflection.

[00:25:14.362]

Our teachers explained

to us our mission.

[00:25:17.042]

We divided ourselves into four

groups: mission commanders,

[00:25:20.942]

environmental specialists,

natural resource engineers,

[00:25:24.392]

and astronomy specialists.

[00:25:26.132]

Each group had specific questions

to research and think about.

[00:25:30.222]

Step two, imagine.

[00:25:32.422]

We took the knowledge gained from

our research to write a survey

[00:25:36.442]

and then brainstormed

how to use technology

[00:25:39.342]

to conduct an electronic

poll and to tabulate results.

[00:25:43.542]

In the process, we gained

experience in the use of software

[00:25:47.292]

for word processing

and spreadsheets.

[00:25:50.202]

Step three, discover.

[00:25:52.182]

The results of our electronic

survey were analyzed.

[00:25:56.012]

This information helps us see

what were key issues to the public

[00:26:00.242]

so we might address them in

our advertising campaign.

[00:26:04.262]

Step four, create.

[00:26:06.202]

We have now entered the

design phase of our quest,

[00:26:09.302]

where we are creating ads

and sharing our presentation

[00:26:12.882]

with our partner school using

videoconferencing technology.

[00:26:17.492]

Step five, share.

[00:26:19.272]

Our final step will

be to share with NASA

[00:26:21.652]

and others our Mars

advertising campaign in the form

[00:26:25.542]

of a multimedia presentation

that we will post

[00:26:29.052]

on the NASA Connect web site.

[00:26:31.222]

Also, we will post our

electronic survey for others to try

[00:26:36.212]

and to make their own comparisons.

[00:26:39.422]

[Dr. Cainwright] Jennifer, if

any of our viewers would like

[00:26:41.512]

to learn more about the

Mars millennium Project,

[00:26:43.952]

they should visit the NASA

Connect web site for a link

[00:26:46.512]

to the Millennium web site.

[00:26:48.472]

And now, as a final incentive,

registered submissions

[00:26:52.702]

to the Mars Millennium

Project received by June 1,

[00:26:55.652]

2000 will be placed on a

microchip for transfer to Mars

[00:26:59.162]

on a future NASA mission.

[00:27:00.962]

Now how's that for connecting

thousands of young people

[00:27:03.872]

through technology and then using

technology to take their plans

[00:27:07.432]

for the future to another planet?

[00:27:10.262]

[Jennifer] Thanks, Shelley, for all

that cool cyberspace information.

[00:27:13.872]

We'll definitely use it.

[00:27:15.012]

[Dan] Well, that's

about it for today.

[00:27:16.432]

[Jennifer] Now, before we go,

we've got lots of people to thank.

[00:27:19.232]

Especially the middle school

students and teachers,

[00:27:22.172]

the NASA researchers...

[00:27:23.482]

[Dan] NASA Langley Research Center.

[00:27:25.062]

[Jennifer] NASA Ames

research Center.

[00:27:26.612]

[Dan] NASA's Jet Propulsion

Laboratory.

[00:27:28.632]

[Jennifer] Dr. Israel Taybach.

[00:27:29.932]

[Dan] And Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

[00:27:31.512]

[Jennifer] If you would

like a videotaped copy

[00:27:33.022]

of this NASA Connect show, and

the educator's guide lesson plan,

[00:27:37.092]

contact CORE: the

NASA Central Operation

[00:27:40.252]

of Resources for Educators.

[00:27:42.262]

All this information

and more is located

[00:27:44.492]

on the NASA Connect web site.

[00:27:46.652]

For the NASA Connect

series, I'm Jennifer Poli.

[00:27:49.762]

[Dan] And I'm Dan Hughes.

[00:27:50.962]

And we'll see you next time.

[00:27:52.532]

[Jennifer] On NASA Connect.

[00:27:54.262]

Bye.

[00:27:54.692]

[Dan] Bye.

[00:27:54.942]

[ Music ]

[00:27:54.942]

[Outtakes]

[00:27:54.942]