Transcript for NASA Connect - Geometry of Exploration: Water Below the Surface of Mars

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[ Music ]

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[Garrett Wong] Hi.

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I'm Garrett Wong.

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I play the part of Ensign
Harry Kim on Star Trek Voyager.

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On my show, Voyager and its crew
stars, planets, and galaxies.

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Of course, when NASA
scientists navigate spacecraft

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through our solar system,
it's a little more complicated

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than just punching
coordinates into a computer.

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In this episode of NASA Connect,
NASA scientists will show you how

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to use math, like geometry,
to launch spacecraft to Mars.

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And how geometric shapes contribute

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to the exploration
of the red planet.

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So fasten your seat belt
as hosts Jennifer Poli

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and Dan Hughes navigate
you at warp speed

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through another episode
of NASA Connect.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer] Hi.

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Welcome to NASA Connect, the show
that connects you to the world

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of math, science,
technology, and NASA.

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I'm Jennifer Poli.

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[Dan] And I'm Dan Hughes.

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We're here at the Virginia
Air and space Center,

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located in Hampton, Virginia.

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[Jennifer] Get a load of all the
cool exhibits they have here.

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There's an Apollo spacecraft
that took astronauts to the moon.

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They have models of many rockets
from when space flight began.

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And behind us, there's an exact
replica of the Viking spacecraft

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that landed on Mars in 1976.

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I was just a kid then.

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[Dan] So how did NASA
get from the earth

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to the fourth planet from the sun?

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Now obviously there are no
roads or signs in space.

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Is the path a straight line?

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[Jennifer] Or is it a curve?

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In today's NASA Connect,
we'll learn how engineers

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and scientists use a branch
of mathematics called geometry

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to navigate a spacecraft to Mars.

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We'll also learn about the
role that circles, angles,

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and ellipses play in
the exploration of Mars.

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We'll talk with researchers at
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

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in Pasadena, California and NASA
Langley in Hampton, Virginia,

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who are all working
on that very thing.

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We'll explore past, present,
and future missions to Mars

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and see how geometry is
used to get us there.

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[Dan] Plus, we'll explore
the age old question,

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is there life on Mars?

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Later in the show, we'll
be joined by students

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from Bridge Street Middle School
in Wheeling, West Virginia.

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NASA Connect asked them to conduct
a geometry activity using ellipses

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and circles.

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They'll share their data with you
so you can repeat the activity

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and obtain your own results.

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[Jennifer].

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Plus, we'll go on location

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with NASA's educational
technology program manager,

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Dr. Shelley Cainwright,
who is with some students

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in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

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These students are using the
Internet to conduct a Web quest

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on the future colonization of Mars.

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We'll also learn how intelligent
spacecraft are being developed

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to explore Mars in the
Mars Millennium Project.

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Stay tuned to learn more
about this awesome project.

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[Dan] And to stimulate your
brain, every time Norbert appears

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with a cue card, that your
cue to think about answers

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to questions he gives you.

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Got it?

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[Jennifer] So, are you ready?

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Let's get this story angle
on the world of geometry.

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[Voices] Who was Pythagoras, and
what did he contribute to geometry?

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Explain how geometry is
used in your everyday life.

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[Jennifer] The word geometry
comes from two Greek words.

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Geo, which means the earth, and
metron, which means to measure.

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Today, geometry is more
the study of shapes

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that it is the study of the earth.

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Basically, geometry is the
branch of mathematics that deals

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with the position, the size,
and the shape of figures.

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[Dan] One of the greatest
mathematicians was an ancient Greek

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and Pythagoras.

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He discovered some of the most
important mathematical concepts

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that came to be called geometry.

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[Jennifer] One observation
he made was that gravity....

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is vertical.

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Or, 90 degrees to the horizon.

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From this observation,
Pythagoras discovered

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that the 90 degrees angles

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from four right-sided
triangles make up a square.

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Watch this.

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If I have one right angle and it
plays three other right angles

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around it, like this, I
eventually wind up with...

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ta da. A square.

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That's pretty neat.

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Let's do the math.

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Knowing what Pythagoras
discovered about the right angle,

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can you calculate how many
degrees are in this square?

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If you multiplied 90 degrees
times four, you're right.

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This square has 360 degrees.

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What other shape has 360 degrees?

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[Dan] A circle.

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You know, Pythagoras proved
that there are relationships

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between different geometric shapes.

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What relationships can you see
between other geometric shapes?

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[Jennifer] Get this.

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Pythagoras found out even more
laws about the right triangle.

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If we look at the same square,
but just a little different,

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we can see that half the area of
the square equals a right triangle.

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Now, how can we use math

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to calculate the remaining
angles of a right triangle?

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Simple. Squares are 360 degrees.

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We know this.

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We divide it in half; this
triangle must equal 180 degrees.

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Now we know this is
a right triangle.

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This equals 90 degrees.

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If we subtract that from
180, we get 90 degrees.

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These two angles must
add up to 90 degrees.

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This is true for every
right triangle.

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It's true for this right triangle,
it's true for this right triangle.

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And it's even true for right
triangles that look like this.

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In order to calculate the remaining
angles of a right triangle,

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you have to use math and geometry.

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[Dan] Geometry is used
in everything we do,

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from constructing roads and
buildings to play football or pool.

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OK. Here's a big play.

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It's you and me.

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OK. I'll toss the big pass
to you, you go down and out.

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Got it?

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[Jennifer] OK.

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[Dan] Now, let's see.

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If I toss the ball directly to
Jennifer and don't anticipate

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where she'll be, I'll
miss her completely.

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However, if I know she's cutting
right, and I throw the ball

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at the correct angle, I
should get the ball to her.

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Hey. My perfect pass just
created a right triangle.

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Geometry is everywhere.

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[Jennifer] Hey, way to go, Dan.

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Without geometry, it
would be impossible

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to organize precise patterns and
play a simple game of football.

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My friend Lynn Chapel is an
eighth grade math teacher

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at Huntington Middle School
in Newport News, Virginia.

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Let's see what information she
has about Pythagoras and geometry.

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[Lynn] The most important discovery

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that Pythagoras made
was the relationship

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between the longest
side of a right triangle

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and the two shorter sides.

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The longest side of the right
triangle is called the hypotenuse.

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Remember that Pythagoras's
Theorem is A squared plus B squared

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equals C squared.

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Now who can tell me
what that means?

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Charmaine.

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[Charmaine] The sum of squares
of the two other sides, A plus B,

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equals the square of the longest
side, C, which is the hypotenuse.

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[Lynn] Good answer.

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Now, we're going to
mark the right triangle

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that we have in this paper.

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And the shorter sides, also
called the legs, are A and B.

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And the longest side
is C. Remember,

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we called that the hypotenuse.

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Now what Pythagoras did was
draw a square on the side

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of A. Remember a square
is a number times itself.

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A times B. And he drew a square
on the side of B. B times B.

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And he drew a square on
the side of C. C times C.

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And what we're going to do is
we're going to cut A squared off

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of the side and then we are going
to cut B squared and make them fit

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into C squared to prove
that Pythagoras was right.

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First take your straight edge and
we're going to draw some parts of B

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so we can cut it and it will fit.

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Come along the side of C, come
straight down through B squared

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until you touch the edge.

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Now connect the lower corner of B
to the bottom edge of A squared.

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This will form a perpendicular
line.

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Now take your scissors and
cut out A squared in one piece

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and B squared in the pieces
that you have cut it into.

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Then we'll fit it all
on to C squared to prove

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that Pythagoras was right.

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Have all of you put
your pieces together?

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[Voices] Yes.

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[Lynn] Then I guess
Pythagoras was right.

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[Jennifer] And you know Pythagoras
also believed or postulated

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that the shortest distance between
two points is a straight line.

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[Dan] How come if you threw a
ball from point A to point B,

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then I it curves or arcs?

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[Jennifer] Well, Dan,
that's really very simple.

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Ever heard of something
called gravity?

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[Dan] In 1600, Johannes
Kepler, a famous astronomer,

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proved that the planets
orbit the sun in an ellipse.

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That's another geometric shape.

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If you take a circle and squash
it a bit, you get an ellipse.

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Like our football example, if
we want to navigate from Earth

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to Mars, we have to take into
account where Mars will be

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within its elliptical orbit.

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[Speaker] What information
did scientists first discover

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about Mars?

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[Jennifer] Humans have known about
Mars since before recorded history.

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In 1609, a man by the name
of Galileo first viewed Mars

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with his newly invented telescope.

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Although his telescope was
no better than a modern toy,

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it revealed enough to prove
that Mars was a large sphere,

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a world shaped like the earth.

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Could this other world
be inhabited?

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[Speaker] Besides
using the telescope,

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how do scientists collect
information on Mars?

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[Jennifer] Let me tell you.

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NASA's Mariner 4 was
the first spacecraft

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to take close-up pictures
of the red planet.

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As it flew past Mars in 1965, it
showed a heavily cratered surface.

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Six years later, in 1971,
Mariner 9 arrived at Mars

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and became the first
artificial object ever

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to orbit another planet.

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Mariner 9 saw the Vallas Marineris,
a canyon that stretches 4500 km,

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or 2800 miles, across
the face of Mars.

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It is so long that if it were on
earth, it would stretch all the way

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from Los Angeles, California
to New York, New York.

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All these discoveries
by Mariner were seen

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from above the surface of Mars.

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What we really needed was a
view from the Martian surface.

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[ Music ]

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[Speaker] How did NASA
scientists use geometry

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to navigate spacecraft
from Earth to Mars?

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Explain the golden accomplishments
of NASA's ranking mission.

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[Dan] All right, guys.

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I want you to meet
Dr. Israel Taybach.

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He was one of the engineers
who worked on Project Viking,

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NASA's mission to Mars,
which landed two spacecraft

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on the surface in 1976.

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[Jennifer] Dr. Taybach, since
we've been talking about geometry,

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could you tell me how geometry was
used to get the Viking to Mars?

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[Dr. Taybach] Oh yes.

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It's really relatively simple.

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You know, most orbits around
the sun are fairly circular.

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So if we start from Earth, for
example, and want to go to Mars,

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we use what's called a

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[unclear], which is an
ellipse which takes us

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from the Earth's orbit
out to Mars orbit.

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And we meet Mars when
it gets there.

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[Jennifer] So if you shot directly
at Mars, it wouldn't get there.

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[Dr. Taybach] No, it would go
to the sun and heat up too much.

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[Jennifer] And that's the most
efficient way to get there.

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[Dr. Taybach] Yes, it is.

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[Jennifer] Less money,
less time....

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[Dr. Taybach] Smaller booster.

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[Jennifer] So Dr. Taybach,
let us get this straight.

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Circles, ellipses, angles, geometry
really helps with the navigation

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of a spacecraft to
Mars like the Viking.

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[Dr. Taybach] All very essential.

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[Jennifer] Here's an
experiment you can try at home,

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with a responsible adult, that
will show you how curves and angles

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of set the path of a projectile.

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Have you ever tried to aim
a dart at a dart board?

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Pretend the dart is a rocket
and the dart board is Mars.

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Now, there are two variables

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that affect the results
of this activity.

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If you throw the dart in a straight
line, at an angle of 0 degree,

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gravity will curve the path
down, away from the dart board.

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And you miss.

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But if you can aim a little
higher than the dart board,

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or at an increased angle,
you should hit the target.

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So, if the angle is
one of the variables

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that affects this experiment,

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what do you think the
second variable is?

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If you guessed speed, or
how fast I throw the dart

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as the other variable,
then you are right.

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The combination of speed and an
increased angle determines whether

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or not I hit Mars, I
mean the dart board.

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[Dan] What did the
Viking mission accomplice?

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[Dr. Taybach] Well, the Viking
mission really consisted

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of four spacecraft, two
orbiters and two landers.

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Viking was the first spacecraft
to land on the surface of Mars.

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And we got some samples
from the surface,

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and found that the
samples were all oxides.

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Mostly iron.

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And that's why Mars is so red.

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Rust.

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[Dan] How long did
this mission last?

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[Dr. Taybach] Well, they
guaranteed it for 90 days,

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but it lasted for six years.

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[Dan] Well, it looks like
Mars is a pretty cool place.

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[Dr. Taybach] Yes, it really is.

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[Jennifer] Don't Taybach,
thank you so much.

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[Dr. Taybach].

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You're welcome.

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[Jennifer] We really appreciate you
helping us understand how you used

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geometry to navigate to Mars.

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Speaking of navigation,
NASA Connect took a trip

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to Bridge Street Middle School
in Wheeling, West Virginia

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to see how students
there are using geometry

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to understand the
orbits of planets.

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Ready for blast off.

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[Voices] Hi.

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We're from Bridge Street Middle
School in Wheeling, West Virginia.

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NASA Connect asked us to
show you the student activity

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for this program.

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When you think of the earth
or Mars orbiting the planet,

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you might think that the orbit
is in the shape of a circle.

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It's really in the shape of a
squashed circle or an ellipse.

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The German mathematician

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and astronomer Johannes Kepler
discovered this a long time ago.

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In this activity, we'll use
measurement and observation

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to understand the meaning of
the eccentricity of the ellipse.

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You will calculate the
distance between Earth and Mars,

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determine the length
of their orbits,

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and learn about their
orbital rates as compared

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to their distances
in the assignment.

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But before we get started, here
are the materials you will need.

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A computer with a spreadsheet
program or calculators.

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Centimeter graph paper, push prints
for each group, a string 25 cm long

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for each group, cardboard, and
one metric ruler for each group.

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Kepler stated that the orbit of
Mars or any planet is ellipse

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with the sun at one focus.

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The other focus is
an imaginary point.

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There is nothing there.

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During part of its orbit around
the sun, Mars is closer to the sun

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than it is at other times.

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This relationship can be seen
in solar system data charts

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that show the maximum
and minimum distances

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from the sun to each planet.

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Astronomers often use the average
or mean distance from the sun

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as instead of the
minimum or maximum.

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Enter the data from the chart
into your spreadsheet program

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or use a calculator
and for each planet,

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find the mean distance
from the sun.

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Now make a sketch of the orbits of
the Earth and Mars around the sun.

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Another column of data on the
planet chart list, the eccentricity

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of each planet's orbit.

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Eccentricity gives an
indication of the roundness

[00:17:14.212]
or squashiness of each ellipse.

[00:17:16.652]
To understand what
this number means,

[00:17:19.162]
here's an experiment
to do with your team.

[00:17:22.322]
In a piece of centimeter
graph paper, draw two lines:

[00:17:26.112]
one near the middle vertically,

[00:17:27.932]
and one near the middle
horizontally.

[00:17:30.082]
The lines intersect
at the center point.

[00:17:33.162]
Measure and cut a piece of
string about 25 cm long.

[00:17:37.582]
Tie a knot near the ends of
the string to form a loop.

[00:17:41.732]
Place the graph paper
on a piece of cardboard.

[00:17:44.752]
Then place two push pins
along the horizontal line,

[00:17:48.422]
each 1 cm from the center point.

[00:17:51.592]
These pins represent the foci.

[00:17:54.272]
At this point, the
foci are 2 cm apart.

[00:17:58.342]
Loop the string around
the push pins.

[00:18:00.652]
Then use a pencil to keep the
string tight, and draw an ellipse.

[00:18:04.652]
Measure in centimeters the length

[00:18:06.982]
of the ellipse along
its major axis.

[00:18:10.182]
Record the distance between
the two foci and the length

[00:18:13.442]
of the major axis in a chart.

[00:18:15.972]
Then divide the distance
between the foci and the length

[00:18:19.202]
of the major axis and record
the quotient on the chart.

[00:18:23.532]
Now repeat these steps using the
following distances between foci:

[00:18:30.232]
3 cm, 4 cm, 5 cm,
choose your own distance.

[00:18:34.602]
After you have recorded the
distances between the foci

[00:18:37.712]
and the length of the major axes
in the data chart, use a calculator

[00:18:42.142]
to divide the use by
the major axis length.

[00:18:45.992]
The quotient will give you the
eccentricity for the ellipses.

[00:18:49.712]
Remember, the value of the
eccentricity should be a decimal

[00:18:53.352]
with a value of less than one.

[00:18:55.882]
On the chart, make sketches of
the ellipses you've created.

[00:19:00.342]
[Jennifer] Analyze your data, guys.

[00:19:01.732]
This would be a great
time to stop the video

[00:19:03.792]
and consider the following
questions: How does the distance

[00:19:07.132]
between the foci affect
the shape of the ellipse?

[00:19:10.452]
What is the relationship between
the value of the eccentricity

[00:19:14.032]
and the roundness or
squashiness of the ellipse?

[00:19:17.842]
Although the orbits of both
Earth and Mars are ellipses,

[00:19:20.822]
these orbits are close
enough to being circles

[00:19:23.482]
that we can estimate the
distance from the Earth to Mars.

[00:19:27.042]
Let's assume the planets are
on the same side of the sun.

[00:19:30.692]
Consider the mean distance
from the sun to each planet

[00:19:33.722]
as the radius of a circle.

[00:19:35.852]
Use the mean distance you
calculated from the sun to Earth

[00:19:38.922]
and the sun to Mars to determine
the estimated direct distance

[00:19:42.602]
between the Earth and Mars.

[00:19:44.692]
What if Earth and Mars
were on opposite sides

[00:19:46.942]
of the sun, like this?

[00:19:49.502]
These activities and
more are located

[00:19:51.372]
in the educator's lesson
guide, which can be downloaded

[00:19:54.222]
from our NASA Connect web site.

[00:20:00.782]
[ Music ]

[00:20:01.742]
[Voices] Why do we explore Mars?

[00:20:05.372]
What tools and techniques
does NASA use to explore Mars?

[00:20:09.872]
[Jennifer] Why are
we exploring Mars?

[00:20:11.682]
Hey, that's a great question.

[00:20:13.382]
Let's go to NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory at Pasadena,

[00:20:16.302]
California to learn more

[00:20:17.872]
about America's commitment
to Mars exploration.

[00:20:21.552]
[Speaker] NASA is
committed to exploring Mars.

[00:20:24.512]
In fact, they will
be sending a robot

[00:20:26.322]
to Mars once every two
years for the next decade.

[00:20:29.522]
Mars is very interesting, because
not only is it right next door,

[00:20:33.442]
but it's the planet with
the most hospitable climate

[00:20:35.762]
in the solar system.

[00:20:37.952]
So hospitable, in fact, that
it may once have been the home

[00:20:41.732]
to primitive bacterial life.

[00:20:44.542]
These pictures show dried
up river and lake beds.

[00:20:47.632]
And so we know that
liquid water flowed

[00:20:49.462]
on the surface billions
of years ago.

[00:20:51.802]
[Speaker] So where has
all the water gone?

[00:20:53.692]
Has it just floated off into space?

[00:20:56.162]
[Speaker] Scientists
think that a lot

[00:20:57.382]
of the water may be
chemically bound to the soil,

[00:20:59.922]
or underneath the surface in
either liquid or ice form.

[00:21:03.322]
Understanding where the water
currently is can help us understand

[00:21:06.682]
the history of water on Mars,
which is important in determining

[00:21:10.362]
if there is or ever was
last on that planet.

[00:21:15.132]
[ Music ]

[00:21:15.242]
[Voices] Why do scientists suspect
that there was once water on Mars?

[00:21:22.932]
What is the Mars Microprobe,

[00:21:24.262]
and how will it navigate
below the surface of Mars?

[00:21:27.282]
What is the relationship between
geometry and the Mars Microprobe?

[00:21:32.402]
[Jennifer] OK, guys.

[00:21:33.242]
I'm here with Dr. Robert
Mitcheltree, who is working

[00:21:35.792]
on current explorations
into the Martian landscape.

[00:21:38.652]
Right now, we're on top of NASA
Langley's impact dynamics facility.

[00:21:43.332]
Back in the 1960s, this is where
they tested the lunar landers.

[00:21:46.502]
Pretty cool.

[00:21:47.552]
Dr. Mitcheltree, what on
earth are we doing up here?

[00:21:50.762]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well,
I like it up here.

[00:21:52.202]
You can look down on the surface
of the Earth from up here.

[00:21:55.562]
Like you can look out at the
water and how it meanders

[00:21:58.702]
across the land there.

[00:22:00.882]
And we know that even if
you removed that water,

[00:22:03.002]
there would still be a distinctive
shape to the pattern it makes.

[00:22:07.122]
And it's those kind of patterns
that we see on the surface of Mars.

[00:22:10.952]
But none of them have
any water in them.

[00:22:13.442]
And we wonder, where
did the water go?

[00:22:15.882]
[Jennifer] So where do
scientists think the water went?

[00:22:18.232]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] Some of
them think it seeped beneath

[00:22:20.332]
the surface.

[00:22:21.642]
And that's the purpose of Mars
Microprobe: to go to Mars and look

[00:22:25.072]
for water beneath the surface.

[00:22:27.192]
[Jennifer] Is that the Microprobe?

[00:22:28.702]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well, this is
just a model of the Microprobe.

[00:22:30.892]
The actual Microprobe
is much larger,

[00:22:32.692]
about the size of a basketball.

[00:22:34.542]
But it has this same shape.

[00:22:35.912]
And it's this shape that's
actually like a right triangle,

[00:22:40.172]
that is used to fly through
the atmosphere of Mars.

[00:22:43.792]
As it approaches the
planet, it'll be tumbling.

[00:22:45.592]
And then when it hits
the atmosphere,

[00:22:47.612]
no matter how it hits
the atmosphere,

[00:22:49.002]
it'll reorient itself
and fly nose forward.

[00:22:52.262]
And it'll continue to fly
like that all the way down,

[00:22:55.032]
decelerating from 17,000 miles
an hour to 400 miles per hour

[00:22:59.182]
when it strikes the surface.

[00:23:00.852]
This outer shell breaks away,
and the inside penetrometer,

[00:23:05.352]
that fist shaped instrument,
pierces down through the soil

[00:23:09.682]
and begins looking for water
underneath the surface.

[00:23:13.292]
[Jennifer] So once the
Microprobe penetrates the surface,

[00:23:16.122]
how does it find water
or look for water?

[00:23:18.612]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] Well, this really
small fist shaped instrument has a

[00:23:22.152]
small drill in it.

[00:23:23.842]
When it's down in the dirt,
it digs with the drill,

[00:23:27.532]
pulling some dirt inside of it.

[00:23:29.222]
And it has even a laser in there
also, and it uses the laser

[00:23:33.512]
to shine some energy on the
dirt, and it measures the

[00:23:36.702]
out gassing of the dirt.

[00:23:38.182]
And that's how it looks for water.

[00:23:39.972]
[Jennifer] OK, big deal.

[00:23:41.032]
So what if it finds water on Mars?

[00:23:42.602]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] Water is the key

[00:23:43.212]
to understanding several
interesting aspects about Mars.

[00:23:46.332]
We don't go there just to
understand if there's water there.

[00:23:48.872]
It's what affect water
has on other things.

[00:23:52.572]
The more interesting question
is the question of life.

[00:23:56.942]
All life we know on earth, is
tied some way to liquid water.

[00:24:01.082]
And if we can find water on
Mars, we're one step closer

[00:24:04.382]
to understanding if life ever
existed there or still does.

[00:24:08.602]
[Jennifer] Well, that's definitely
something to think about.

[00:24:10.342]
Thanks, Dr. Mitcheltree.

[00:24:11.172]
[Dr. Mitcheltree] My pleasure.

[00:24:11.752]
[Jennifer] I appreciate it.

[00:24:12.652]
Hey, you. If you're interested
in topics like life on Mars

[00:24:15.522]
and other Mars explorations,

[00:24:17.042]
just check out the web site
address on your screen.

[00:24:19.792]
Speaking of the Web, let's go
on location to Virginia Beach,

[00:24:22.802]
Virginia with NASA's educational
technology program manager,

[00:24:26.412]
Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

[00:24:27.362]
[Dr. Cainwright] I'm here
at Bayside high school

[00:24:30.042]
in Virginia Beach,
Virginia where students

[00:24:31.992]
from Bayside middle school
along with their partner school,

[00:24:34.972]
Brandon middle school, have been
involved in a quest as participants

[00:24:38.142]
in the Mars Millennium Project,
a national arts, sciences,

[00:24:41.382]
and technology education
initiative.

[00:24:43.562]
Let's check in with the students
to learn about their quest.

[00:24:47.182]
[Voices] The Mars millennium
Project challenges teens

[00:24:49.932]
across the nation to
design a community

[00:24:52.402]
for a hundred people arriving
on Mars in the year 2030.

[00:24:56.252]
We have used this challenge to
create an online activity to work

[00:24:59.742]
on one aspect of building a
Mars community: the development

[00:25:03.792]
of a public relations campaign

[00:25:05.592]
to gather public support
for the Mars mission.

[00:25:08.592]
Our quest can be broken
down into five simple steps.

[00:25:12.592]
Step one, reflection.

[00:25:14.362]
Our teachers explained
to us our mission.

[00:25:17.042]
We divided ourselves into four
groups: mission commanders,

[00:25:20.942]
environmental specialists,
natural resource engineers,

[00:25:24.392]
and astronomy specialists.

[00:25:26.132]
Each group had specific questions
to research and think about.

[00:25:30.222]
Step two, imagine.

[00:25:32.422]
We took the knowledge gained from
our research to write a survey

[00:25:36.442]
and then brainstormed
how to use technology

[00:25:39.342]
to conduct an electronic
poll and to tabulate results.

[00:25:43.542]
In the process, we gained
experience in the use of software

[00:25:47.292]
for word processing
and spreadsheets.

[00:25:50.202]
Step three, discover.

[00:25:52.182]
The results of our electronic
survey were analyzed.

[00:25:56.012]
This information helps us see
what were key issues to the public

[00:26:00.242]
so we might address them in
our advertising campaign.

[00:26:04.262]
Step four, create.

[00:26:06.202]
We have now entered the
design phase of our quest,

[00:26:09.302]
where we are creating ads
and sharing our presentation

[00:26:12.882]
with our partner school using
videoconferencing technology.

[00:26:17.492]
Step five, share.

[00:26:19.272]
Our final step will
be to share with NASA

[00:26:21.652]
and others our Mars
advertising campaign in the form

[00:26:25.542]
of a multimedia presentation
that we will post

[00:26:29.052]
on the NASA Connect web site.

[00:26:31.222]
Also, we will post our
electronic survey for others to try

[00:26:36.212]
and to make their own comparisons.

[00:26:39.422]
[Dr. Cainwright] Jennifer, if
any of our viewers would like

[00:26:41.512]
to learn more about the
Mars millennium Project,

[00:26:43.952]
they should visit the NASA
Connect web site for a link

[00:26:46.512]
to the Millennium web site.

[00:26:48.472]
And now, as a final incentive,
registered submissions

[00:26:52.702]
to the Mars Millennium
Project received by June 1,

[00:26:55.652]
2000 will be placed on a
microchip for transfer to Mars

[00:26:59.162]
on a future NASA mission.

[00:27:00.962]
Now how's that for connecting
thousands of young people

[00:27:03.872]
through technology and then using
technology to take their plans

[00:27:07.432]
for the future to another planet?

[00:27:10.262]
[Jennifer] Thanks, Shelley, for all
that cool cyberspace information.

[00:27:13.872]
We'll definitely use it.

[00:27:15.012]
[Dan] Well, that's
about it for today.

[00:27:16.432]
[Jennifer] Now, before we go,
we've got lots of people to thank.

[00:27:19.232]
Especially the middle school
students and teachers,

[00:27:22.172]
the NASA researchers...

[00:27:23.482]
[Dan] NASA Langley Research Center.

[00:27:25.062]
[Jennifer] NASA Ames
research Center.

[00:27:26.612]
[Dan] NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory.

[00:27:28.632]
[Jennifer] Dr. Israel Taybach.

[00:27:29.932]
[Dan] And Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

[00:27:31.512]
[Jennifer] If you would
like a videotaped copy

[00:27:33.022]
of this NASA Connect show, and
the educator's guide lesson plan,

[00:27:37.092]
contact CORE: the
NASA Central Operation

[00:27:40.252]
of Resources for Educators.

[00:27:42.262]
All this information
and more is located

[00:27:44.492]
on the NASA Connect web site.

[00:27:46.652]
For the NASA Connect
series, I'm Jennifer Poli.

[00:27:49.762]
[Dan] And I'm Dan Hughes.

[00:27:50.962]
And we'll see you next time.

[00:27:52.532]
[Jennifer] On NASA Connect.

[00:27:54.262]
Bye.

[00:27:54.692]
[Dan] Bye.

[00:27:54.942]
[ Music ]

[00:27:54.942]
[Outtakes]

[00:27:54.942]