Transcript for NASA Connect - Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: Safety First

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[3LW:]

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[inaudible] and we at 3LW, which
stands for three little women,

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we are recording our disk
today on MTV's Sierra Tour.

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On today's NASA Connect you and
our NASA engineers are working hard

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to make sure that airplane pilots,
air passengers remains safe at

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[inaudible].

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You will visit a virtual
facility designed to test ways

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to solve potential air and
ground traffic problems

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at our nation's airports.

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You'll observe NASA engineers and
researchers using math, science

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and technology to solve
the every day problems.

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In your classroom see what it takes
to be an air traffic controller,

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it's a very stressful job.

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You will also use computer
technology to navigate

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through several things as
other flight from San Francisco

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to New York, so stay tuned
as Dan and Jennifer take you

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on the another exciting
episode of NASA Connect.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer:] Hi!

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We are heading to San
Francisco international airport.

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[Airline Staff:] Great let me check
you both in and tag your bags

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[inaudible] with you.

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[Dan:] Hi!

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Welcome to NASA Connect; the
show that connects you to math,

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science, technology and NASA.

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I'm Dan Gerro.

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[Jennifer:] And I'm
Jennifer Pulley.

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Now before we start the show
there are few things you

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and your teacher need to know.

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First teachers, make sure
you have the lesson guide

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for today's program.

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It can be downloaded from
our NASA Connect website,

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in it you will find a great
map based hands on activity

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and a description

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of our instructional
technology components.

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[Dan:] Kids, you want to
keep your eyes on Norbet

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because every time it appears
with questions like this.

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[inaudible] from the lesson
guidance your brain ready

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to answer the questions
we give you.

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[Jennifer:] All ancestors if
you are watching a tape version

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of this program every
time you see Norbet

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with the remote that's your
queue to pause the video tape

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and discuss the cue card question.

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[Dan:]For today's show Jennifer
and I are flying to California

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to learn how the people
get airplanes,

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[inaudible] airports, pilots
and NASA for the safety first?

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[Jennifer:] That's right and you
know almost two million people like

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us travel by airplane every day.

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Air traveling insist to
the rest of the world

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and usually we don't pay much
attention to how it works

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or who makes it work,
like with millions

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of people flying airplanes, pilots
and airports have to be saved.

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Just who regulates the safety of
airplanes, pilots and airports.

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[Dan:] The FAA, our Federal
Aviations Administration.

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Their primary responsibility
is maintaining the safety

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of public aviation.

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The FAA develops air traffics
rules, operates airport towers

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and air traffic control centers

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and encourages new
aviations technology,

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some of which is being
developed by NASA.

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We will see some of
those technologies later.

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[Jennifer:] You know right now

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as we board the airport's control
tower has received a pilot's flight

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plan and will soon be directing our
airplane as a taxi sort of runway.

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[Dan:] Hey, there is
the control tower.

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Right now in that tower people are
observing us and other airplanes

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to make sure every thing
runs on safely on the ground.

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[Jennifer:] Meanwhile
inside the plane we have our

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seat-belts fastened.

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Shh -- silence while the
flight attendant gives us

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safety procedures.

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[Dan:] Just like pilots
and the people

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in airport tower have safety rules,

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passengers like us
can make sure we are

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at safest possible on the airplane.

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For example --

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[Flight Attendant:] Excuse
me sir, you gonna have

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to turn off cell phone
and computer.

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[Dan:] They can interfere with the
airplane's communications systems.

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[Jennifer:] Well, now
we are at Airborne,

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will be in tract on Radar.

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Soon our airport tower hands us off
to an air traffic control center.

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Here are twenty-one of these
centers in the United States

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and each center controls a
specific area of air space.

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[Boy:] What is air space?

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[Dan:] The space where
aircraft fly.

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[Dan:] This control centers
communicated with pilots

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and safely direct all airplanes
to into their air space.

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When you consider all the airplanes

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that fly everyday,
that's a huge job.

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[Jennifer:] During our
fly, we were passed

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through about six
different air spaces.

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And as we passed through
each one, we're monitored

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by Air Traffic Control Centre.

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[Dan:] Each center gives that
pilot information about weather,

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air traffic around us, and it
helps us navigate to best route.

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You know I hope that pilot
take us over Colorado.

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I would love to see it from here.

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Hey, moving next by NASA Connect
will give us our own private jet.

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And then we could --

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[Jennifer:] Right Dan.

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Until then fly in

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[inaudible].

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You know no matter what
route we take our pilot

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and the control center

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on the ground are making sure
we are safe in the skies.

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[Flight Attendant:] Do you
like something to drink?

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[Dan:] Ah, yes, thanks,
water would be great.

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[Flight Attendant:] Thank you.

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[Dan:] Thank you.

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Speaking a safety, we went earlier,
but the FAA is all research

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for new technologies
and ways to maintain

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and improve the safety
of air travel.

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That's where NASA comes in.

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Jennifer and I recently visited
the NASA Langley Research Center

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at Hampton Virginia, to learn

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about NASA's aviation safety
program in the math, science

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and technology that used
in the everyday work.

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[ Music ]

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[3LW:] How the NASA contribute
to airplane safety in the future?

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How do the NASA engineers use
math in the wind tunnel test?

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What happens to an airplane when
the angle of tack becomes to great?

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[John:] NASA's Aviation Safety
Program is designed to make sure

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that airplane remaining
safe form of transportation

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[inaudible] air travelers.

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Many pilots and engineers
like me are studying new ways

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to prevent accidents
that are occurring.

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We are also looking at ways to
provide new ideas and technologies

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to airplane manufactures
in airline,

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so they can keep our sky safe.

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[Dan:] Well, isn't
flying already safe?

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[John:] Absolutely, Dan.

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Flying is the safest
mode of transportation

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and passenger's safety is the
most important requirement

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for our travel.

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But you see within the next ten
years it is expected that approx

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to three million people
will be flying everyday.

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That's about one million
more than today.

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With these numbers more
airplanes will be flying

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in our skies in many parts of

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[inaudible] conditions.

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NASA is looking to make sure
that even with that entries

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of air traffic, airplanes
will remain a safe

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and efficient way
for people to travel.

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[Jennifer:] Well,
how do you do that?

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[John:] One way is to make sure

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that all airline pilots
have the necessary training

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to maintain control
of their airplane

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and safely maneuver them
during all flight conditions.

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It's my job to predict how our
airplanes can be controlled

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in these different conditions.

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[Dan:] How can you predict
when airplane will do?

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[John:] We use a wind tunnel
and model of an airplane.

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A wind tunnel is a facility
that blows air over a model

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at different speeds and angles

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to simulate the airplane
flying through the air.

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You see testing, full sized
airplanes, is too expensive.

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So we use scale model.

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This model was 1/30 of the
size of the real airplane.

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[Jennifer:] 1/30!

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Hey that's a ratio.

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A ratio is a fraction
used to compare the size

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of two numbers to each other.

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The ratio 1/30th means that this
model is about 30 times smaller

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than the real airplane, right John?

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[John:] That's right Jennifer.

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And we use a wind tunnel to
test the model and conditions

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that are too dangerous to
test on the real airplane.

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When we run the Wind tunnel

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at different air speeds we move
the model, so that the wind hits it

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at various angles, like this.

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One very important angle we look
at, is called the angle of attack.

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Let me explain.

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When an airplane is flying
through the air, the combination

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of air speed and the angle
of attack produces lift.

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A force which holds the
aeroplane in the air.

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In normal flight as the angle

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of attack becomes greater
the lift increases.

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If you have ever held your hand
out of the window of a moving car,

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you can feel this lift
as you move your hand.

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However, if the angle of attack
becomes too great the air no longer

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flow smoothly over the wing
causing a condition known

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as aerodynamic stall and
the lift will decrease.

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However this flight
condition rarely occurs,

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the airplanes controls
may not be affective

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and the pilot may not be able
safely maneuver the airplane.

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[Jennifer:] But John
how do you know

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that the real airplane is
going behave the same way

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that the model does
in the wind tunnel?

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[John:] Great question, we use math

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to predict how the real
airplane will behave

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under the same conditions
tested in the wind tunnel.

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Let me show you.

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During wind tunnel testing a
computer system electronically

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measures the lift.

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The computer also determines
the speed of the moving air,

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the density of the air and the
area of the air planes wing.

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Using this ratio we can compute
the lift coefficient a number

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that tells engineers like me
how the state of the model,

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position of the model and the air
flow around the model affect lift.

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Next we create a graph that
allows us to see the relationship

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between a lift co-efficient
and the angle

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of attack we have
simulated in the tunnel.

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Because this graph is a
same for both the model

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and full size airplane,

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we can predict how the
real airplane will fly.

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So let's put the data on
the graph and interpret it.

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During normal flight conditions
the lift coefficient increases

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as the angle of attack increases.

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The pilot should have no
trouble controlling the plane;

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however if the angle of attack
becomes so great if stall occurs,

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the lift coefficient decreases

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and the airplane may be
difficult to control.

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From this graph we can determine
how the airplane will respond

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in different flight conditions.

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Knowing this information
allows us to find ways

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to help pilots prevents avoid
entering unsafe conditions

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and to make the airplane
easier to fly.

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[Jennifer:] So once
you've tested the model

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and determined how the
real plane will behave,

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how do you make sure the pilots
are trained in these situations?

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[John:] Today's airline pilots
are highly trained using very

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sophisticated devices known
as 'Flight simulators'.

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The simulator looks and feels just
like a real airplane from take off

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through landing and
it allows pilots

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to practice many different
flying procedures

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that they may encounter
during a real fly.

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All of the graphs created from
wind tunnel tests are given

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to people whose job it
is to input this data

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into the flight simulator making
pilots feel like they are flying

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a real airplane.

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The simulator is designed to
respond like the real airplane

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that is accidentally in a
densely flight conditions;

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like the once we have
tested in the wind tunnel.

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Using simulators pilots are
specially trained in loss

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of control and learnt how
to operate the airplane

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under conditions that
would normally not be safe

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in a real airplane.

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This training will help to ensure

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that air travels remains
safe for every one.

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In fact many of today's
students who are interested

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in becoming airline pilots
will be trained in simulators

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to use the research we are
conducting here at NASA.

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The goal of NASA's aviation safety
program is to prevent accidents

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from occurring and for
all future air travelers

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to know they will safely
reach their destination.

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[Jennifer:] Thanks John,
you know it's really--

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[Dan:] Hey Jen check it out.

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It's Colorado.

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[Jennifer:] Its sure its Dan, and
like I was saying its really cool

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that how NASA's testing
models in wind tunnels

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and then using technology
to help pilots fly safely

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and speaking of technology.

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Dan didn't you find a really
cool CD that takes you

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on a airplanes journey
from gate-to-gate.

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[Dan:] I sure did, this CD Rom
lets you meet some of the people

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who operate the air
traffic control system.

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Join me next in Dan's Domain and
I'll show some of tools they use.

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Welcome to my Domain here for
I will introduce you to some

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of the coolest stuff that will
help you better understand,

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the topics covered in our show.

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First you need to know
how to get to Dan's Domain

[00:11:41.539]
from the NASA Connect website.

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Just click here to enter,
you will find a link

[00:11:46.109]
to the shows instructional
technology activity.

[00:11:48.629]
There is also a zone especially
for teachers and a career zone

[00:11:51.929]
so you can meet some
of our program guests

[00:11:53.829]
and learn about their jobs.

[00:11:55.209]
Oh! Yeah, there is a page that
gives links to the other new sites

[00:11:57.909]
that relate to the show.

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Now for the good stuff,
it's a CD produced by NASA

[00:12:02.769]
and the Federal Aviation
Administration

[00:12:05.369]
that will introduce you to our air
traffic control system and some

[00:12:08.939]
of the tools they use everyday.

[00:12:10.779]
It's called gate-to-gate.

[00:12:12.839]
Speaking of air traffic control
let's visit Air Venture in

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[inaudible] Wisconsin.

[00:12:17.719]
It's the largest air
show in the world

[00:12:19.719]
and each summer it also becomes
the busiest airport in the world.

[00:12:23.549]
Here we'll work with
student ambassadors

[00:12:25.769]
from the American institute
of Aeronautics and Astronauts.

[00:12:28.739]
They are a group of high-school
students from around the world,

[00:12:31.599]
who are participating
in an array of aerospace

[00:12:34.959]
and educational activities
designed to energize

[00:12:38.019]
and excite them about
careers in aerospace.

[00:12:40.999]
Start your journey by clicking
the pre-flight airplane icon

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at the bottom of the radar scope,
right clicking on the airplanes

[00:12:47.399]
around the scope, you
will navigate a flight

[00:12:49.659]
from San Francisco to New York,
beginning at the pre-flight

[00:12:53.249]
and going around the scope
ending with the landing.

[00:12:56.649]
NASA and research
centre and collaboration

[00:12:59.429]
with the FAA is developing
sophisticated software tools

[00:13:02.989]
and procedures to help air traffic
controllers manage air traffic more

[00:13:07.039]
safely and efficiently through
out all of phases of flight.

[00:13:10.619]
This CD will demonstrate how some

[00:13:12.329]
of these new tools
fit into the system.

[00:13:14.899]
We go to the career zone in Dan's
Domain you'll meet some more

[00:13:18.059]
of our program partners.

[00:13:19.389]
That's it for now, but I will back
at end of the student activity,

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let's you on a new technology
partnership NASA Connect us

[00:13:25.939]
with Riverdale interactive
learning, see you then.

[00:13:29.209]
[Jennifer:] Hey Dan we
are getting ready to land.

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You know airplanes arrive from
several different directions

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and the air traffic control centre
has to merge all those planes

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into a single file line.

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Making sure there is a safe
distance between each plane.

[00:13:49.049]
[Dan:] Right and since air traffic
can sometimes arrive like rush hour

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traffic on a highway.

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Pilots may have to make
adjustments in their flight plans,

[00:13:56.399]
change the speed or altitude
or go into a holding pattern.

[00:14:00.209]
So all these adjustments may cause
delays, however safety comes first.

[00:14:04.609]
[Jennifer:] That's right, when we
are about six to eighteen kilometer

[00:14:07.859]
from the airport the air traffic
control centre hands us off

[00:14:11.139]
to the San Francisco
airport control tower.

[00:14:13.719]
Tower controllers there
relay current weather

[00:14:16.119]
and air traffic information
to our pilot.

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[Dan:] Wow what a ride.

[00:14:22.469]
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Hey, this is the control tower.

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I wonder what they
are doing in there.

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[Jennifer:] Let me tell you,
now that we have landed,

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controllers in the tower tell
our pilot which taxi ways to use

[00:14:32.259]
and where we can park.

[00:14:33.929]
You know we are not completely
safe until we park at the gate

[00:14:36.999]
and our pilot has turned off
the fasten your seat belt sign.

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[Jennifer & Dan] San
Francisco, Here we come.

[00:14:42.679]
[ Music ]

[00:14:43.679]
[00:15:05.769]
[Jennifer:] While, NASA's aviation
safety program is helping pilots

[00:15:09.829]
maintain high levels
of safety in our skies.

[00:15:12.369]
NASA is also working to help
airports operate more safely

[00:15:15.659]
and efficiently.

[00:15:16.439]
As airplane traffic increases
in our skies, the possibility

[00:15:19.729]
for more accidents or incidents
also increases on the ground.

[00:15:23.199]
[Dan:] Right.

[00:15:24.239]
How would that flight simulator
to simulate conditions in the air.

[00:15:27.569]
But what about people in
control towers who monitor

[00:15:29.919]
and direct take offs and landings?

[00:15:31.859]
[Jennifer:] Yeah I mean could all
the people that guide airplanes

[00:15:34.729]
to the ground, like pilots,
air traffic controllers

[00:15:38.029]
and airport operators work
together and try out new ways

[00:15:41.729]
to safely move planes
around an airport.

[00:15:44.209]
[Dan:] NASA believe they could

[00:15:45.749]
so a unique facility was
built right here in California

[00:15:48.649]
to help solve present and future
problems of our nation's airport.

[00:15:51.979]
It's called NASA future
flight sensor.

[00:15:54.059]
[Jennifer:] And to
learn more we came here

[00:15:56.319]
to NASA Aims research centre
in Muffetfield California.

[00:16:01.629]
[ Music ]

[00:16:01.909]
Why was NASA future
flight center built?

[00:16:06.569]
How does NASA use technology
to simulate airports?

[00:16:09.959]
Analyzing the graph, what passage
do you think influenced the air

[00:16:13.359]
traffic controller at Wisconsin?

[00:16:16.449]
[Nancy:] NASA future flight
central is a two story facility

[00:16:19.479]
with the 360 degrees view.

[00:16:21.859]
It's capable of doing a full scale
real time simulation of an airport.

[00:16:26.369]
It's where air traffic
controllers, pilots,

[00:16:28.659]
and the airport personnel
can interact with each other

[00:16:31.189]
and test out new technologies.

[00:16:33.069]
As you can see, this is designed

[00:16:34.669]
to look very much like a real
air traffic control tower.

[00:16:37.629]
The downstairs rooms
points to simulation,

[00:16:40.249]
we bring in real air
traffic controllers.

[00:16:42.849]
They wear head sets and
communicate with the pilots,

[00:16:45.449]
giving them permission to
taxi, take-off and land.

[00:16:48.859]
At the same time, they also
scan the runways and taxiways

[00:16:52.639]
to make sure that all the
airplanes are maintaining a safe

[00:16:55.329]
distance from each other.

[00:16:56.809]
Just as you do while
driving an automobile.

[00:16:59.359]
[Dan:] How do you make this tower
in these planes look so real?

[00:17:02.959]
[Nancy:] With the super computer.

[00:17:04.709]
We create a virtual airport
environment, which means it is made

[00:17:08.269]
to look very realistic when
compared to an actual airport.

[00:17:11.499]
We do this by using satellite
imagery, aerial surveys

[00:17:15.969]
and digital photography.

[00:17:18.059]
Simulation software allows us

[00:17:20.049]
to move two-hundred vehicles like
airplanes, or ground trucks all

[00:17:24.349]
at the same time at
realistic speeds.

[00:17:27.399]
We can simulate a variety

[00:17:28.819]
of weather conditions like
dense fog, rain or snow.

[00:17:32.989]
We can also place numerous
planes on the runway.

[00:17:35.469]
That needs to move all
at once making the test

[00:17:38.259]
as realistic as possible.

[00:17:39.999]
For example an airplane can be
placed where it shouldn't be

[00:17:43.049]
and the air traffic controllers
have to try to safely get the plane

[00:17:46.459]
out of the way to
avoid a collision.

[00:17:48.719]
[Jennifer:] Nancy that is so cool.

[00:17:50.019]
It sounds like NASA future
flights central simulates many

[00:17:52.829]
of the conditions that happened
at our nation's airports.

[00:17:55.269]
[Nancy:] That's right.

[00:17:55.869]
Not only at our facility can
we duplicate a real airport

[00:17:58.979]
and operate it as it runs day.

[00:18:00.549]
But we can also make changes and
see if we can make things safer.

[00:18:04.759]
For example we conducted a study

[00:18:06.519]
of San Francisco International
Airport,

[00:18:09.109]
currently the airport is
conducting an environmental review

[00:18:12.609]
to assess the possibility
of building new runways.

[00:18:15.469]
Because of space limitations
these new runways would be built

[00:18:19.059]
out into San Francisco bay.

[00:18:20.499]
This could possibly
cause the airport

[00:18:23.189]
to relocate its control tower.

[00:18:25.569]
Using our facility we simulated
the San Francisco Airport

[00:18:29.299]
and built the new runways.

[00:18:30.609]
Then for each proposed location
of the tower we moved some planes

[00:18:34.059]
down the runway and
watched the view

[00:18:36.049]
with our future flight sample the
airport might move its territory

[00:18:38.999]
location when blocked
used and wouldn't be able

[00:18:41.589]
to operate the airport safely.

[00:18:43.349]
[Dan:] Has NASA used this facility
to simulate any other airports?

[00:18:46.469]
[Nancy:] We sure have.

[00:18:47.919]
Recently NASA did a study of the
Los Angeles International Airport

[00:18:52.179]
or in the airport turns LAX.

[00:18:54.519]
Our goal was to simulate a
realistic operating environment,

[00:18:58.169]
that was as close as possible

[00:18:59.729]
to what the LAX Air traffic
controllers experienced every day

[00:19:03.039]
in the tower.

[00:19:04.249]
This study was different from the
one on the San Francisco Airport

[00:19:07.769]
because before we could simulate
any changes to LAX we had

[00:19:11.509]
to first make sure that we
could realistically simulate one

[00:19:14.439]
of the busiest airports
in the world.

[00:19:16.789]
[Dan:] So how did you
determine if the simulation was

[00:19:19.529]
as realistic as the real LAX.

[00:19:21.849]
[Nancy:] Just like you
do in math class Dan.

[00:19:24.079]
First we collected data from
the air traffic controllers

[00:19:27.259]
using questionnaires.

[00:19:29.029]
Using the data we created and
interpreted graphs to determine

[00:19:32.849]
if we accomplished our goal.

[00:19:34.329]
There were many factors involved

[00:19:35.799]
in determining whether our
simulation was realistic.

[00:19:38.719]
Let me show you one of
the graphs we created.

[00:19:41.239]
The title of the graph
is realism ratings

[00:19:43.609]
for LAX air traffic controllers.

[00:19:46.009]
This graph tells us how the
real LAX controllers rated

[00:19:49.339]
our simulation.

[00:19:50.549]
[Jennifer:] Okay let's see.

[00:19:52.139]
Along the bottom are
ratings from one to five.

[00:19:55.329]
With one being not at all realistic
and five being identical to LAX.

[00:20:00.809]
Nancy what is a ground
air traffic controller

[00:20:03.079]
and a local air traffic controller?

[00:20:05.339]
[Nancy:] A ground
controller is responsible

[00:20:07.319]
for airplanes on the ground.

[00:20:09.299]
Leaving the gate and taxing
to the runway for example.

[00:20:12.039]
A local controller issues take offs

[00:20:14.479]
and landings maintains a safe
distance between arriving

[00:20:17.709]
and departing aircraft and is
responsible for controlling flights

[00:20:21.349]
up to 16 kilometers from the tower.

[00:20:24.049]
Let's put the data on the graph.

[00:20:26.429]
As you can see from the data
we collected both the ground

[00:20:29.749]
and local controllers believe
that our simulations of airplanes

[00:20:33.039]
on the ground and in
the sky there are goal

[00:20:35.959]
of being realistic compared to LAX.

[00:20:38.489]
In fact, the data shows
that we exceeded our goal

[00:20:41.369]
and we were very realistic
compared to LAX.

[00:20:44.599]
Just as John collected data to
help train pilots for safety,

[00:20:48.479]
future flight central will
realistically simulate our

[00:20:51.389]
nation's airports.

[00:20:52.809]
So they can continue to
run smoothly and safely.

[00:20:56.129]
[Dan:] Nancy that's amazing that
NASA realistically simulated one

[00:20:59.809]
of the world's busiest airports.

[00:21:01.929]
So what's next?

[00:21:03.379]
[Nancy:] The next step will
be to determine what will

[00:21:05.639]
and what will not work when
proposed changes are made

[00:21:08.719]
to the LAX operating environment.

[00:21:11.009]
Because future flights
central is a safe place to try

[00:21:13.549]
out new airport procedures both
time and money will be saved

[00:21:17.729]
as LAX continues to
put safety first.

[00:21:20.979]
[Jennifer:] Thanks Nancy.

[00:21:22.299]
Okay so far on today's
show Dan and I have fly

[00:21:25.379]
from Virginia all
the way to California

[00:21:28.029]
and during this flight we learnt
how NASA wind tunnel tests are

[00:21:31.299]
helping trained pilots
to be even safer.

[00:21:34.179]
[Dan:] We also learnt our
airplanes and passengers get

[00:21:36.329]
from gate-to-gate and
how NASA uses simulations

[00:21:38.929]
to make airports safer.

[00:21:40.329]
[Jennifer:] So do you
have what it takes

[00:21:42.349]
to be an air traffic controller?

[00:21:44.429]
See if you can safely and
efficiently land airplanes

[00:21:47.549]
at Norbert international airport.

[00:21:49.919]
NASA Connect travels South from San
Francisco to Long Beach California

[00:21:54.319]
for today's hands on activity.

[00:21:56.709]
[Student 1:] Hi!

[00:21:58.869]
We are from the Boeing
Summer Science Camp.

[00:22:00.909]
[Student 2:] NASA Connect
asked us to help you guys.

[00:22:03.649]
How did that the shows
hands on activity?

[00:22:06.609]
[Student 3:] It's
called in a safety zone.

[00:22:08.889]
[Student 2:] Here are the
main objectives of this game.

[00:22:10.759]
We plot initial aircraft
coordinates using a rectangular

[00:22:13.379]
coordinate system in which
measurement tools and techniques

[00:22:16.219]
to determine distance.

[00:22:17.679]
We apply ratios to calculate
the air safety travel index.

[00:22:21.249]
We calculate initial aircraft
distance versus actual air

[00:22:24.559]
craft distance traveled.

[00:22:26.019]
In your working team you
solve problems related

[00:22:27.989]
to your own air traffic
control challenges.

[00:22:31.349]
The game for analysis the
materials you need are included

[00:22:34.049]
in the lesson guide, which
your teacher can download

[00:22:36.069]
from the NASA Connect website.

[00:22:37.599]
The class will be divided
into groups of four.

[00:22:40.599]
Each group will get a flight plan

[00:22:41.869]
to record the landing
times a tracking chart

[00:22:44.099]
to chart the progress
of the assigned planes.

[00:22:46.409]
A safety rating card to keep
track of the total points earned

[00:22:48.989]
and the game constraint card.

[00:22:50.899]
More about this later.

[00:22:52.439]
Each student or air
traffic controller

[00:22:54.389]
in a group will be responsible
for three aircrafts and one

[00:22:57.079]
of the quadrants on the game board.

[00:22:59.709]
Your primary goal is to land
each aircraft safely and on time.

[00:23:03.289]
Now lets get started, using the
initial aircraft flight coordinates

[00:23:06.899]
provided in the flight plan,
plot the starting position

[00:23:09.849]
for each aircraft
from the game board.

[00:23:11.999]
Use a pen along with
a correct aircraft cut

[00:23:14.079]
out to mark each starting point.

[00:23:16.099]
Record a flight number, aircraft
type and runway information

[00:23:19.219]
on the tracking chart.

[00:23:20.809]
Choose a colored pencil and
color each designated aircraft

[00:23:23.729]
to ensure correct tracking.

[00:23:25.079]
Now measure and calculate the
direct distance in kilometers

[00:23:28.859]
from the assigned aircraft

[00:23:30.109]
to the airport using the
scale 2 cm to 5 kilometers.

[00:23:33.779]
Record the information
on the tracking chart.

[00:23:36.059]
For each minute of flight our
aircraft must make one move,

[00:23:39.549]
one move corresponds to 2
cm when you travel 5 km.

[00:23:44.199]
Use your metric ruler to
verify 2 cm of movement.

[00:23:47.429]
Aircraft cannot move backwards
on any consecutive move.

[00:23:51.479]
During each minute of flight
each ATC must keep track of his

[00:23:54.859]
or her aircrafts flight
paths, using a color pencil

[00:23:57.879]
and metric ruler after all paths
have been updated place the check

[00:24:01.629]
mark on the tracking chart
indicating completion

[00:24:04.019]
of your aircrafts move.

[00:24:05.299]
Check the game constraint
card for landing guidelines,

[00:24:08.559]
study the flight plan,

[00:24:09.499]
particularly arrival times
and runway locations.

[00:24:12.929]
The game first see that your
teacher follows a script

[00:24:15.269]
which indicates when to move
and when conditions change.

[00:24:18.809]
When you finish playing the game
calculate your score using the

[00:24:21.319]
instructions and the lesson guide.

[00:24:23.819]
Now you are ready to determine
the air safety travel index

[00:24:26.979]
by calculating the
percentage using the ratio

[00:24:29.299]
of team points divided
by total possible points.

[00:24:32.489]
Complete the tracking chart

[00:24:33.579]
by calculating the actual
linear distance traveled

[00:24:36.419]
from the aircraft's initial
co-ordinates to the airport.

[00:24:39.259]
By using this equation
calculate the difference

[00:24:41.989]
and direct distance
traveled versus the actual

[00:24:44.409]
distance traveled.

[00:24:45.789]
Your teacher will conclude the game

[00:24:47.699]
by discussing some
questions with you.

[00:24:49.209]
So you can apply what you
have learnt during the game

[00:24:51.359]
to the actual job of an
air traffic controller.

[00:24:53.969]
[Jennifer:] All right.

[00:24:54.839]
You guys need to take look at
your air safety travel index.

[00:24:57.699]
It should be at about
a hundred percent.

[00:24:59.769]
If it's not at a hundred percent
there is probably a reason

[00:25:02.499]
for this.

[00:25:02.859]
Do you guys have any idea why it
wouldn't be at a hundred percent?

[00:25:07.169]
[Student 2:] Because my plane
had to fly around the mountains.

[00:25:10.079]
[Student 5:] Mine was late
because my runway was closed

[00:25:12.689]
for a few minutes.

[00:25:14.039]
[Student 1:] Special thanks to AIAA
chapter of Cal State University

[00:25:18.939]
of Long Beach and to Boeing Summer
Science Camp for their help.

[00:25:26.719]
[Dan:] Our newest
educational partnership is

[00:25:30.529]
with Riverdeep interactive
learning.

[00:25:32.419]
The folks at Riverdeep are
providing internet based lessons,

[00:25:35.239]
that will enhance the
math's skills to go along

[00:25:37.219]
with their NASA Connect shows.

[00:25:38.879]
Teachers, you can find a link
to show's web based activity

[00:25:42.199]
in Dan's Domain on a
NASA Connect website.

[00:25:45.029]
It's from Riverdeep's
destination math series.

[00:25:47.469]
It's a fine tutorial.

[00:25:48.729]
It guides you to the information
about co ordinate planes.

[00:25:51.819]
Here is a brief example.

[00:25:55.379]
[00:25:56.939]
Your mission is to explore
plotting point and working

[00:26:00.399]
with figures in a plain.

[00:26:02.909]
Hmm. Well we know that a
plane is a flat surface

[00:26:07.019]
that extends forever
in all directions.

[00:26:10.829]
Since this map represents
part of a plane then --

[00:26:15.489]
[Dan:] This will be a great
way to introduce the hands

[00:26:17.529]
on activity for the show.

[00:26:18.639]
However, we choose to use
it this web based component

[00:26:21.939]
of NASA Connect will give
your students a useful tool

[00:26:25.379]
for improving and
strengthening their math skills.

[00:26:27.419]
[ Music ]

[00:26:27.669]
[Dan:] Well that wraps up
another episode of NASA Connect.

[00:26:32.859]
We'd like to thank
everyone who helped

[00:26:34.089]
to make this program possible.

[00:26:35.569]
[Jennifer:] That's right and you
know Dan and I are waiting to hear

[00:26:37.559]
from you, with your comment your
questions, your suggestions.

[00:26:39.969]
So e-mail us at
connect@larc.nasa.gov.

[00:26:45.559]
Or pick up a pen and
write us at NASA Connect.

[00:26:49.019]
NASA Centre for distance learning.

[00:26:50.979]
NASA Langley Research Centre
Mail stop four hundred Hampton

[00:26:54.489]
Virginia 23681.

[00:26:57.089]
[Dan:] Teacher you look like
a video tape of this program

[00:26:59.799]
in the accompanying lesson guide,
check out the NASA Connect website.

[00:27:03.379]
From our side you can link

[00:27:04.489]
to the NASA Educator
Resource Centre Network.

[00:27:07.049]
These centers provide
educators free access

[00:27:09.299]
to NASA products like NASA Connect
or from our side you can write

[00:27:13.419]
to CORE the NASA Central Operation
of Resources for educators.

[00:27:17.509]
That's where you can get your
copy of the gate-to-gate CD-ROM.

[00:27:20.749]
[Jennifer:] So until next
time stay connected to math

[00:27:23.459]
[Dan:] Science

[00:27:24.389]
[Jennifer:] Technology

[00:27:25.359]
[Dan:] And NASA.

[00:27:26.619]
[Both:] See you then.

[00:27:27.519]
Bye from San Francisco.

[00:27:28.549]
Bye.

[00:27:28.979]