Transcript for NASAConnect - Mirror, Mirror On the Universe

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[Music]

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[Roy] Hi, I am Roy

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[inaudible], I bet you don't
know, that the arc created,

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when you shoot a basketball
ball involves mathematics.

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Hey, when I line up
to shoot - I think,

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AX square plus BX plus C equals D,
that worked, I should know, I have

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[inaudible] degree which require
mathematics, on this episode

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of NASA connect, you
learn all about algebra,

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you discover how NASA engineers

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and astronomers use algebra
everyday in their work

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and see how telescope like
the Hubble Space Telescope

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and the next generation's
space telescopes collects data

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on our expanding universe.

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Or sit tight as Van and Jennifer
explore algebra and telescopes

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on this episode of NASA Connect.

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[Music]

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Hi, welcome to
another episode of NASA Connect.

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The show that connects
you to the world of math,

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science, technology and NASA.

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I am Jennifer Pulley.

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[Van Hughes:] And I am Van Hughes,

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we are your host along
with Norbert.

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Who is going to be
helping us take you

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through another awesome
episode of NASA Connect.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Right every time
Norbert appears, have the cue cards

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from the lesson guide and your
brain ready to look for answers

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to the questions he gives you and
teachers every time Norbert appears

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with a remote that's your
cue to pause the video

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and let your students consider
the problems we'll give them.

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[Van Hughes:] Today, we
are in Baltimore, Maryland

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and this is the Maryland
Science Center.

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Its home to the Hubble Space
Telescope's NASA Visitors Center

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and it's a lot of fun.

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And has three floors
of hands on experiments

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to gets students like you
interested in astronomy,

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let's go on in and check it out.

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[Music]

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Today's
show is called algebra mirror,

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mirror on the universe and
this mirror right here.

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This is the same size
as the primary mirror

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on the Hubble Space Telescope,
but more on the Hubble later.

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[Van Hughes:] First let's
learn about algebra.

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>> Algebra what's
algebra, sounds scary.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Its
really not, let me show you,

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can you read this graph.

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I bet, you didn't know that
when you are reading graphs,

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you are doing algebra.

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Algebra is used to describe
a relationship between two

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or more things, for
example in this graph;

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we can say that the
number of pizzas is related

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to the number of people served.

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The more pizzas you have the
more people you can serve,

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that's a relationship.

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In fact this graph shows
a linear relationship.

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A linear relationship means that
the points on the graph appear

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to form a straight line, of course
there are lots of relationships

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in that but since these examples
don't form a straight line,

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they aren't linear, got it?

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So looking at this graph how many
people would one pizza serve.

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Let's set up a table to show the
relationship we see in the graph.

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Let's label our table like this,
N equals the number of pizzas

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and P equals the number
of people served.

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According to our graph, one
pizza serves two people;

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that means there are two
servings in one pizza.

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For our purposes, this number of
servings, two, doesn't change.

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It's called a constant.

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How many people would be
served, if you have two pizzas?

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What about three pizzas, you should
begin to see a pattern developing.

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Now what if, you are
planning a sleep over

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and your mom got carried away and
ordered two hundred fifteen pizzas.

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How many people would you have
to invite to your summer party.

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Remember the pattern we
saw in the graph and table,

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let's use the pattern
we saw in the table

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to set up the relationship.

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In algebra, letters
called variables,

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help us solve algebraic equations.

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Remember how we used the
letter N and P in the table

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to represent the number
of pizzas and the number

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of people being served using
those variables we can set

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up an equation like this.

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N which is the number of pizzas
times the number of servings

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in one pizza equals P which is
the number of people served.

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Okay what do we know.

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Well remembering that there
are two servings in one pizza

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and that your mom ordered two
hundred fifteen pizzas we can

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substitute those numbers like this.

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Two hundred fifteen times
two equals P. According

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to our graph you have to invite
four hundred thirty people

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over for your summer party
better tell your mom to cool it.

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So you see guys algebra isn't scary
at all in fact algebra is used

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to solve problems much tougher
then the one we just did.

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[Van Hughes]: And remember
there are lots of ways

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to do problems algebraically.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Absolutely,
now that we have got the taste

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of algebra, let's find
more about telescope.

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1608 was a happening year.

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In that year the Italian
scientist Galileo became one

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of the first human to
view celestial objects

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with the newly invented telescope.

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Galileo improved on the design to
see objects ten times more clearly

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than ever before possible,

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with his primitive telescope
Galileo saw many thousands

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of previously invisible stars
that make up part of our galaxy.

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The ancient Greeks named our
galaxy The Milky Way because most

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of its visible stars appear
overhead on a clear dark night

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as a milky band of light
extending across the sky.

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Hmm..., how many galaxies do
you think are in the universe?

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>> Maybe a couple of trillion.

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>> Well I know that
there is atleast one.

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>> Three hundred and forty billion.

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[Van Hughes]: Those who
are all good guesses.

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To get the real answer stay
tuned because later on,

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on the show will have the
opportunity to estimate the number

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of galaxies in the universe
with our web activity.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] During the
centuries following Galileo's

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discoveries scientists
created telescopes

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of increasing size and complexity.

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For more information on telescopes

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and something called optics lets
visit Martial Space Flight Centre

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in Hindsville Alabama.

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[Music]

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[Van Hughes]: What is optics and
how is algebra used in optics?

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Optics is a study of light what
it is, how it moves through space

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and how it interacts with objects.

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Light can be controlled
with lenses and mirrors

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and these elements can be combined

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in the optical instruments
like telescopes,

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lasers and cameras just
like the one being used

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to take this picture now.

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There are two types of telescopes,
this is a refractor telescope

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that has a lense in the front,
this is a reflector telescope

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that has no lense but a
mirror in the bottom of it.

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The light from the object goes
through the tube is concentrated

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by the mirror to form an
image which I see with my eye.

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Reflector telescopes
are better for looking

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at fine objects like distant
stars and are therefore

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for better for astronomy.

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I have taken this mirror
out of the telescope

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to show you how the
light is focused

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down to a spot at the focal point.

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This distance from the spot to the
mirror is called the focal length

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and there is an algebraic
expression

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that relates the distance of the
focal lengths, the distance U

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to an object and the distance V
to the image formed by the mirror

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that expression is one over F
is equal to one over V plus one

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over U. We use this equation
to test telescopes here

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at the X-ray calibration facility.

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We want to have the objects source
as far away from the telescope

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as possible so we put it at the
end of this tunnel which is a third

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of a mile or five hundred metres
away then with the telescope

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at the other end we
measure the image formed

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by the mirror very
precisely to make sure

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that the telescope
is built properly

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and will focus the stars correctly

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and that's how we used
algebra in optics.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Ground based
telescopes have revealed much

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over their nearly four
hundred year history

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but they are really limited
what they can show us.

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Things like light
pollution, cloud cover

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and the earth's turbulent
atmosphere interfere

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with ground based
telescope observations.

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[Van Hughes]: So in 1990 NASA
launched a Hubble Space Telescope

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an automated reflecting telescope

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which orbits the earth
every 97 minutes.

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The Hubble Telescope was named
after Edwin Hubble who discovered

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that the universe is expanding

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and that the more distant a galaxy
the faster it appears to move away.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Remember
the graph we analyzed beginning

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of the show, well Hubble created
a graph that's not too different

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from our pizza graph check it out.

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Hubble's graph shows
a linear relationship

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between distance and velocity.

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Remember the linear
equation we used

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for the pizza graph N times two
equals P. Well the linear equation

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for the Hubbles graph is H times D
equals V. H is the Hubble constant,

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it is similar to the number
two in our previous equation,

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remember there were two
servings in one pizza.

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Anyway D is the distance of the
object and V is the velocity

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or speed of the object.

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Hey! How would you
like to create a model

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of our universe using something
as simple as a balloon.

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>> Hi! We are from

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[inaudible]

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Our community consists our many
American native tribes but most

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of us are members of
the Sishomi tribe.

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They are part of our heritage and
we celebrate by participating in

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[inaudible] traditional ceremonies.

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We also take pride in
our arts and crafts

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that we have learnt
from our elders.

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NASA Connect asked us to
help you understand this show

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through the activity.

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In this lesson you'll learn
about our expanding universe.

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You'll also learn how scientist use
models to understand observations

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and you get to plot and
analyze data that you'll get

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from taking distance measurements

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between objects in
your own universe.

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[inaudible] We'll
use an analogy to try

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to explain a very complex concept.

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What's an analogy?

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Its simple really it's a comparison

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for example sometimes I see my big
brother is like a vaccum cleaner

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when he eats.

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I use the vaccum cleaner
as an analogy to try

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to explain his eating habits.

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You guys need an analogy
for the universe

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to help you understand the
ideas that it is expanding.

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When I look out into space I really
don't see anything expanding,

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it's too big.

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So you need something like the
universe to help us understand one

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of its characteristic
that we cannot easily see.

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A good analogy for the universe
expanding would be a loaf

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of raisin bread baking in an oven

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as the loaf expands the raisins
move away from each other,

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the raisins represent galaxies
and the bread represents the.

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This is kind of like what happens
in the universe another analogy

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for the expansion of the
universe is a balloon,

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prints that exists
on the surface of

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[inaudible] a balloon for example
of these marks move further apart

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as the balloon is blown up,
in just a minute we are going

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to measure the distance between
prints on a balloon when it

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about a size of a grapefriut
then again when it is blown up to

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about a size of your head.

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Before we do that here's
something you must understand

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about an analogy.

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It's only like what it is
compared to in a certain way.

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The balloon is not the
universe in other words.

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In fact the surface of a balloon
is only two dimensional not three

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dimensional like the universe.

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It will be very hard to measure
something inside the balloon

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because while we can't
get inside of it.

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Because we can measure the distance
between point and the surface

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of the balloon that
will allow you to verify

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where Hubble discovered
about the universe.

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He found out the further way
a space object is from us,

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the faster it is moving
away from us.

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Now that your understanding
about the universe expanding

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and how we use models and
analogies to describe it,

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your ready to do the lesson.

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Separate into groups
then expand your balloon

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to about a size of the grapefruit.

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Hold the neck of the balloon making

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[inaudible] for the
expanded portion,

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secure it with a binder clip
to keep air from escaping,

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now keep going near
the balloon's equator.

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[inaudible] starting from

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[inaudible] measure 10 mm,

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inner walls along the
balloons equator and mark

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[inaudible] label each

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[inaudible] with the number
one, measure again the distance

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from point number one from home
be sure no air has escaped.

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Record the distance
from home to each point.

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Be careful not to compress again
the balloon now while making

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a mark.

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Expand the balloon to about
the size of your head,

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measure the new distance
from home to each point

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and record the result.

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Be careful not to compress or
dent the balloon while making

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the measurement.

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Calculate the distance
each point moved

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by subject against first
recorded distance from home

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from the second recorded distance.

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Has someone done the calculation,
record the result on a data sheet.

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Now the divide the distance
each point travelled

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by the time it took or one

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[inaudible] to give the expansion
rate this is the rate of expansion

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of your balloon, record the results

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for each point on your data sheet.

[00:14:30.449]
Now you are ready
to plot your data.

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Using your data from the universe
data sheet plot the point.

[00:14:36.839]
This should tell us
the expansion rate.

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Two members should verify that
the points are plotted correctly

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on the graph.

[00:14:44.719]
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[Jennifer Pulley:] So what
conclusions can you make

[00:14:50.049]
from these lesson?

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>> [inaudible] the
Hubble data graph.

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We included a pretty good model
of the way expansion occurs.

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Our data showed a linear
patter like the Hubble data.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] That's great any
other thoughts about this lesson.

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>> We learnt how to
use a metric ruler

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[inaudible]

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>> Science is fun.

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>> How are universe expands?

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Way to
go by you did a great job.

[00:15:14.769]
Hey! Teachers check out
our NASA connect website

[00:15:17.429]
and download the lesson
guide from this program.

[00:15:19.929]
In it. You'll find this student
activity, data analysis questions,

[00:15:23.929]
extension activities and tons more.

[00:15:27.919]
[Music]

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>> How do engineers take care

[00:15:30.669]
of the Hubble space
telescope while its in space?

[00:15:34.349]
[Van Hughes]: Hey guys,
meet Patty Henson.

[00:15:36.419]
He works on the Hubble
space telescope project.

[00:15:39.059]
Today we are at NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center

[00:15:41.409]
in green belt Maryland.

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[Jennifer Pulley:] Okay Patty so
far we've learnt about algebra,

[00:15:45.359]
objects, telescopes and little
about the Hubble space telescope.

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Now what is NASA Goddard doing

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to protect the Hubble while
its orbiting around the earth.

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[Van Hughes]: Yeah and how do
engineers like you use algebra

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on the job.

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[Patty Henson]: Well those
are a lot of questions.

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Here at Goddard we are
actually servicing part

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of the Hubble space
telescope project.

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We actually prepare scientific
instruments, computers,

[00:16:08.179]
tape recorders to go up on the
shuttle rendezvous with Hubble

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and performing servicing
of the telescope.

[00:16:16.999]
Astronaut's

[00:16:17.649]
[ inaudible ]

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get the new equipment out of

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[ inaudible ]

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and then

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[inaudible] on the telescope and
we bring the old part back home.

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Now when we are getting ready
for a servicing mission,

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we have our instruments
in our clean room

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and in the clean room we want to
make sure there is no contamination

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by getting everyone dressed
in what we call body suits.

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And you'll see that everyone
in the clean room is dressed

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from head to toe in white.

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What this does is t hat it controls
contamination from your clothing

[00:16:44.889]
which is lint, your hair, we
don't want any dropped hairs

[00:16:47.869]
on our science instruments
and our skin flakes.

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Here on Hubble we are really
worried about particulate

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and molecular contamination
accumulating on the primary

[00:16:57.429]
and secondary mirrors.

[00:16:59.339]
Particulate contamination
is like a fine layer of dust

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that scatters the light and
doesn't allow it to transmit

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through the object and gather
into the detector very well.

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Molecular contamination is a thin
film similar to the connotation

[00:17:13.369]
that you see on this
mirror when I sprayed it

[00:17:15.629]
with the nitrogen cleaner.

[00:17:17.669]
This doesn't allow the light

[00:17:19.089]
to be transmitted very
well through the object.

[00:17:21.789]
Okay Van to get back to your
question about how I use algebra

[00:17:24.659]
in my job is that I have a end of
life requirement for the amount

[00:17:29.039]
of contamination I can
accumulate on plane objects.

[00:17:30.669]
Now for Hubble that's the
primary and secondary mirrors.

[00:17:36.589]
End of life is the
amount of contamination

[00:17:37.879]
that you can accumulate from
the time that its launched

[00:17:41.179]
until the time that we no
longer expect to take science.

[00:17:42.679]
And for Hubble that's 20 years.

[00:17:43.709]
>> So you are saying that in 20
years you will accumulate some type

[00:17:47.289]
of contamination on
Hubble's mirrors.

[00:17:49.209]
[Patty Henson]: That is correct.

[00:17:49.899]
Okay. And what we do is we
take periodic measurements

[00:17:52.499]
and we compare that to our
end of life requirement.

[00:17:56.319]
[Jennifer Pulley:] Okay let's look

[00:17:56.929]
at the algebra Patty
is talking about.

[00:17:58.949]
NASA engineers know that the
total amount of contamination

[00:18:02.009]
on the Hubble has
to be less than 5%

[00:18:04.799]
or the telescope won't
work the way it should.

[00:18:07.069]
Before Hubble was
launched three measurements

[00:18:09.239]
for contamination were taken.

[00:18:10.979]
The first was eight
tenths of a percent.

[00:18:13.249]
The second was six
tenths of a percent

[00:18:15.139]
and the third was one
tenth of a percent.

[00:18:17.019]
The total amount of
the contamination level

[00:18:19.389]
on the Hubble consists of the
amount of contamination measured

[00:18:22.819]
on earth plus the amount of
contamination it collects on orbit.

[00:18:27.129]
If we substitute the values we
know into the inequality we find

[00:18:31.589]
that the amount of
contamination Hubble can collect

[00:18:34.129]
on orbit has to be less than 3.3%.

[00:18:37.879]
>> Using algebra you
can do that on our

[00:18:40.479]
[inaudible ]

[00:18:40.479]
lab to accumulate
contamination on both the primary

[00:18:43.799]
and secondary mirrors.

[00:18:45.019]
>> Hey check it did you know that
the Hubble space telescope is

[00:18:48.809]
about the same size
as your school bus

[00:18:51.869]
>> This is where all of the data

[00:18:53.499]
from Hubble space telescope is
continuously being collected.

[00:18:57.019]
Back in 1995 NASA Goddard collected
images from the Hubble deep field.

[00:19:02.269]
A few thousand never before
been seen galaxies are visible

[00:19:05.399]
in this deepest ever
view of the universe.

[00:19:08.239]
>> Hey how would you like to
use the web and real images

[00:19:12.529]
from the Hubble space telescope
to estimate the number of galaxies

[00:19:16.139]
in the universe and then
compare your findings

[00:19:18.869]
with those made by
real astronomers?

[00:19:20.829]
[Jennifer Pulley:] Dr.
Shelley Camry helps us do it.

[00:19:22.639]
[Shelley Camry]: I'm here
at the science museum

[00:19:26.999]
of Virginia in Richmond.

[00:19:28.619]
Home of the Apple Corporation
and Imax Dome and planetarium.

[00:19:32.679]
This is a wonderful place to visit.

[00:19:34.739]
It has over 250

[00:19:36.569]
[inaudible] interactive
exhibits where visitors will find

[00:19:39.599]
out learning science
is a whole lot of fun.

[00:19:42.259]
But you know what?

[00:19:42.969]
If we go inside the museum we
are going to find a computer lab

[00:19:46.159]
where some students
are waiting for us.

[00:19:47.699]
They are going to share with
us the featured online activity

[00:19:51.189]
for NASA Connect.

[00:19:52.089]
Come on lets go inside.

[00:19:54.449]
[00:19:56.179]
>> As we have learned how these
students used the internet

[00:19:58.449]
to explore new knowledge,

[00:20:00.169]
with Hubble Space telescope
scientists can now begin exploring

[00:20:03.399]
outer reaches of the universe.

[00:20:05.399]
In December 1995 a dark section

[00:20:07.999]
of the sky near the
big dipper was selected

[00:20:09.989]
for long observation using
camera's located on the telescope.

[00:20:14.239]
For 100 hours over a 10 day
period the telescope was pointed

[00:20:18.039]
at this part of t he sky we
called this the Hubble deep field.

[00:20:22.659]
What the Hubble saw
was thousands of stars

[00:20:24.799]
and galaxies beyond what we
could see with our own eyes.

[00:20:27.659]
In other words they
confirm the idea

[00:20:29.689]
that the universe is a
really, really big place.

[00:20:33.359]
In this show we are featuring the
Hubble deep field academy produced

[00:20:37.569]
by the space telescope
science institute.

[00:20:40.589]
The academy consists of 5 sections.

[00:20:43.399]
The first one gets you oriented to
the website and to your mission.

[00:20:46.839]
To explore the galaxies of the
Hubble deep field and put one

[00:20:50.349]
of humankind long time goals
of seeing as far as possible

[00:20:54.889]
into the universe in an attempt
to understand our origins.

[00:20:59.359]
The first activity called stellar
statistician introduces you

[00:21:03.629]
to an estimating technique
scientists use

[00:21:06.039]
called representative sampling.

[00:21:09.399]
By counting the number of space
objects in a small section

[00:21:12.449]
of the deep field photograph then
multiplying that by the number

[00:21:16.339]
of total sections you'll get an
estimate of the number of objects

[00:21:19.769]
in the whole deep field.

[00:21:22.669]
Activity 2 lets you classify
selected objects based

[00:21:26.109]
on their color and shape.

[00:21:27.959]
You a camera then try to
classify the 15 numbered objects

[00:21:31.789]
in the picture then you'll
see how your choices compare

[00:21:35.239]
with those made by astronomers.

[00:21:38.519]
Activity 3 presents you with the
problem of determining the distance

[00:21:42.329]
between earth and objects in space.

[00:21:45.089]
You look at 6 objects and determine

[00:21:47.129]
by observation what their relative
distances are from the earth.

[00:21:51.849]
Then you'll get to
compare your answers

[00:21:54.079]
with those of the astronomers.

[00:21:56.809]
The last activity is a
review of what you learned.

[00:21:59.739]
You'll answer questions
like what is the difference

[00:22:02.289]
between a galaxy and a star.

[00:22:04.639]
Why isn't a galaxy size alone used

[00:22:07.029]
for determining its
distance from earth?

[00:22:09.799]
We've just scratched the
surface of this website.

[00:22:13.109]
Along the way you'll get to
view animations and see diagrams

[00:22:16.979]
that further explain
facts and concepts related

[00:22:19.649]
to the Hubble deep field.

[00:22:21.469]
I'm sure you'll find it
to a fascinating extension

[00:22:24.359]
to what you've already
learnt in today's program.

[00:22:27.779]
And speaking of extensions
let me introduce you

[00:22:29.899]
to another exciting
website space.com.

[00:22:33.259]
Its devoted space news
to a special portal

[00:22:35.969]
to space kids.com there you'll
find an interactive photo gallery

[00:22:39.809]
of Hubble images you can compare
galaxies, contrast different kinds

[00:22:43.889]
of images of the same
exploding star.

[00:22:46.749]
Find out about the astronomer
Edwin Hubble and follow the drama

[00:22:50.129]
of scientists and astronauts who
fixed the telescope when it broke.

[00:22:54.259]
Both the Hubble Academy and
space kids.com can be accessed

[00:22:58.069]
through Nobert's lab on
the NASA Connect website.

[00:23:01.129]
And Oh, a special thanks
to the Science Museum

[00:23:03.449]
of Virginia and our AIAA Student

[00:23:05.929]
[inaudible] old dominion
university from north of Virginia.

[00:23:08.909]
[Van Hughes]: So you see the data
from the Hubble is being used now

[00:23:12.229]
but there is a need for
even bigger telescopes

[00:23:14.739]
that can see even deeper into
space and collect more information

[00:23:17.999]
[Music]

[00:23:18.379]
>> Compare and contrast
the Hubble space telescope

[00:23:22.849]
and the next generation
space telescope.

[00:23:26.389]
[Jennifer Pulley:] Hey guys Van
and I are with Dr. Eric Smith.

[00:23:28.889]
He is an astronomer
at NASA Goddard.

[00:23:31.369]
[Van Hughes]: So Dr. Smith, what is
a next generation space telescope.

[00:23:35.749]
[Eric Smith]: Well, the NGST

[00:23:37.069]
or Next Generation Space
Telescope is the logical successor

[00:23:40.199]
to the Hubble Space
Telescope or HST.

[00:23:41.869]
NGST is designed to
see the first stars

[00:23:45.059]
that light up in the universe.

[00:23:47.899]
To do this we need to work in the
infrared part of the spectrum.

[00:23:51.519]
So that's one very
important difference.

[00:23:53.429]
Another important difference is
just how the telescope looks.

[00:23:56.299]
HST looks like a very familiar
telescope to most people.

[00:23:59.609]
Lots of tubes its got a
mirror at one end of it.

[00:24:02.579]
NGST because it is so large 4 times
the size of HST is going to have

[00:24:07.539]
to be cut up and folded in a
rocket and it will be launched

[00:24:10.539]
into space and will sort
of bloom like a flower

[00:24:13.409]
and it will have a sun shade that
will block light from the sun

[00:24:16.649]
and protect its optics.

[00:24:18.189]
That sun shade is about
the size of a tennis court.

[00:24:20.219]
>> That's huge

[00:24:21.399]
[Van Hughes]: It is.

[00:24:22.279]
[Eric Smith]: Yeah.

[00:24:22.919]
One of the other important
differences between HST

[00:24:26.039]
and NGST is where it will be.

[00:24:28.589]
HST is about 200 miles above
our heads orbiting the earth.

[00:24:31.519]
NGST will be about 1.5 million
kilometers from the earth.

[00:24:36.269]
Farther than the moon being
put there so that it can be

[00:24:39.679]
in a very cold environment which
again is good for telescopes

[00:24:42.879]
that have to work in the infrared.

[00:24:44.979]
It also means that no one
will service the NGST.

[00:24:47.889]
>> How do astronomers like you
use algebra when you are designing

[00:24:51.969]
or dealing with the NGST.

[00:24:53.799]
[Eric Smith]: Well algebra is
used in all stages of the design

[00:24:56.359]
and construction of a telescope.

[00:24:58.239]
Astronomers used algebra
at the very beginning

[00:25:00.579]
when they decided how
they wanted to optimize it

[00:25:03.579]
and then how they wanted to
optimize for the infrared.

[00:25:06.159]
Well you can use algebra
to tell exactly

[00:25:08.449]
where you want the
telescope to work and you do

[00:25:11.429]
that by studying the galaxies and
where they emit their radiation.

[00:25:15.609]
>> You said that the NGST has
a sun shield that's the size

[00:25:19.729]
of a tennis court.

[00:25:21.649]
[Eric Smith]: And the reason
it has a sun shield is

[00:25:24.249]
to protect the telescope optics
from getting sun light on them.

[00:25:27.999]
>> Wow. Okay now so you
guys are working here

[00:25:30.019]
at the NASA Goddard
on the sun shield?

[00:25:31.809]
[Eric Smith]: a little
bit but a lot of work

[00:25:33.189]
on the materials are being
done at the NASA Langley.

[00:25:35.219]
>> Hey that's where we are from.

[00:25:36.309]
Why don't we head down to the heads
of Virginia and meet John Collin

[00:25:39.279]
and find out more
about the sun shield.

[00:25:40.899]
>> Here at the NASA Langley
research center we are working

[00:25:44.429]
on a number of technologies
that are relevant

[00:25:46.329]
to the next generation
space telescope.

[00:25:48.649]
The sun shield is comprised
primarily of polymer films.

[00:25:53.019]
Polymer is a term that means many
repeat units of the same structure.

[00:25:57.679]
Common examples of polymers
that you would encounter

[00:25:59.809]
in everyday life are things
such as surround wrap,

[00:26:02.889]
food packaging material milk jugs,

[00:26:05.549]
compact discs things
of this nature.

[00:26:08.279]
The materials we are
developing are for primarily

[00:26:10.589]
for the outer most shield of the
next generation space telescope.

[00:26:14.739]
As you recall this shield is
designed to keep the optics as cold

[00:26:18.719]
as possible so the shield
has to be very reflective.

[00:26:22.079]
The outer most layer in particular
has to be very reflective

[00:26:25.239]
and be resistant to t he
radiation environment.

[00:26:27.909]
As you can see the material
looks much like the

[00:26:30.119]
[inaudible] balloon that you
might encounter at birthday party

[00:26:32.779]
or other type of event.

[00:26:34.429]
The chemistry of them is such
that they are much different

[00:26:37.439]
and they'll be resistant to
the radiation present in space.

[00:26:40.829]
Polymer chemistry uses algebra in
the everyday working activities

[00:26:43.759]
in the calculations of
the recipes necessary

[00:26:46.029]
to make these advance polymers.

[00:26:48.079]
[Jennifer Pulley:]
Well that about wraps

[00:26:50.319]
up this episode of NASA Connect.

[00:26:52.789]
>> It was a blast wasn't it?

[00:26:54.019]
[Van Hughes]: Yeah, it sure was.

[00:26:55.219]
Jennifer and I would like to
thank everyone who helped in

[00:26:57.789]
[inaudible] this episode.

[00:26:58.479]
[Jennifer Pulley:] We sure would
and you know Van and I would love

[00:26:59.959]
to hear from you with your
comments your questions your

[00:27:02.119]
suggestions your ideas.

[00:27:03.589]
So just write us at NASA Connect.

[00:27:05.749]
NASA Langley research center,
nonstop 400 Hampton Virginia 23681.

[00:27:10.979]
and you know you can find us on the
web at connect.edu.larc.nasa.com

[00:27:17.559]
And teachers if you would
like a video tape copy

[00:27:20.349]
of this NASA connect show and the
teachers guide contact CORE the

[00:27:24.949]
NASA center operation for
resources for educators or check

[00:27:28.859]
out this website to locate

[00:27:30.519]
where local NASA educator resource
center all this information

[00:27:34.299]
and more is located on
the NASA Connect website.

[00:27:37.389]
For the NASA Connect
series I am Jennifer Pulley

[00:27:39.959]
And I am Van Hughes See
you next time Bye have fun

[00:27:44.279]
>> of the amount of contamination
that I can accumulate

[00:27:51.319]
>> don't start laughing

[00:27:55.539]
>> Wow

[00:27:55.869]
>>easy, easy

[00:27:57.219]
>> the invention of the
telescope came about by accident.

[00:28:01.369]
A Dutch spectacle maker had
an apprentice who was playing

[00:28:03.949]
with lenses one day and found
that if he held 2 lenses in front

[00:28:07.129]
of his eyes he saw things
considerably closer than they were.

[00:28:10.769]
Immediately the spectacle
maker grasped the importance

[00:28:14.289]
of the discovery and in 1608
Hans Liperchi mounted the lenses

[00:28:18.769]
in a tube and invented
the telescope.

[00:28:21.389]
>> did you know that telescopes
were first called Dutch trunks?

[00:28:24.269]