Transcript for NASAConnect - Recipes For the Future

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[Music]

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[Van:] Oh, hi Shelley.

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[Shelley:] Oh my gosh Van!

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What is going on here?

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You look as if you were
in the third fight,

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you are the loosing
side, what are you doing?

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[Van:] Well I was
making some cookies

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for the NASA Connect Cast Party.

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That turn out going
to be hard though.

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[Shelley:] Hard is
an understatement,

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Van you got some real
problems here.

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[Van:] I thought may be you
could give me hand figure

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out what I am doing wrong.

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[Shelley:] Well is
this your recipe?

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[Van:] Right.

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[Shelley:] I can hardly
even read it?

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[Van:] Well it's a copy
of a copy of a copy

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that my great grandmother
wrote a long time ago.

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[Shelley:] Oh man!

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Then you got some problems.

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And maybe - right now
WVEC channel thirteen,

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they are having a daily cooking
show and if we are lucky,

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we maybe able to actually catch
the program and have something

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that too help you
with your problem.

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[Van:] Okay.

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[Announcer:] Coming to you from

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[inaudible] Virginia and the
WVEC channel thirteen studios;

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it's cooking with the stars
with your host Britney

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[inaudible].

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[Britney:] Hi everybody with me is
this week's co-host Daphne Reid.

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Daphne have you ever picked
up a copy of Bon Aperitif

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and saw a picture of a delicious
loaf of bread and said hey,

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I can make that, all I have to
do is follow the recipe well.

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You do and guess what it's
not delicious it's a disaster.

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[Stephanie] Yeah!

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That's what happened to us
last time we made some bread.

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Last time we did our
show on Italian food,

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this is what happened.

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[Britney] Yeah!

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I think that the

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[inaudible] bread dough
got the better of us.

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[Stephanie] Yeah here to help us
analyze the problem is a chemist

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from the NASA Langley who
specializes in developing recipes

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for future aerospace material.

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Our guest this week and our
friend Doctor Catherine

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[inaudible].

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>> Hi Catherine.

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How are you?

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>> Hey! That's Catherine

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[inaudible].

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I know her from work.

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>> Catherine great chefs are like
on some levels great chemists.

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Now we thought because you are a
chemist you might have some insight

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into what we did wrong last time.

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>> Now would you explain how
a chemist follows a recipe?

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[Catherine:] Glad to help, first
at NASA Langley a first step is

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to determine the requirements
of the application.

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In your case, you need
bread for an Italian meal.

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Making bread involves
a chemical change.

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This is different from physical
change such as boiling of water

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that is water becomes
steam when heated,

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but once steam cools it
becomes liquid again.

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There is no change in a chemical
identity of the substance.

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The chemical change
reaction involves conversion

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of one substance into another.

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Mixing and baking bread is an
example of a chemical change

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because the flour the sugar

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and other ingredients are
converted into a loaf of bread.

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Daphne, Britney having the
proper ingredients is important.

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However, also knowing
the properties

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of the ingredients
is just as important

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and producing a successful recipe.

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Knowing the properties can also
help you determine what went wrong.

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What were your ingredients?

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>> We have flour, water,
yeast, sugar and salt.

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[Catherine:] Let's take a look at
the properties of your ingredients.

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Flour contains gluten
forming proteins

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which allow the bread to rise.

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Water helps the gluten make the
dough rise, yeast causes the bread

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to rise and imparts flavor.

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Sugar provides food for the yeast
and salt slows yeast activity.

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What was wrong with your bread?

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>> Well here is ours and it sure
looks like bread didn't rise.

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>> No, I bought a loaf Picaci
this morning from the Chesapeake

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[inaudible] bakery.

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>> Let's take a look
at the difference here.

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>> Now. What went wrong?

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[Catherine:] There are
three possibilities.

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Too much salt, yeast twisted
or insufficient rise time.

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A successful recipe is determined
by using the proper ingredients,

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using the right amounts,
mixing the ingredients properly

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and heating and cooling
as required.

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It sort of like what we are
do at NASA Langley for recipes

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of materials used in airplane
and space vehicle research.

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This means proper ingredients,

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correct processing,
fabrication analysis.

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>> Catharine thanks for
bringing some science to our show

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and helping us clear
up our Picaci flop.

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Well there you have it
the right recipe begins

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with the right ingredients.

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>> Yeah! We have also
learned from Catherine

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that knowing the properties of
those ingredients can help the cook

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that will predict what will happen

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when the ingredients are
mixed substituted or changed.

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Our cooking and yours is
likely to be more successful

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when you know this, especially
when you are trying to cook

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up a recipe for the future.

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[Music]

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>> You know Van, I think Daphne
Reid have a very important

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message there.

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Basically, she was saying
is that a good cook is more

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than having just a recipe
and the ingredients,

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a good cook is like
a kitchen scientist.

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You know in the end it is
like your gathering data

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from your cooking trials and
then making informed decisions

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about what ingredients to you use,
how much to use, how to mix it

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up and how to bake it?

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You know I wonder if Doctor Cathy

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[inaudible] at NASA
Langley might be able

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to help us with your recipe.

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>> That be great, may be she could
even help me rewrite my recipe

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these cookies are just
so hard and crumbling.

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>> Oh yeah.

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Okay what's in lets do this.

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Why don't you stay here and clean
this up, get more ingredients

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out mean while I'll head over to
NASA Langley see if I can catch

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up with Cathy in the colleagues
'cause they are doing some really

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neat things with aerospace
materials and structures

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and in fact they are really
cooking up recipes for the future.

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>> You know that sounds
like a pretty good title

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for our NASA Connect show.

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>> You are right.

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Hey and gang how about this,
we will leave him here,

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you and I lets head on over
to NASA Langley and see

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if we can find some things
out there that's going

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to help Van in his recipe.

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Well, this a research and
NASA Langley to learn more

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about the recipes they are
cooking up for aerospace structures

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and materials and we will see if
any of their steps might be helpful

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to Van, so take careful
notes and while we are

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at it we'll find a thing or two
about the composite material

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that NASA Langley cooking
up to build the airplane

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and space vehicles of the future

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>> And as we go through the
show, you will be challenged

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by an experiment and composite
materials that students performed

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[inaudible] Middle School
in Chesapeake, Virginia.

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Oh! And when you see this
banner; that's your clue to check

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out from more fun
information and activities

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on the NASA Connect website.

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>>That's right and be thinking

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about questions during this
program, because you are going

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to have a chance to call
and then e-mail in questions

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to our NASA researchers.

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Evan let's go cracking.

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Whoa..

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>> Cathy hello, thank for
letting me come by here today.

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>> Hi! Shelley no trouble, this
is my colleague Roberto Canna

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from the composite
fabrications laboratory.

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>> Pleasure to meet you.

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What's up?

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>> Well, what's up is
my friend Van Hughes,

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he is trying to cook some thing
up and is having little problem

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with his cookie recipe, since
that his cookies are way too hard,

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they are not chewy and
they crumble very easily.

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Well, Cathy we saw you
today on the WVECU cooking

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with the stars program and
thought may be here at NASA Langley

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where you are involved with the
composite materials laboratory

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that there might be a recipe
that you have that could help us

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or something that's you do
that could give us some advice

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to help Van and his problem.

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>> Burt I would be glad to help,
in fact the process that Burt

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and I fall under, the Composite
Fabrication Laboratory might offer

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solutions to Vans problems.

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>> Oh! That's great, but
now I've got a question.

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What is a composite material

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and just how is a
composite material made?

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>> A composite material is made
of two more different materials.

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Composite materials have
been throughout history,

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for instance ancient Egyptians
used the very basic composite

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material in the construction
of there houses drawn that.

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They can buy these few materials
to make a third stronger one.

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>> One of our goals that
NASA Langley is to develop,

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stronger more durable lighter
weight materials for use

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in airplanes and space vehicles.

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NASA Langley research center is
the agency's centre of excellence

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for structures and
material research.

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We can identify five steps
in composite development.

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They may use similar
steps in planning

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and preparing and cooking recipe.

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Identify the application, develop
materials to meet requirements,

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process the material,
test the material

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and make structural components.

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>> Okay. How about it, could
you give me some examples

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of how these steps work
for composite development?

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>> Glad to, a mix plan per step.

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NASA has challenged their
researchers to find ways

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to make planes and
space vehicles tougher,

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stronger, lighter, cheaper.

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Our job is researchers, is to
develop new materials or to improve

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on existing materials.

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Our work at NASA Langley
involves development

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of characterization of parlors.

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A parlor is a huge chain like
molecule built up by the reputation

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of small simple chemical unit.

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Parlors can be flexible
or stiff, tougher,

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brittle, strong but lively.

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>> Okay so what's the next step?

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>> We will first start
the application

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with polymer need to be reinforced.

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Typically it's done
with the carbon fiber.

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And one way we combined
the carbon fiber

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with the polymer is a
like free preged tape

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>> Free Preged tape?

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>> Let me show you what I mean?

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The principle of free pregging goes
back to early days of aviation.

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The plans were made up of a wood
structured covered with the skin

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of fabric coated glue.

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This combination of the glue

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and the fabric will
reform composite material.

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We develop the prepared material

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that combines the
NASA Langley develop

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to present system thirty-five
with the carbon fiber iron seven.

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This material developed
for application

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with the commercial
Super Sonic Aircraft.

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To fabricate iron seven thirty
five preferred many aims

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of iron seven carbon fibers
are introduced into depend.

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And it depend, the fibers go
over and under as series of bars.

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And the raisin solution is poured

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into the pan the bars help force
the raisin into the fiber bundles.

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We now quoted fibers exit the
pan and go through a series

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of ovens and nip rolls.

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The oven and nip rollers process
the material into uniform tape

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that is taken up to begin.

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This tape is

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[inaudible] free preg and can not
be used to make composite parts.

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As layers in the new
material of process together

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that creates a tough structure
that is lighter than metal

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but is strong and is stiff.

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>> Well this has been fascinating,
but what pointers you might be able

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to get to me so I can pass on
to Van with his cooking problem.

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>> Even the Van requirements
were soften

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to a cookie I like man
using half butter and half

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[inaudible] making the
cookies that three hundred

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and fifty degrees
Fahrenheit in a preheated oven

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for about eight to twelve minutes.

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>> Also to make the cookies
more chewy he could -

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you oatmeal raisins
or truffle chips.

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Well I also want to make a
composite material even to test

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to see how well it performs though
it is also recommended Van tests

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his cookies before
serves them to anyone.

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>> Sure I recommended to talk to
David Magellan and Dr. Ted Johnson.

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They have a lot of
experience in area testing.

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>> Fantastic.

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>> I am going to give Van with the
information that you shared with me

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than I am going to be all
my ways, thanks so much

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for all your help
today, appreciate it.

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>> You are welcome.

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>> Okay then did you give out that?

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>> I figured out some of the
ingredients and now I have

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to figure out is the
quantity of the ingredients.

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And then I will focus on
Cathy and Roberto's ideas

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on the oven temperature,
baking time and the properties.

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>> Okay great and meanwhile
I am going to head on over

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to the materials testing
and see what I can find out

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and I will give you a call back.

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>> Okay but it is not like it has
some butter burning on the stove.

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So I thought you ...

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>> Hi. Dave

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>> Hi Cathy Collins,
have you becoming over.

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Seems like your friend Van has
to test out his cookie recipe.

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>> See like different brand as
it just out as cookie recipe.

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>> Yes Dave, he has
a little problem,

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he is trying to get a cookie
that is taste good is chewy

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and it doesn't crumbles.

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So I thought maybe if I can
never hear and solve the process

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to testing new materials maybe
there some that I can learn

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from this to share with Van,
do you think he could help?

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>> I think so, Todd my both
test and analyze structures

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for new aerospace and vehicles.

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I usually test the room temperature
and Todd actually tests them

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at extreme temperatures.

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Since I use the test of room
temperature, the components

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of add test are larger than
those that Ted uses in his

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[inaudible] structural tests.

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What typically happens here is been
component of the vehicle structure

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that were interested in as
built and shipped to our labs.

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Within a five centers to it to
help us understand how it behaves

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on the different loads of forces.

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This panel here is the part of
the key role or bottom section

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of a high speed civic
transport supersonic aircraft.

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This vehicle will be
capable flying at speed

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up to two point four
times the speed of sound.

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This panel is made from the IM7

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[inaudible] five composite that
Cathy and Roberto talked about.

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This panel will be
tested in tension;

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well we can use this
machine to apply

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up to one point two million
pounds of force on to the panel

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until the breaks are fail.

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>> Well we test pounds here at room
temperature Todd also has thermal

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structural test as smaller panels
are using layout the same deposit

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of material.

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>> That's right NASA has
it's a research program

[00:12:46.359]
to develop a reusable launch
vehicle known as X33 and X34

[00:12:49.949]
which we used in transport
people and materials

[00:12:52.799]
to orbit at a lower cost.

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In order to see how effectively

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[inaudible] deposits can work
in harsh environments and space

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that test relatively small samples
of composite materials to look

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at hydrogen proponent
things physically test here.

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In one test we use liquid nitrogen

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and liquid helium to
cool the specimen.

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The panel is cooled
to negative point

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of twenty three degrees Fahrenheit,

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then a mechanical load is applied.

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An example of how cold
liquid nitrogen is,

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we'll dip this carnation
into liquid nitrogen

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and see how brittle
the flower's become.

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>> In one test, we pushed
material to the max.

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In some materials we

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[inaudible] one surface
of panel to minus

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[inaudible] degrees Fahrenheit of
the same time as the other side

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of the panel to two hundred
fifty degrees Fahrenheit.

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Sections of the material is then
placed beneath a microscope to look

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for any cracks or flaws.

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If the flaws falls within
unacceptable ranges during the time

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of these test you retest
the material or even go back

[00:13:58.129]
to the drawing board to
change the fabrication process

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or the material.

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>> Gentlemen thank you so much
for your times today in helping

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to explain to me the process
of testing new materials.

[00:14:08.309]
But now that brings me back to Van.

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What would you suggest Van
should do with his cookies,

[00:14:13.749]
how should he test his cookies?

[00:14:15.829]
>> I think he should
try a bending test,

[00:14:17.539]
performed at room temperature,

[00:14:18.649]
that way he can see how
well the cookie holds up

[00:14:20.549]
and whether or not it crumbles.

[00:14:22.649]
>> Also to the extreme, you know

[00:14:25.269]
[inaudible], to test how
well his cookie hold up.

[00:14:26.459]
You should try a thermal
dunking test.

[00:14:28.539]
Firstly he dunks it in cold
milk and then hot chocolate.

[00:14:31.929]
>> Oh, that really sounds like
some good test, thank you very much

[00:14:35.099]
and I will report back
to Van thanks again.

[00:14:39.869]
>> Ah! And the thermal test
it went well, great, right?

[00:14:43.299]
What about the bending test?

[00:14:45.259]
>> Well, I'm ready to test it now.

[00:14:47.369]
[00:14:49.339]
Oh wow these are bending really
well; I think this recipe works.

[00:14:54.799]
>> Van I think you are forgetting
the most importance test.

[00:14:58.069]
>> Oh what's that?

[00:14:59.479]
>> The taste test?

[00:15:01.139]
>> The taste test, alright
well, I'll call you back

[00:15:04.219]
with my final results.

[00:15:05.469]
But first, I have
something planned.

[00:15:08.199]
While I get ready for
this most important test,

[00:15:11.049]
Shelley is going back to the NASA
Connect studio with some researches

[00:15:14.289]
who are on hand to take your
phone calls and e-mail questions

[00:15:17.189]
about composite materials and
future vehicles like the X-33.

[00:15:21.049]
Meanwhile I am going
to send you to Hugo

[00:15:23.049]
[inaudible] Middle School
where you will see students

[00:15:25.219]
from the classroom of
science teacher Bernadette

[00:15:27.879]
[inaudible] Smith conducting an
experiment, examining the strength

[00:15:31.209]
of the several materials.

[00:15:32.929]
Follow along and after
that you will be challenged

[00:15:35.189]
to make your own analysis and
predictions based on their results.

[00:15:39.049]
>> Hi, we are the
students from Hugo

[00:15:41.789]
[inaudible] Middle School.

[00:15:42.529]
[Students]

[00:15:42.699]
[inaudible] Virginia.

[00:15:43.129]
>> NASA Connect astro science and
math teachers Miss Bernadette Smith

[00:15:50.419]
and Miss Angela Lanes who have
our class investigate the strength

[00:15:53.919]
and the fraction of a
composite material with

[00:15:56.119]
and about the use of reinforcement.

[00:15:58.759]
Miss Smith reviews some vocabulary
returns which will help us

[00:16:02.189]
in our composite research.

[00:16:04.399]
A polymer is a large molecule
built by the repetition

[00:16:07.529]
of small simple chemical units.

[00:16:10.009]
Nylon, Polyester, Teflon and
rubber are examples of polymers.

[00:16:14.819]
The fiber is a long thin strand
of materials such as Nylon,

[00:16:19.089]
hair, wood or even glass.

[00:16:22.059]
Stress cracks are external or
internal cracks anybody caused

[00:16:25.689]
by the application of
forces to the body.

[00:16:28.609]
Maximum deflection is the
largest deflection that a body

[00:16:32.609]
or structures allowed to take
well in use before failure.

[00:16:36.949]
Having reviewed these terms
we're now ready to divide

[00:16:39.699]
into our research teams.

[00:16:41.639]
>> Here are the procedures we
follow to do the experiments

[00:16:44.899]
and you can do it too.

[00:16:46.769]
Cut out of about six
pieces of eight

[00:16:50.319]
by fifteen centimeters
across the Board.

[00:16:53.659]
Two of these will be used with
out any reinforcement or binding.

[00:16:59.509]
Two will be used with the epoxy

[00:17:01.729]
[inaudible] and two will
be used with the epoxy

[00:17:05.709]
[inaudible].

[00:17:05.879]
For the epoxy preparation
put on the rubber gloves

[00:17:11.179]
and safety glasses
and then squeeze out

[00:17:14.779]
[inaudible] two parts epoxy to make
a pool about the size of a quarter

[00:17:19.739]
on the back of the poster of board.

[00:17:21.729]
Mix thoroughly with the epoxy

[00:17:25.679]
[inaudible], spread the
epoxy evenly over the surface

[00:17:28.979]
of the first poster board,
take the second poster board

[00:17:32.979]
and press the two pieces together.

[00:17:36.289]
Weigh the sample down
to help consolidated

[00:17:39.819]
after you have done this,
let the epoxy near to us

[00:17:43.309]
across the board dry
for 10 minutes.

[00:17:46.459]
Now we will prepare the fiber
glass epoxy poster board composite.

[00:17:51.479]
Spread the epoxy to one side
of the board with the epoxy

[00:17:56.209]
and lay the piece of fiber
glass on top of the glue.

[00:18:01.329]
Once this is done lay the back
of the second poster board on top

[00:18:05.729]
of the fiber glass and
press to form a sample.

[00:18:09.639]
The thickness of each
sample is measured

[00:18:12.419]
for its strength calculation.

[00:18:14.979]
Our math teacher Mrs. William
provides us with the number.

[00:18:20.589]
While the epoxy poster board and
the fiber glass board are drying,

[00:18:25.129]
its time to begin testing the
now composite poster board.

[00:18:30.199]
>> Take the two five meter sticks
and have the bridges placed

[00:18:32.759]
between the two desks
using the ruler

[00:18:35.159]
and measure the inside
distance between the sticks,

[00:18:37.799]
its six centimeters apart so there
was support they poster board.

[00:18:41.349]
This is called the stand.

[00:18:43.379]
Make sure you have taped down
the sticks on to the desk,

[00:18:47.159]
tie one of those strings on to a

[00:18:49.369]
[inaudible] candle and tie other
end into a loop big enough to slide

[00:18:53.959]
over the leght wise part
of the poster board.

[00:18:56.559]
Be sure to measure out and
that enough string so that the

[00:18:59.719]
[inaudible] dangle five
centimeters above the ground.

[00:19:02.689]
This distance from the ground is
our designed maximum inflections.

[00:19:06.379]
And is the design we
planned of this experiment.

[00:19:09.359]
Now set the poster
board over the sticks

[00:19:11.619]
and let the jug hang down gently.

[00:19:14.029]
>> Carefully pour the water into
the jar as for the test materials

[00:19:18.289]
[inaudible].

[00:19:18.589]
We cut the jar with the word NSJ.

[00:19:22.609]
Place this on to the
scales and tell

[00:19:24.619]
that how much weight cost the
post to board to bend or break.

[00:19:28.269]
Whereas we have tested the
plane board, the epoxy board

[00:19:31.429]
and fiber glass board,
we will compare our data

[00:19:34.759]
with the other teams.

[00:19:36.469]
Now we have finished our experiment
Mrs William helped us to think

[00:19:40.979]
about where our data might show us

[00:19:43.249]
and what mathematical statements
we might write to analyze the data.

[00:19:48.589]
[00:19:50.009]
>> Okay joining in the studio our

[00:19:52.509]
[inaudible] in materials research
engineer and NASA Langley here

[00:19:55.609]
in Hampton Virginia
also don't know what

[00:19:58.289]
in the space transportation
program that Martian

[00:20:00.559]
and Space Flight Centre in

[00:20:01.969]
[inaudible] Alabama but before
we take to our researchers

[00:20:06.319]
and let you ask some questions,
let's give you a chance

[00:20:08.899]
to your own computations
using the data

[00:20:10.979]
from the experiments you just saw,

[00:20:12.849]
then after this segment our two
researchers will be answering your

[00:20:15.769]
e-mail questions and taking
question from our viewing audience.

[00:20:18.689]
Okay, now the carefree for
data and use the information

[00:20:21.879]
in the following diagrams
work with your fellow students

[00:20:24.379]
to answer the question as read
aloud by Dr. Catherine Fay.

[00:20:27.869]
>> From the data presented

[00:20:30.569]
which specimen has the
highest flex strength, why?

[00:20:34.969]
[00:21:10.149]
>> Based on the data presented

[00:21:11.629]
which specimen has some
lowest flex strength, why?

[00:21:16.059]
[00:21:50.139]
>> Why is there such
a big difference

[00:21:51.549]
between the flex strengths
of specimens one and two?

[00:21:55.359]
[00:22:29.179]
[Shelley:] Okay, we are back
and with me our Alberto Cano

[00:22:31.889]
and Bill Millwood to
answer your questions,

[00:22:33.829]
but to start this off though let
me go to you, get some little more

[00:22:36.959]
about this X33 and X34 what
is this, what are they?

[00:22:40.739]
>> Oh, thanks Shelley.

[00:22:41.759]
It's sort of like the cookie
taste test, it's the final test

[00:22:44.399]
for new material once they
are developed in the lab

[00:22:46.619]
and then tested on the ground
the next step is to fly them

[00:22:49.529]
and the X33 and X34 do just that,

[00:22:51.979]
they are both unpiloted
test vehicles,

[00:22:54.059]
the X34 flies eight times
the speed of sound that's

[00:22:57.019]
about a hundred times faster than
your parents would drive a car.

[00:22:59.809]
And X33 flies even faster at
fifteen times of speed of sound,

[00:23:03.329]
they both will fly next year
and the material will lead

[00:23:05.789]
to lower cost for usable
spacecraft in the future

[00:23:08.359]
and these future space vehicles
will takes to Mars and beyond.

[00:23:11.789]
>> Wow, we are really
talking up some

[00:23:13.229]
of the future vehicles
here then aren't we?.

[00:23:14.919]
>> That's right.

[00:23:15.579]
>> Well we already have some e-mail
questions waiting for us, let me go

[00:23:18.849]
and take your first
e-mail question,

[00:23:20.899]
that question what are the
different categories of composites

[00:23:24.849]
if I want to take that.

[00:23:25.919]
>> Well Shelley, it's a
power of major composites

[00:23:27.869]
that we saw during the show
which are reinforced plastics.

[00:23:31.379]
It's all some room for metals
where metal may make composites

[00:23:34.059]
and got you also have
composite ceramics,

[00:23:35.369]
here ceramics matrix
composites so its various types

[00:23:38.069]
of the composites you can use.

[00:23:39.579]
>> Okay, so tell us the all
these different composites

[00:23:41.799]
when do you know when
to use which one?

[00:23:44.189]
>> Depend on the application
what the application's needs,

[00:23:46.979]
what the temperature used dictates
what kind of matrix you going

[00:23:50.019]
to use and the kind
of reinforcement.

[00:23:51.809]
>> Okay so it's the requirement
that's in the application.

[00:23:54.609]
Okay what...I understand
we've got a caller out there,

[00:23:56.959]
it's a caller hey how about
giving us your first name

[00:23:59.359]
and your question please.

[00:24:01.419]
[00:24:02.769]
>> How long does it take to
build new airplane material?

[00:24:06.369]
>> How long does it take
to build a new airplane?

[00:24:10.159]
Well why don't you give us
a little idea about the X33

[00:24:13.419]
and X34 what's the
time line on that?

[00:24:15.729]
>> Okay these aircraft are
very short high-risk programs.

[00:24:19.299]
Both of them were contracted
for thirty month time period

[00:24:22.879]
from the authority to
proceed to first flight.

[00:24:25.969]
>> All right so it will take let
may be two year before we would

[00:24:29.259]
actually see this flying then?

[00:24:30.859]
>> Three years.

[00:24:31.509]
>> Three years, thirty
months type of thing.

[00:24:33.499]
Okay very good.

[00:24:34.359]
That was a excellent question.

[00:24:35.589]
Thank you.

[00:24:36.289]
Well I am going to go
back to the e-mails.

[00:24:37.409]
You get a couple of
more e-mail questions.

[00:24:39.319]
But calling with questions
if you have them,

[00:24:41.629]
our second e-mail question how
are composite materials being used

[00:24:45.699]
with the X33, let's
go back to you Bill?

[00:24:48.029]
>> Okay with the X33, this is scale
model the actual vehicles much

[00:24:51.859]
large than this and is also larger
than X34 by a small amount now.

[00:24:55.699]
It has two hydrogen composite
tanks and a thrust structure.

[00:24:58.729]
The hydrogen tanks
are full of fuel.

[00:25:01.319]
>> All right, very good.

[00:25:02.539]
>> And the X34 which will
fly next May as well,

[00:25:07.269]
it has a composite fuel tank up
front and also has a structure

[00:25:10.799]
which is a backbone of vehicle
which is made out of composites.

[00:25:13.739]
And these two vehicles by
having lighter weight materials

[00:25:16.379]
that are reusable will lead

[00:25:17.989]
to less expensive
spacecraft for the future.

[00:25:20.359]
>> All right very
good and I understand,

[00:25:22.059]
now we've got someone else who is
going to ask us some questions.

[00:25:24.679]
So let's go back out to
our viewers and caller how

[00:25:27.679]
about giving us your first
name and your question.

[00:25:31.369]
[00:25:33.389]
>> And a caller there?

[00:25:34.519]
>> Yeah! My name is

[00:25:36.989]
[inaudible].

[00:25:36.989]
>> I repeat the question
again please.

[00:25:40.479]
>> And my question is how
did, when you played your hand

[00:25:47.389]
in that liquid stuff and
how did you get it so cold?

[00:25:53.689]
>> Okay that's going back to
where we saw Dr. Ted Johnson.

[00:25:57.449]
The actually had some protective
ware on he had put a flower

[00:26:02.319]
in there and that was
may be you do one answer,

[00:26:05.209]
do you want to answer anything
about what he was doing there?

[00:26:08.759]
>> Well he just stuck the flower
in liquid nitrogen which froze it

[00:26:12.179]
and when he was trying that he
was wearing cryogenic gloves

[00:26:15.569]
which protected his hand.

[00:26:16.599]
>> All right so he was
doing a lot of safety there.

[00:26:19.109]
All right.

[00:26:20.009]
Let's just take one quick
final e-mail question

[00:26:22.919]
and quick response to this please.

[00:26:24.649]
What are some examples in our daily
lives were composite materials are

[00:26:28.159]
being used, this is for one of you.

[00:26:30.299]
>> Oh! One place were composites
are used is in sporting goods

[00:26:32.589]
that is in tennis rackets
and other applications

[00:26:34.629]
where you can use these
types of material.

[00:26:36.829]
>> All right sporting goods.

[00:26:38.219]
All right well I see we are
quickly running out of time Alberto

[00:26:41.699]
and Bill thank you very much
for joining us here today.

[00:26:44.089]
And thanks to all of
the partners and guests

[00:26:46.399]
that contributed to
today's program.

[00:26:49.259]
If you want to learn more about
today's topic visit our web panel

[00:26:55.889]
of experts and to try your own hand

[00:26:58.299]
that becoming a production
scientist then jump

[00:27:00.679]
into our online experiment,
secret formulas.

[00:27:03.679]
Finally for a video tape copy
of this NASA Connect show

[00:27:06.639]
and lesson plans, contact CORE the
NASA Central Operation of Resources

[00:27:10.939]
for Educators for NASA Connect.

[00:27:13.589]
I am Shelley Camry.

[00:27:17.399]
>> Hello.

[00:27:17.889]
>> Van, hey so tell me how
did it go did we have a flop

[00:27:21.069]
or a future sensation.

[00:27:22.959]
>> What I can't hear you.

[00:27:24.399]
What's all that noise
at the background,

[00:27:25.969]
where are you calling from?

[00:27:27.219]
>> I enrolled in Johnson
and Wales university,

[00:27:30.229]
College of Culinary Arts
in Northern Virginia.

[00:27:32.379]
I think I do have
a future sensation.

[00:27:34.999]
The Jumbo Jet of all cookies.

[00:27:37.309]
The dough is prepared,
the oatmeal and raising

[00:27:40.049]
[inaudible] have been
added and the oven's heated

[00:27:47.139]
and the shape is made I
think it's time for lift off.

[00:27:56.139]
[00:28:00.999]
Oh! Well join us next time when we
connect you to the world of math,

[00:28:04.879]
science and NASA for NASA
Connect, I am Van Hughes.

[00:28:10.489]
Good bye. Now you should

[00:28:15.089]
[inaudible].

[00:28:15.089]