Transcript for NASAConnect - The Measurement of All Things: Atmospheric Detectives

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[Jennifer:] Hey, kids remember Buzz
Lightyear from the "Toy Story"?

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Remember when you first meet
Woody and used his laser,

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well that laser was just a toy,
but at NASA Langley Research Center

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in Hampton Virginia,
they use real lasers.

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You see the lasers that are uses at
NASA study the earth's atmosphere.

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In today's episode of NASA
Connect Van and I will take you

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to NASA Langley Research Center
where you will meet scientist

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and researchers who use lasers and
satellites to measure particles

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in the earth's atmosphere.

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So stick around as NASA
Connect takes you on a trip

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to the upper reaches of
the earth's atmosphere

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and remember guys its
mathematics, science and technology

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that make it all possible.

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Hang on as NASA Connect
takes you to infinity

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and beyond the earth's atmosphere.

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[ Music ]

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[Mr. Murphy:] By the looks
of your engines they need

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of a serious tune up.

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You need to replace your
catalytic converter.

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Your van's sick,

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[inaudible] needs help and
you young men are contributing

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the global pollution.

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[Van:] So what does that mean?

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[Mr. Murphy:] Means
you are rejected.

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[Woman:] Anything else?

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[Van:] No thanks.

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[Jennifer:] Hey, stranger.

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Why the little face?

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[Van:] Hey!

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Mr. Murphy rejected my van.

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He said that the particle emissions
coming out of my van were too high

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and that are polluting the air.

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[Jennifer:] You are upset, huh?

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[Van:] How does he even
know my van is a polluter?

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So the van smokes a
little big deal, mean,

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how much can a little
smoke damage do to the air?

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After all it's only one van.

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[Jennifer:] Well it hard to
understand how they measure,

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what's in the smoke coming out
of your van, because of a lot

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of it we can see,
that's why garages

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that inspect vehicles have
special tools to measure the amount

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of particle emissions
in the cars exhaust.

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So you see Van if your vans
emission levels are too high you

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get the big rejection.

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[Van:] Well how can you measure
something you can't even see?

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[Jennifer:] Okay.

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Just because you can't see
something doesn't mean it's

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not there, right!

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Take the air for example; there
are particles in the air right now.

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That are so small even
our eyes can't see them.

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Believe me those particles
are there, check it out.

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In the weather section
of the newspaper,

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they report on something everyday
called the air quality index level.

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This level tells us
the amount of particles

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or aerosols in the air around us.

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[Van:] Aerosols like hair spray?

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[Jennifer:] Yeah, simply put an
aerosol is a particle either a

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liquid or a solid that
is suspended in the air.

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So yes hair spray is
considered an aerosol.

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>> Well there are some
other examples of aerosols?

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[Jennifer:] Chalk
becomes an aerosol

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after you bang two
erasers together.

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The flakes released into the air

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when you scratch you
body become aerosols.

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Of course the dust
from desert storms

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and volcanic ash are also aerosols.

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[Van:] Okay so there aerosols all
around us but we can't see them.

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But I'm still confused, how can
we actually measure an aerosol.

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[Jennifer:] Look when we take
a road trip to Hampton Virginia

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and visit NASA Langley
Research Center

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and Hampton University I know
some atmospheric scientists there

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that can help us both
better understand,

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how they measure aerosols
in the atmosphere.

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Thank you.

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You are paying this
we always take my car.

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[ Music ]

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[Jennifer:] Hi guys!

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Welcome to this episode
of NASA Connect.

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I am Jennifer Pulley.

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[Van:] And I am Van Hughes.

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Speaking about measuring aerosols

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on today's show NASA
Connect travels

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to St. Steven's Indian School
on the Wind River reservation

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in Wyoming, Students there will
show you how to collect aerosols.

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You can conduct this experiment at
your own school or even in home.

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[Jennifer:] And to help you
understand the information

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in our show.

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Every time our friend
Norbert appears with Q card.

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That your cue to think
about answers

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to the questions he gives you.

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Got it? You will also meet NASA's
educational technology program

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manager, Dr. Shelley Kenly
who will introduce you

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to some students in California.

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[Van:] Yeah!

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These kids are hooked up and turned
on to our NASA Connect website.

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You will see how they are using
the internet to learn more

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about measuring the
earth's atmosphere.

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[Jennifer:] For right now,
let's get some expert help

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and some more background
information on aerosols

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from Dr. M. Patrick
McCormick, He is the Co-director

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of Hampton University's Center
for Atmospheric Sciences.

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>> How does the amount of aerosols

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in the atmosphere affect the
earth's weather condition?

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[Dr. Patrick McCormick:] Yeah,
atmosphere consists primarily

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of oxygen and other gases like
nitrogen and water vapor, hydrogen.

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But did you know that the
air we breathe also consist

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of tiny milk particles
called aerosols.

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Aerosols, they are very
important for a lot's of reasons.

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For example, aerosol is thought to
be important to climate by change

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in the properties of clouds.

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If you didn't have an aerosol
it would very difficult

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for a cloud droplet to form.

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In the air water molecules
attach themselves to aerosols

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and as they condense a
cloud droplet is formed.

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The aerosols act as seeds
to start the formation

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of the cloud droplets.

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In any location the
amount of aerosols

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in the atmosphere can change
how far we can see the frequency

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of clouds in the sky,
the thickness of clouds

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and even the rainfall amount.

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Some aerosols are
naturally occurring

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in the atmosphere like sea salt,
pollen and particles produced

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by volcanic eruptions.

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Other aerosols are human-made
like factory pollutants,

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automobile exhaust and
smoke from biomass burning.

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>> Can aerosols affect the
temperature here on earth?

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[Dr. Patrick McCormick:]
Sure they can.

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When aerosols like smoke
and dust and pollen float

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in the air, the air becomes hazy.

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Now if this haziness reflects
sunlight back to space,

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the affect is going to be a
cooling of the atmosphere on earth.

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But if this haziness absorbs energy
well then the net affect is going

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to be a warming of the
atmosphere here on earth.

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[Jennifer:] After getting
tons of information

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from Dr. McCormick we drove
to NASA Langley in Hampton,

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Virginia to talk with Dr. Russell
Deon, an atmospheric scientist

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in the chemistry and
dynamics branch.

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[Van:] Hi, I am Van.

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[Dr. Russell Deon:]
Hi, glad to meet you.

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What brings you two here today?

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[Jennifer:] Well it all started and
when Van's car failed inspection

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because his emission
levels were too high.

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[Van:] Yeah!

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I can't believe they got rejected
when there is so many other things

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in the atmosphere to worry about.

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Can my vans little emissions,

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really affect the huge
atmosphere above us?

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[Dr. Russell Deon:] Okay good.

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Now you've got a lot
of good questions

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and I think I get some
answers for you all.

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Here at NASA Langley in Hampton
Virginia and NASA Goddard

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in Greenbelt Maryland,
we study how natural

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and manmade aerosols
affect the atmosphere?

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You have one vehicle every
time you have new block has

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at least one vehicle.

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Your city is all of vehicles in
the U.S. alone there are million

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of vehicles all burning
fossil fuels.

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All together these
vehicles emit huge amounts

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of particles called aerosols

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that are carried long
distances by the wind.

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Did you know that in 1991
Mount Pinatubo a volcano

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in Philippines erupted
releasing mass

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of aerosol concentrations
into the air?

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These aerosols were
immediately dispersed

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into the upper atmosphere.

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Three months later, the same
aerosols could be found all

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over the earth.

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Okay, your van is a small
polluter, but think about this.

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We will think about the combined
effect of all the exhaust

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of all the cars in the world
on the earth's atmosphere.

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[Jennifer:] Wow!

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It's definitely something
to think about.

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Hey, here is Norbert with some more
questions for you to think about.

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>> How the aerosols
affect our health?

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>> What is remote sensing?

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>> Name and describe the
two types of remote sensing

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and give examples of each?

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>> How are aerosols in
the atmosphere measured?

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[Dr. Russell Deon:] Studying the
atmospheres of early new science.

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In the chemistry and
dynamics branch

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of NASA Langley Research Centre
atmospheric scientist are trying

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to determine how many
aerosols there are

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and where they are
in the atmosphere?

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Now these aerosols are important
because they affect our health.

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Small aerosols can enter our
lungs as we breathe polluted air.

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These aerosols can
be deposited deep

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in our lungs blocking the lungs
ability to exchange oxygen

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and carbon dioxide, over time
this makes it hard to breathe.

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Here at NASA Langley we measure
aerosols using a technique

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called Remote Sensing.

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>> Where is remote sensing?

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[Jennifer:] Remote sensing
is collecting information

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about an object without
physically touching the object.

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It's learning without touching.

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The most familiar kind of remote
sensing is the use of our eyes

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to detect a distant object.

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We also learn without
touching when we hear.

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For example, when a car beats
its horn, we hear from a distance

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and sense we're in danger.

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You know there are two types of
remote sensing Active and Passive

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and early example of passive
remote sensing involve the use

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of a camera.

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In 1858, the first aerial
photograph of land was taken

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from a balloon floating
over Paris in France.

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This is called Passive, because
the camera uses only the light

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from the sun to record
the image on film.

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On the other hand, Active remote
sensing uses its own light source.

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Put a flash on a camera and you've
made it active because the light

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from the flash reflects off the
distant object being photographed.

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Using active remote sensing, you
can take pictures whenever you want

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because you don't have to depend
on the sun to give you light.

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>> Explain how scientist use LIDAR
to help to measure the aerosol

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from the atmosphere
from the atmosphere?

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[Dr. Russell Deon:] Here
on our lab in NASA Langley,

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we use a technique called
active remote sensing.

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Now that means that we
carry our own light source.

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We don't wait around for the
sun to shine on the object.

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And we use what we do is we
use short pulses of laser light

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to probe the atmosphere.

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This technique is called LIDAR.

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LIDAR stands for Light
Detection And Ranging.

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A LIDAR uses short
pulses of laser light

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to detect the aerosols
in the atmosphere.

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NASA Langley is involved
in active remote sensing

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from the ground and in the air.

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And NASA

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[inaudible] in California
LIDAR is flown

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in the high altitude ER-2 Aircraft
to record atmospheric data.

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And at NASA Dryden also

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in California a high altitude
solar powered unpiloted Airplane is

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being developed that can stay aloft
for weeks, even months at a time

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to make atmospheric measurements.

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>> So how does LIDAR work?

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[Dr. Russell Deon:] Well first
of all we open its trap door

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and then align our LIDAR
under the open sky.

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Then we shoot a pulse laser
beam into the atmosphere.

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Some of that laser beam scatters
off the tiny aerosol particles

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and scatters light
into this telescope.

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The light is then
captured by this detector.

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By precisely timing the laser
pulse going out into the atmosphere

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and the reflected light
coming back to the telescope.

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Scientist can accurately
measure the location

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and number of aerosols.

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Now remember this is active
remote sensing much like

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that flash on the camera.

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[Van:] Okay, I understand passive

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and active remote sensing
and how LIDAR works.

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But how do you measure the
distance from the ground

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to the aerosols in the atmosphere.

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You can't use a meter stick?

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[Jennifer:] Okay,
let's say you want

[00:12:55.302]
to measure something far away
say like aerosols in the sky.

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You are right; you
wouldn't use a meter stick.

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Scientists at NASA
Langley use mathematics.

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A pulse of laser light is shot
from point a, the beam travels

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from point a, to the aerosols at
point b. Then the light reflects

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of the aerosols and
bounces back to point a,

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if you know how fast it takes for
a pulse of laser light to travel

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and you know a little map then
you can calculate how far away the

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aerosols are in the atmosphere.

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Check it out.

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It takes a pulse of
light one nanoseconds

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to travel one third of a meter.

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>> What is a nanosecond?

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[Jennifer:] A nanosecond is one
billionth of a second basically.

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It is a really small
amount of time.

[00:13:54.882]
[00:13:55.332]
Anyway, if a scientist should
suppose of laser light sky

[00:13:59.172]
and that beam reflects back,
say in six thousand nanoseconds.

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[00:14:11.482]
The aerosols in the sky are really
three thousand nanoseconds away.

[00:14:18.762]
Why, because you have to divide
the total time by two in order

[00:14:24.102]
to find the time one way.

[00:14:26.452]
Got it? So if you multiply the time
one way three thousand nanoseconds

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by the number of meters

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in a nanosecond one-third
you get one thousand meters.

[00:14:38.172]
If you know how to convert meters
to kilometers you can calculate

[00:14:41.562]
that the aerosols in the
sky are one kilometer away.

[00:14:44.762]
[Dr. Russell Deon:] Well that
should answer your question Van.

[00:14:49.502]
But you know in order to get
the whole picture we need

[00:14:51.732]
to measure aerosols from space.

[00:14:53.612]
Let me call a few colleagues of
mine over at Hampton University

[00:14:56.732]
who are working with NASA
Langley Ball Aerospace,

[00:14:59.202]
and the French Space
Agency to get them explain

[00:15:01.752]
to you how we can measure
aerosols from space.

[00:15:04.332]
[Jennifer:] Well while Dr
Deon makes his arrangements.

[00:15:07.692]
Let's travel to the Wind
River Reservation in Wyoming

[00:15:11.152]
where students at St. Steven's
Indian School are being

[00:15:13.742]
atmospheric detectives.

[00:15:17.952]
[Children:] Welcome to St.
Steven's Indian School.

[00:15:21.342]
>> St. Steven's Indian School
is a VIA that school situated

[00:15:24.142]
on the Wind River Indian
reservation and Central Wyoming.

[00:15:27.432]
The reservation is home to nearly
ten thousand native Americans.

[00:15:31.482]
Most even Northern
Arapaho Shoshone tribes.

[00:15:34.702]
Students work hard on the usual
subjects like Math and English.

[00:15:38.942]
We are very positively
involved in this project.

[00:15:42.692]
[Children:] Work hard!

[00:15:45.032]
[Student 1:] NASA Connect
asked us to show you how

[00:15:47.162]
to do the lesson for this show.

[00:15:48.942]
Here is how you can become
atmospheric detectives.

[00:15:52.502]
[Student 2:] Once you
gather the material,

[00:15:54.152]
list in the educators guide
locate a specific outside area

[00:15:58.102]
that is flat, elevated and open.

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Divide the class into
four research groups.

[00:16:04.442]
Each group then takes one
piece of contact paper

[00:16:07.452]
to the centre of the cardboards.

[00:16:09.202]
Take the one piece of contact paper
in the centre of the cardboard

[00:16:12.842]
with the sticky side up.

[00:16:13.852]
Keep the protective backing on
the contact paper and keep the

[00:16:18.072]
above procedure for a total
of two aerosol samples

[00:16:21.172]
for each research group.

[00:16:22.682]
Each group has been assigned
in area on the school grounds

[00:16:27.062]
in which to place its sample.

[00:16:28.562]
Each group completes the morning
column on Table A after evasions

[00:16:32.982]
of weather conditions on student
data worksheet number one.

[00:16:35.862]
You all need to refer
to the local paper,

[00:16:39.352]
watch the local weather report
or visit www.weather.com.,

[00:16:44.262]
before completing
your observations.

[00:16:46.352]
Now place one of the samples on
a flat surface preferably a meter

[00:16:50.832]
or two above the ground.

[00:16:52.342]
Remove the protective
backing from the contact paper

[00:16:55.182]
after exposing the
sample to the outside air

[00:16:58.142]
for at least two hours place the
aerosol sample grade grid side

[00:17:02.202]
down, over the contact paper and
return the sample to the classroom.

[00:17:07.142]
Using a magnifying glass or
holding the contact paper

[00:17:10.722]
up to a light count the number
of aerosols found in each

[00:17:14.332]
of ten randomly selected
squares on the graph.

[00:17:17.312]
Randomly selected squares
by tossing the dice twice.

[00:17:20.862]
Record the number of
aerosols in each sample square

[00:17:25.672]
on Table B aerosols
sample collection data

[00:17:28.472]
on student data worksheet
number one.

[00:17:31.602]
Add up all the aerosols in the
ten randomly selected squares

[00:17:35.132]
to get a total.

[00:17:36.032]
Next divide the total number of
aerosols by ten to get an average

[00:17:42.252]
or mean of the aerosols per square.

[00:17:43.892]
Repeat the procedure for
the afternoon samples.

[00:17:48.962]
After the average number of
aerosols per square for each

[00:17:52.262]
of the two samples has been
calculated construct the line graph

[00:17:55.962]
using the aerosol sample line
graph to compare the data.

[00:17:59.732]
After you completed this activity

[00:18:02.402]
at school you take
your own sample home.

[00:18:05.282]
Place your sample on a flat surface
one to meter above the ground.

[00:18:09.932]
Leave your sample
outside every night.

[00:18:12.462]
First thing in the morning attach
the aerosol sample grade grid side

[00:18:16.142]
down to the contact paper.

[00:18:17.912]
Bring your sample
to school with you.

[00:18:20.012]
When you get to school your
teachers will be give you time

[00:18:23.932]
to randomly select
your ten squares.

[00:18:25.822]
Find the average and
report the data

[00:18:27.582]
in Table C aerosols sample
data, collection from home

[00:18:30.882]
on student data worksheet
number two.

[00:18:34.182]
Next to write your address and
the total number of aerosols

[00:18:37.482]
from Table C on a
self adhesive note.

[00:18:40.222]
Your teacher will divide a map of
your community into four regions,

[00:18:43.902]
North-East, North-West,
South-East and South-West.

[00:18:48.062]
All the students will place
their label adhesive notes

[00:18:50.432]
on to the map where they live.

[00:18:51.712]
Using the data from the map
find the average for each region

[00:18:55.992]
and make a class graph of the data.

[00:18:59.102]
[Jennifer:] Analyze your data guys.

[00:19:01.012]
Now that you have the
results from your sample,

[00:19:03.132]
you should review the data
and discuss your observations.

[00:19:05.752]
Then consider these questions.

[00:19:09.012]
How can weather conditions affect
the results of this activity?

[00:19:14.392]
What are some other methods
you could use to collect data

[00:19:17.372]
on aerosols in the atmosphere?

[00:19:20.812]
Look at your map of your community
and the data collected from home.

[00:19:25.142]
What is the relationship between
where students live and the amount

[00:19:28.542]
of aerosols collected?

[00:19:30.672]
Teachers check out our
NASA Connect website.

[00:19:33.512]
From here you can download
the educator's guide.

[00:19:36.012]
Where you'll find more
questions like these

[00:19:37.912]
that will help your
students analyze their data.

[00:19:40.012]
Now let's head back
to Hampton University

[00:19:42.882]
and meet Dr. John Anderson.

[00:19:44.852]
Dr. Anderson uses space
based passive remote sensing

[00:19:50.392]
to measure aerosols
in the atmosphere.

[00:19:51.862]
Remember this type of remote
sensing is different from LIDAR

[00:19:56.152]
which uses active remote
sensing to measure aerosols.

[00:19:59.962]
Dr. Anderson's passive remote
sensing system is actually

[00:20:02.822]
above us right now.

[00:20:04.432]
On a satellite and space,
a satellite is any object

[00:20:08.032]
that orbits another
object in space.

[00:20:10.392]
>> Comparing contrast
Sage II with Picasso-Cena.

[00:20:18.932]
How will Picasso-Cena help
scientist measure aerosols

[00:20:23.462]
more accurately?

[00:20:25.482]
[Jennifer:] Dr. Anderson!

[00:20:31.412]
[Dr. Anderson:] Hi, Jennifer!

[00:20:32.372]
Hi Van! Dr. Deon told
me you guys were coming

[00:20:34.832]
over to know how satellite
instruments are used

[00:20:36.482]
to measure aerosols.

[00:20:37.282]
[Jennifer:] Well actually
he thought you could help us

[00:20:39.352]
out on information about
satellite instruments.

[00:20:41.412]
[Dr. Anderson:] I'll
be glad to help

[00:20:42.462]
about satellite instrument
called Sage II which stands

[00:20:45.182]
for Stratospheric Aerosol
and Gas Experiment.

[00:20:48.692]
The less sunlight that
gets through the atmosphere

[00:20:50.472]
in specific wave links,
the higher density

[00:20:52.712]
of aerosols there are
in the atmosphere.

[00:20:55.052]
A way to demonstrate with the
Sage II photometer might see

[00:20:57.792]
up in space, this is
hit two racers together

[00:21:00.242]
and shine a light through the dust.

[00:21:02.152]
This light from the flash light,

[00:21:03.222]
they represent the
light from the sun.

[00:21:05.592]
Researchers look at the
reduction on the suns light

[00:21:08.052]
to measure how many
aerosols there are

[00:21:09.722]
between the sun and the satellite.

[00:21:11.502]
Remember stage two only
uses light from the sun;

[00:21:14.452]
you know Van when I was
a student in college,

[00:21:17.342]
I had actually collected
samples from the real cloud.

[00:21:20.042]
[Van:] Really?

[00:21:20.712]
[Dr. Anderson:] Oh yeah.

[00:21:21.552]
I would climb up Mitchell
North Carolina

[00:21:23.302]
when the clouds would
collect around the mountain.

[00:21:26.482]
[inaudible] tough iron screen
collector I would hold up

[00:21:28.232]
and would run down
into a container.

[00:21:30.412]
It demonstrates the same
principle which applies

[00:21:32.552]
when water vapors is attracted
to an aerosol in the atmosphere

[00:21:35.152]
to create drops and clouds.

[00:21:37.102]
[Van:] Cool.

[00:21:38.052]
[Dr. Anderson:] Say,
how would like to learn

[00:21:39.052]
about the Picasso-Cena system.

[00:21:40.682]
[Van:] Okay.

[00:21:41.322]
[Dr. Anderson:] Picasso-Cena like
Sage II will be a satellite-borne

[00:21:44.162]
instrument that measures
aerosols, but it is quiet different

[00:21:47.752]
from Sage II in that Picasso-Cena
uses active remote sensing

[00:21:51.502]
for Sage II uses passive
remote sensing.

[00:21:54.792]
My colleague Dr. Ali Omar is
developing the Picasso-Cena system

[00:22:01.122]
[inaudible] NASA Langley
Research Center, Ball Aerospace

[00:22:04.452]
and the French Space
Agency the CNES.

[00:22:07.452]
Why don't I take you both
over to see him right now.

[00:22:09.612]
[Jennifer:] That will be great.

[00:22:10.812]
While Van and I head
over to meet Dr. Omar,

[00:22:13.032]
why don't you meet
Dr. Shelly Kenley,

[00:22:14.872]
she has got a special NASA
connection to the web just for you.

[00:22:19.062]
[Dr. Shelly Kenley:] NASA Earth
Science researchers routinely use

[00:22:21.502]
technology and conducting
experiments and analyzing

[00:22:24.292]
and communicating the result.

[00:22:25.872]
Matter of fact these or researchers
are much like a detective

[00:22:29.242]
collecting evidence and
investigating our range of suspects

[00:22:32.072]
that might be contributing
to the situation.

[00:22:34.562]
I'd like to introduce
everyone to a class

[00:22:36.252]
of online atmosphere detectors at

[00:22:38.802]
[inaudible] outer California.

[00:22:41.922]
They've taken on a
case that Langley's

[00:22:43.842]
[inaudible] technology
department has posted

[00:22:45.652]
on the NASA Connect website,
let's check it on that.

[00:22:48.332]
[Jennifer:] We've
been asked by NASA

[00:22:51.212]
to investigate two
puzzling situations related

[00:22:54.282]
to remote sensing.

[00:22:56.472]
Actually, doing a background check
on remote sensing and checking

[00:22:59.612]
out the application
of remote sensing by

[00:23:02.162]
[inaudible] and satellites.

[00:23:04.012]
We shall prepare for the
NASA Connect web challenge.

[00:23:07.022]
In the first puzzle satellite
side, we have been challenged

[00:23:11.042]
to identify facts about mystery
image that you see on your screen.

[00:23:15.442]
The questions where, what
and why help guide us

[00:23:18.992]
through an interpretation
of the image.

[00:23:22.152]
Okay, now I can make
each geographical feature

[00:23:25.262]
in the satellites image
space on its color.

[00:23:28.192]
You can do it too.

[00:23:29.492]
Just visit Norbert's lab on the
NASA Connect website and find

[00:23:33.582]
that atmosphere detect this
online activity been it.

[00:23:37.452]
The completion of the
first puzzle prepared us

[00:23:40.822]
for the detailed attention.

[00:23:43.132]
We would have to give to
figure out the second half

[00:23:46.882]
of the remote sensing puzzle.

[00:23:48.692]
In the next activity; atmosphere
aerosols, we are trying to figure

[00:23:54.132]
out the density or
concentrations of aerosols

[00:23:57.602]
over two different
region of the earth.

[00:24:01.152]
We are using information such
as relative density, altitude,

[00:24:05.792]
distance, and latitude and
longitude to interpret data

[00:24:10.472]
about the image, just
like scientists do.

[00:24:14.032]
[Dr. Shelly Kenley:] But Jennifer,

[00:24:15.482]
it sounds like the case
being worked by the East

[00:24:18.352]
[inaudible] School students
could use some more

[00:24:20.852]
[inaudible].

[00:24:20.852]
I would encourage our viewers to
visit the NASA Connect website

[00:24:23.722]
to take a crack at these
remote sensing puzzles.

[00:24:27.372]
[Jennifer:] Thanks a lot Shelly!

[00:24:29.032]
Hey while you guys get connected to
the web, VAN and I met Dr Ali Omar.

[00:24:32.932]
He is the scientist who studies
the atmosphere using satellites.

[00:24:36.232]
And hopefully he'll be able to
convince Van of the importance

[00:24:39.312]
of keeping his emissions low.

[00:24:41.342]
[Dr. Omar:] Thanks Jennifer!

[00:24:42.502]
First of all let me welcome you

[00:24:43.812]
to the Hampton University's
Computer Lab,

[00:24:45.862]
where some of our students are
studying atmospheric science.

[00:24:48.622]
[Van:] So Dr Omar, how does
Picasso-Cena measure aerosols

[00:24:53.512]
in the atmosphere?

[00:24:55.082]
[Dr. Omar:] Well Van, of all the
aerosol measuring systems you have

[00:24:58.142]
seen, LIDAR, Sage II, and the
aerosol sampler used by students

[00:25:03.132]
at St Stephen's School,
have their uses,

[00:25:05.612]
but they also have
their limitations.

[00:25:08.342]
Picasso-Cena is being
developed for launch in 2003

[00:25:11.832]
to give a more complete
picture of our atmosphere.

[00:25:14.432]
[0:25:15.0] The Picasso-Cena
Mission will greatly improve our

[00:25:17.842]
understanding of the nature and
magnitude of radiating effects

[00:25:21.282]
of aerosols and clouds.

[00:25:22.552]
There are many uncertainties
as to whether a cloud heats

[00:25:26.962]
or cools the earth's surface.

[00:25:29.272]
This is due to inadequate knowledge
of how cloud layers are distributed

[00:25:33.532]
within the atmosphere.

[00:25:35.262]
Picasso -Cena will help us
obtain more complete observations

[00:25:38.852]
of cloud distributions
and properties.

[00:25:41.312]
Picasso-Cena will also
use LIDAR in combination

[00:25:44.412]
with an instrument
called a spectrometer.

[00:25:46.352]
The spectrometer is passive
remote sensing instrument

[00:25:50.432]
that measures the radiance
of scattered sunlight.

[00:25:53.662]
Using both LIDAR and spectrometer
observations will provide us

[00:25:57.312]
with a more accurate measure of
aerosol and cloud properties

[00:26:00.552]
[inaudible].

[00:26:00.742]
Changes in climate are inevitable
but the rapid pace of change

[00:26:07.132]
that may starting to take place
presents a potential threat

[00:26:10.802]
to our planet.

[00:26:12.552]
The new knowledge from Picasso-Cena
will improve our ability

[00:26:16.912]
to make accurate predictability
about these changes.

[00:26:20.142]
Predictions to help world leaders
define policies that affect us all.

[00:26:25.692]
So you see Van, a little bit of
emissions from your car combined

[00:26:28.622]
with all the other
emissions affect us all.

[00:26:31.622]
We know the world's
population is growing

[00:26:33.202]
and there are certain things
we need to do now in order

[00:26:35.832]
to protect our environment.

[00:26:37.512]
One of those things is getting
your catalytic converter fixed.

[00:26:41.152]
[Van:] Aey!

[00:26:41.982]
Well thank you very much
Dr. Omar for all your help

[00:26:44.412]
[Jennifer:] Thanks a lot Dr. Omar

[00:26:45.852]
[Dr. Omar:] You are welcome

[00:26:46.932]
[Jennifer:] Well we'd like
to thank everyone who helped

[00:26:48.432]
out with today's show.

[00:26:49.662]
Especially all the students
who were in the program,

[00:26:52.032]
the NASA researchers,
Hampton University

[00:26:54.242]
and of course Dr. Shelley Kenley
If you would like a video tape copy

[00:26:57.442]
of this NASA connect show
and the educator slides

[00:27:00.932]
and lesson plans contact for
- The NASA Central Operation

[00:27:04.852]
of Resources for Educators.

[00:27:06.582]
All this information
and more is located

[00:27:08.782]
on the NASA connect website.

[00:27:11.322]
So from Van and the rest

[00:27:13.012]
of the NASA connect group
I am Jennifer Pulley.

[00:27:15.992]
So now what are you going to do?

[00:27:19.702]
[Van:] Well Mr. Murphy
its important

[00:27:21.142]
to have your car running
right and clean.

[00:27:23.462]
Not only is it healthy
for breathing

[00:27:26.402]
but it is also good
for the environment.

[00:27:29.092]
Hey, is that your car out there?

[00:27:31.322]
[inaudible], huh, got to get that
inspected and fixed and cleaned.

[00:27:40.192]
Did you know that the
atmosphere contains aerosols?

[00:27:43.242]
An aerosol is a particle
suspended in the air

[00:27:45.462]
and aerosols also form clouds.

[00:27:47.672]
Some clouds bring rain but some
clouds trap sun's rays bringing

[00:27:51.192]
global warming but all
clouds reflect the light

[00:27:54.082]
which can cause global cooling.

[00:27:56.292]
It all has to do with
particles becoming aerosols.

[00:27:59.302]
Say you know there might be
particles coming off this steel

[00:28:02.952]
pipe right now.

[00:28:04.552]
See? More soot into the atmosphere.

[00:28:06.802]
We've got to fix this.

[00:28:08.412]
Maybe I can move --
Oops sorry Mr. Murphy.

[00:28:16.532]
Maybe we should clean it up.

[00:28:24.902]