Transcript for NASAConnect - Tools of the Aeronautic Trade

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[Music]

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[Goodson] Hi, my name is
John Goodson and I work

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with industrial light and Magic.

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I'm a concept modeler for Star
wars, the phantom menace..

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I build things like this.

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The way we make things like
this so real, a lot of it is

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about proportions and
the scale of things.

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And we have to pay
attention to make sure

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that things are symmetrical,
things are round,

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things are the correct
shape and stuff.

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And a lot of that is
based on math calculations

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and just paying attention to
math details involved in it.

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Queen Amydala of

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[unclear] looks a lot like the

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[unclear], because it
was inspired by the

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[unclear].

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A really sleek airplane with
a lot of beautiful lines

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and looks like it can
go really really fast.

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So Queen Amydala's ship
has to be equally fast.

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The speed of light.

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I hope you enjoy this
episode of NASA Connect.

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I hope seeing this
will help inspire you

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to do mathematics and science.

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And may the force of your
imagination be with you.

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Hi, I'm Dan Hughes, and
welcome to NASA Connect,

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a show that connects you with the
world of math, science, and NASA.

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Right now, my band the
Noodles is trying to get

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on the road for our next gig.

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But as you can see, we're
having a bit of car trouble.

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[Voice] Man, these tools
don't fit these bolts.

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There's no way we can
finish this today.

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[Voice] We'll have to
cancel another performance.

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I'll see you tomorrow.

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[Voice] Hey, Dan, this
old van has had it.

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See you later.

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[Dan] Guys, guys!

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Hey, Jennifer.

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Thanks for coming over.

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[Jennifer] No problem.

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What's up with your van?

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[Dan] Whenever we packed the van
and we get onto the open road,

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the vibration is terrible.

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And the van keeps stalling.

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I replaced and tightened some loose
bolts, but it just doesn't work.

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I keep struggling.

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The gas mileage is lousy.

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It barely makes it up hills.

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We're always the slowest
thing on the highway.

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It overheats.

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It's a slug.

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[Jennifer]

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[Laughter] Well, you know what,

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it seems like you've
got some problems here.

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Some definite problems.

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And I think I've got
your first one down.

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Right here, this is
a metric wrench.

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And you are using that
with US standard bolts.

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They're not going to fit.

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It's not going to work.

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Your second problem
seems a little tougher.

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This van, it just doesn't
look too aerodynamic.

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[Dan] Well, I can get some
proper wrenches from my dad.

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But, OK, how do I check
my aerodynamic problem?

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[Jennifer] Well, I
have some friends

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over at NASA Langley Research
Center over in Hampton, Virginia.

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They know all about the
science of aerodynamics.

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And the measurement tools
used in their research.

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[Dan] Well, great.

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Maybe they can help me find out
exactly what's wrong with the van.

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[Jennifer] I'll bet they can.

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Hey you. Before we head over to
NASA Langley, let's learn more

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about measurement, and why it's
important to measure accurately.

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[Dan] That's right.

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We'll check out a museum that will
give us some background history

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on measurement.

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[Jennifer] And speaking
of measurement,

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we have this really
cool checklist for you

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to follow throughout our show.

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Every time our stage manager
appears with a cue card,

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that's your cue to think about
answers to questions he gives you.

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Got it? Later, we'll go to NASA
Langley in Hampton, Virginia

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and NASA Dryden in California's
Mojave Desert, to meet some people

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who use measurement tools as
part of their job designing

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and testing airplanes.

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[Dan] And, so you can get even
more involved in measurement,

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you'll meet some students from
Prince William County, Virginia,

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who will show you how
to use measurement

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to build your own wind tunnel.

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[Jennifer] You'll
also meet students

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from Ann Beard Elementary School
in Washington, DC, who are using

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[unclear], it went
tunnel simulation,

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with NASA's educational
technology program manager,

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Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

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Students will show you how they are
using the Internet to learn more

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about the science of aerodynamics,
and how you can use our web site

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to conduct your own simulated
wind tunnel investigation.

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[Dan] So Jennifer, are you ready?

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[Jennifer] Dan, I was born ready.

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But be glad we're taking my car.

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[Music]

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[Voice] How did the US standard
system of measurement develop?

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[Voice] How was the
metric system devised?

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[Voice] How are the
two systems different?

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[Jennifer] Let's begin
our measurement journey

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by visiting the Peninsula
Fine Arts Center

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in Newport News, Virginia.

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[Dan] People have been measuring
things for thousands of years.

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Hey, that's one thing
we measure, time.

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What are some of the
other things we measure?

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[Voices] Temperature.

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How hot is it?

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Volume. How much space
is in your garage?

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Mass and wait.

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How heavy is it?

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Length. How long is your street?

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[Dan] Get this: the ancient
Egyptians used their fingers,

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hands, and even arms
to measure things.

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There were no measuring
tools like rulers back then.

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The width of one finger
was a digit, and the width

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of four fingers was a palm.

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[Jennifer] Here's another
ancient Egyptian measurement.

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Open your hand and spread
your fingers just like that.

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The distance from the tip
of your thumb to the end

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of your little pinky
was called a span.

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[Dan] The ancient Egyptians also
created a measurement called cubit.

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If you bend your arm, the
distance from your elbow to the tip

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of your middle finger was a cubit.

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In the ancient world, the
cubit was the most popular way

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to measure length.

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[Jennifer] So you see, all these
units of measurement were based

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on something familiar to
ancient people: body parts.

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[Dan] Of course, using
your hand or elbow

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to measure a pyramid
would take forever.

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[Jennifer] Not only that, it's not
an accurate or exact measurement.

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Here's why.

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[Voice] My friend, Jimmy,
is taller than I am.

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It takes four of my cubit
arm lengths, but only three

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of his, to measure my bike.

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How can we get the same measurement
is our arms are different lengths?

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[Jennifer] Good point.

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In ancient Egypt, it was up
to the Pharaoh to decide how

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to make measurements standard,
or the same, for all situations.

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[Dan] So the standard
cubit length was set

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by the length of the Pharaoh's arm.

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But even then, it could be
pretty tough measuring a pyramid

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with a Pharaoh under your arm.

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[Jennifer] As time went on,

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people figured many
ways to measure things.

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Unfortunately, none
of them were the same

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when it came to mathematics.

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You see, scientists couldn't
repeat each other's experiments

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because there was not
an agreed-upon standard

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of measurement.

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Today, our world operates according

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to two different systems
of measurement.

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Here's some expert help.

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[Voice] In the US standard
system, the inch, foot, yard,

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and mile developed from
traditional practices

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of measurement dating
back to ancient times.

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One disadvantage of the US standard
system is the different size units

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often have no simple
relationship to each other.

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For instance, there are 12 inches
in a foot, 3 feet in a yard,

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1760 yards or 5280 feet in a mile.

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[Dan] Converting different
units of measurement like miles

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to inches requires some math.

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Here's an example.

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It's about 431 miles from
Los Angeles to San Francisco.

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To convert these miles into
inches, simply multiply the number

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of miles, 431, by the number of
feet in a mile, 5280, by the number

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of inches in a foot, 12.

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431 miles converts
to 27,308,169 inches.

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Whew!

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[Voice] Using the decimal
system is a much easier way

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to measure and change units.

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Because earlier systems of
measuring units were so confusing,

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the decimal system was devised.

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This system is based on
hands and multiples of 10.

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10 numbers or decimals are easier
to use than the US standard system,

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which is based on 12ths.

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One advantage of the decimal
system is the decimal point.

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Depending on where it is moved,

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whole numbers can become
fractions or multiples of tens.

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[Dan] Thanks, Dr. Morgan.

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We now know why there is a
metric system of measuring.

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[Jennifer] Yep.

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And the metric system
is based on the meter.

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The original meter was not the
length of someone's finger or arm.

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Instead, it represented one
10 millionth of the distance

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from the North Pole to the Equator.

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Hey. The meter is the most
widely used measuring system

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for scientific work.

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Using the metric system,
we can easily convert units

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with some mental math.

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For example, we know Los
Angeles is approximately 600 km

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from sentences go.

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Now if we want to know that same
distance in meters, for example,

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all we have to do is
multiply by a thousand.

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Why? Because there's
1000 m in 1 km.

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So you multiply 600 times 1000

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and you get 600,000 m. 600
km is the same as 600,000 m.

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[Dan] The Egyptians would have
appreciated the meter stick.

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It's better than a Pharaoh's arm.

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OK, I now know the difference
between the US standard system

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and the metric system.

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And why my wrench
didn't fit the bolts.

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You seem to think that my van
has an aerodynamic problem.

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How can I measure that?

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[Jennifer] I'm glad you asked, Dan.

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Hey guys, I have some friends

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over at NASA Langley Research
Center in Hampton, Virginia.

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We're going to meet some
engineers, and they use tools

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and techniques every day
to measure aerodynamics.

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Dan, I'm going to call ahead and
get us clear to the research lab.

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That all right?

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Hi, is Mike there?

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[Music]

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[Voice] Explain

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[unclear] aircraft performance
and how they relate to each other.

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[Jennifer] Dan, I want
you to meet my friend.

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This is Mike Hogan.

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[Mike] Hi,

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[Dan]

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[Jennifer] He works here at NASA
Langley research Center in Hampton,

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Virginia designing aircraft.

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[Dan] Wow.

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[Mike] So, Dan, Jennifer tells
me you're having a problem

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with your vehicle.

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[Dan] I sure am.

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I belong to a band called the
Noodles, and we bought a van

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to carry our equipment
to our performances.

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But he keeps breaking down.

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Jennifer says it might be
an aerodynamic problem?

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Can you help?

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[Mike] Sure.

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We here at the NASA Langley
research Center have been studying

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aerodynamics since 1917.

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Every aircraft is designed with
a specific purpose in mind,

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like carrying people or cargo.

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No matter what the purpose is,
all aircraft designs must consider

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for basic forces: lift,
weight, thrust, and drag.

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Lift is the force
that moves an airplane

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up when the air flows
across a wing.

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Weight is the effect of gravity
pulling an airplane down.

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The force that pushes the
plane forward is called thrust.

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It's usually created by a
plane's engine or propellers.

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The last force, drag,
slows an airplane

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down as air rubs against
the plane surfaces.

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It's a lot like the
friction created

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when a tire skids across the road.

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We measure these forces by creating
scale models of our designs

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and then testing them
in wind tunnels.

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At NASA Langley alone,
we test designs

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in over 20 different wind tunnels.

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So then, example what happens
when you take the vehicle out?

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[Dan] Well, every time we load
the equipment on top of the van,

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it doesn't have enough power.

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And every time we load
the stuff inside the van,

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it helps a little,
but it's still slow.

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[Mike] It sounds like it may
be having a problem with drag.

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Which is causing your
engine to overwork.

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I think a wind tunnel
test might help us

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to understand your problem better.

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I'll call a friend of mine, Hector

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[unclear], who designs measurement
tools using wind tunnels,

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and a range for the
two of you to meet.

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In the meantime, I'll
go back to my office,

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and work on some possible
solutions to your problem.

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[Jennifer] Great.

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[Dan] Yeah.

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[Music]

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[Voice] What is a wind tunnel?

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[Voice] How is a wind tunnel
used as a measuring tool?

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[Voice] How is the SR-71 an
ideal research test plane?

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[Hector] Hi, Jennifer.

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[Jennifer] Hi.

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[Hector] Hi, Dan.

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Mike told me you might be
having an aerodynamics problem

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with your vehicle?

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[Dan] We do.

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[Hector] I want to welcome you
to my department, the advanced

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[unclear].

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Here we make tools to
measure the performance of

[00:12:42.209]
[unclear] in the wind tunnel.

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[Dan] Now, the wind tunnel.

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Is that just like a big fan?

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[Hector] Well, let me
explain what a wind tunnel is.

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And how we use it to measure
aerodynamic forces like drag.

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A wind tunnel is a device
insisting of an enclosed passage

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through which air
is driven by a fan.

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The heart of the wind
tunnel is the test section.

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And

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[unclear] flows about the
model duplicating the air

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[unclear] proposed test aircraft.

[00:13:06.319]
We use different techniques
to measure aerodynamic forces.

[00:13:10.109]
Things like

[00:13:12.419]
[unclear], smoke,
laser light shift.

[00:13:15.329]
Sometimes we use water instead of
air and streams of dye to watch

[00:13:20.429]
[unclear] and other
unusual phenomenon.

[00:13:23.539]
Several deformations, such as
wind flexing, can affect drag.

[00:13:27.969]
Here at NASA Langley,
one instruments

[00:13:29.949]
that we designed projects
the pattern laser light

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onto the surface of the
model being studied.

[00:13:35.249]
Later we compare photographs
and measure the differences

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in the pattern length.

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The differences showed changes
in the shape of the wing surface

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that might be disrupting
the airflow.

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We call this turbulence.

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Data are collected during the
testing and checked for accuracy.

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Speaking of accuracy, it is not
until an aircraft is like tested

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in the real world that the design
efficiency can be fully verified.

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NASA does most of its flight
testing at NASA Dryden

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in California's Mojave Desert.

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[Voice] As an aeronautical engineer

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at NASA Dryden flight
research Center, I'm interested

[00:14:09.909]
in all the measurements
are made during tests

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and flight research missions.

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Blackbirds are the world's
fastest and highest flying jets.

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They cruise along at speeds
over 2000 mph at heights

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over 24 km, or about 80,000 feet.

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That's so high that when I
look at the airplanes window,

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this guy seems to be darker,
even during the daylight.

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The SR-71's unique capabilities
make it an ideal platform

[00:14:34.919]
for aeronautical research
and experiments

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that are beyond the
reach of any other check.

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All these data plus reports
from the pilots are compared

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with computer, wind tunnel, and
flight simulator information

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so that engineers will understand
exactly what is happening

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with the design.

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[Hector] These are just a few

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of the ways we measure
aerodynamic forces.

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Hey. I have a friend of mine,

[00:14:56.259]
[unclear], that works at the
Old Dominion University for

[00:14:58.299]
[unclear].

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Why don't I get a call and arrange
to have your vehicle tested?

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Let me explain.

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[Jennifer] Now, while
those guys go test the van,

[00:15:05.519]
let's meet some Prince
William County math students

[00:15:07.959]
who will use measurement
to build a wind tunnel.

[00:15:10.499]
In this activity, we'll
determine the effect dried has

[00:15:13.189]
in different shapes.

[00:15:14.109]
And later, I'll be back and
helping analyze the data.

[00:15:18.519]
[Voices] Welcome to making
math count enrichment Camp

[00:15:21.419]
at Saunders Middle School in
Prince William County, Virginia.

[00:15:25.799]
NASA Connect asked us
to show you how to make

[00:15:28.579]
and build your own
wind tunnel and use it

[00:15:30.199]
to test several shapes for drag.

[00:15:31.949]
Drag is one of the four forces
that aeronautic engineers consider

[00:15:35.159]
when they design airplanes.

[00:15:36.829]
The other resources are
lift, weight, and thrust.

[00:15:39.849]
Under the guidance of our
teachers, Mr. Bill Wright,

[00:15:42.449]
Miss Melinda Spencer,
and Miss Kendall Miller,

[00:15:44.479]
we'll go through the
steps that you'll use

[00:15:46.169]
in constructing your wind tunnel.

[00:15:47.899]
Before you begin, go to the web
site to learn about wind tunnels.

[00:15:51.059]
This will give you
a good understanding

[00:15:52.379]
about the measurement tool
you're about to build.

[00:15:54.599]
After you've gotten
your materials together,

[00:15:56.889]
you begin by measuring the fan.

[00:15:59.279]
Next right the dimensions
of the fan on the board.

[00:16:02.249]
Each student should
fill out the data sheet

[00:16:03.939]
by determining the dimensions of
eight trapezoid panels of the upper

[00:16:07.609]
and lower sections
of the wind tunnel,

[00:16:09.639]
and the four smaller rectangular
panels of the test chamber.

[00:16:12.799]
If the side of the fan is X,
then the height and bottom width

[00:16:16.009]
of the trapezoid shapes
would be the same size,

[00:16:18.649]
and the top would be one
third of X. or X. over three.

[00:16:21.499]
The dimensions of the test
chamber panel would be X. over two

[00:16:24.989]
for the height, and X over
three for the top and bottom.

[00:16:28.169]
After checking the accuracy
of the calculations,

[00:16:30.919]
the teacher will divide
the class into four teams.

[00:16:34.719]
Teams will measure
and mark their panels.

[00:16:39.039]
The teacher will then
cut the panels.

[00:16:40.959]
The test chamber will fit
between the upper and deflectors,

[00:16:44.059]
so it is very important
that the measurement

[00:16:45.999]
and cutting his accurate, so
that the parts will fit together

[00:16:48.749]
and be airtight.

[00:16:50.009]
Team one will cut a window in one
of the panels and tape a piece

[00:16:52.679]
of transparency film
over it from the inside.

[00:16:55.699]
Team two will cut a window in one
of its panels and tape a piece

[00:16:59.629]
of transparency film over
it from the inside also.

[00:17:02.689]
Now carefully tape
the sections together,

[00:17:04.489]
making sure that the
windows are on the same side.

[00:17:07.809]
When the wind,

[00:17:09.319]
[unclear], tape it to the box fan

[00:17:11.539]
so then the air blows
out at the bottom.

[00:17:14.259]
Press the wind tunnel and the
fan onto two chairs like this.

[00:17:17.899]
Make sure the chairs block as
little airflow as possible.

[00:17:21.079]
To make the

[00:17:23.559]
[unclear] test gauge, team four
cups in 10 cm x 10 cm square card.

[00:17:30.509]
Next, punch a 1 mm hole 3 cm
from the top center of the card.

[00:17:37.399]
Remove the elastic from inside the
party hat and measure a 15 cm long

[00:17:43.239]
[unclear].

[00:17:43.359]
Do not stretch elastic
when measuring.

[00:17:47.049]
Double it over to form a loop.

[00:17:49.979]
Thread the two loose ends
through the hole in the card and

[00:17:55.239]
[unclear].

[00:17:55.349]
Next, Mark the center of the card.

[00:17:58.809]
Beginning at the center point, draw
a solid line to the right edge.

[00:18:03.539]
Using 2 mm intervals,
draw five lines above

[00:18:07.739]
and below the center line
that you have just drawn.

[00:18:12.619]
[Unclear] equilateral triangle with
each side 2 centimeters in length.

[00:18:17.879]
Cut 2 small slits in
one side of the triangle

[00:18:22.149]
and place the elastic
through the slits

[00:18:24.329]
[unclear] the measurement point
of the triangle in the center

[00:18:29.409]
[unclear].

[00:18:30.509]
While teams one through four are
completing their assignments,

[00:18:33.789]
use the templates to build the
four polyhedrons, tetrahedron,

[00:18:37.929]
pyramid, cube, and cone.

[00:18:39.619]
Cut the shapes out, then
cut along the dotted lines.

[00:18:43.279]
Gently tape the edges
together to form the shapes.

[00:18:46.239]
Pull the strings to the
designated point in each shape.

[00:18:49.309]
When the shape is suspended in the
wind tunnel, it should be visible

[00:18:52.729]
in the center of the test chamber.

[00:18:54.799]
Now you are ready for testing.

[00:18:57.309]
Turn on them.

[00:18:58.319]
Note the position of the gate.

[00:19:00.459]
Start the fan on low speed.

[00:19:02.419]
Count how many lines
the gauge moves.

[00:19:04.749]
Now increase the fan
speed to medium.

[00:19:07.359]
Count how many lines engage
moves from its first position.

[00:19:10.539]
Do the same for high-speed.

[00:19:12.239]
The number of lines the gauge moved
indicates the drag force exerted

[00:19:16.869]
by the wind on the object.

[00:19:18.659]
Run tests on the other polyhedrons.

[00:19:21.229]
Record your results on
the student data sheet.

[00:19:23.869]
Now calculate the mean, median, and
note for each polyhedrons at each

[00:19:28.449]
[unclear].

[00:19:28.869]
Using the results, make a graph.

[00:19:30.679]
This will help compare the drag
force of each of the shapes.

[00:19:34.959]
When all the data is collected
and graphed, you are now able

[00:19:37.659]
to analyze the results.

[00:19:38.729]
Bye!

[00:19:39.259]
[Jennifer] Data analysis one

[00:19:40.439]
of the most important
part of an experiment.

[00:19:44.219]
You know, this would be a great
time for you to stop the video,

[00:19:47.169]
use your thinker and
consider the following.

[00:19:50.699]
Which factor, shape,
mass, wind speed, or drag,

[00:19:54.879]
is considered the constant?

[00:19:56.629]
That means, which of those
factors stays the same throughout

[00:20:00.169]
the entire experiment?

[00:20:01.159]
And why is it important for
this factor to remain constant?

[00:20:06.489]
Look at your data.

[00:20:08.149]
What relationship can you see
between the shape of the object

[00:20:11.539]
and the drag that's created?

[00:20:13.749]
More questions like these and
their answers can be found

[00:20:16.619]
in the educator's guide.

[00:20:17.979]
Teachers, you can download this
from our NASA Connect web site.

[00:20:20.749]
Since we've been talking
about wind tunnels,

[00:20:24.639]
let's head over to old dominion
University full-scale wind tunnel,

[00:20:27.639]
and see what Dan's up to.

[00:20:29.879]
[00:20:30.979]
[Hector] Hey, Drew.

[00:20:31.719]
[Drew] Hello, Hector.

[00:20:32.709]
[Hector] Jennifer, Dan,
this is Drew Lenman.

[00:20:34.319]
[Jennifer] Hi.

[00:20:34.429]
[Dan] Nice to meet you.

[00:20:35.909]
[Hector] So true, what do
you have prepared for us?

[00:20:38.299]
[Drew] First, let me tell you a
little bit about our wind tunnel.

[00:20:40.899]
It's run by Old Dominion
University in Norfolk, Virginia.

[00:20:43.469]
And it's the second largest
wind tunnel in the US.

[00:20:46.559]
This full-scale tunnel
was originally designed

[00:20:48.199]
to test entire aircraft.

[00:20:50.009]
The fans at the end of the

[00:20:51.289]
[unclear] are 1100 cm high.

[00:20:52.289]
They can pull air
through the chamber

[00:20:54.499]
at 133 kph, or about 80 mph.

[00:20:58.419]
This creates enough
wind for a small plane

[00:21:00.069]
to achieve pre-flight
testing within this facility.

[00:21:02.759]
Not only do we test planes, but
we also test NASCAR race cars.

[00:21:06.509]
[Hector] Dan, we can
test your vehicle.

[00:21:08.069]
[Dan] Well, it's not
going to fly away, is it?

[00:21:09.839]
[Drew] No, we'll tie it down.

[00:21:11.139]
Then we'll blow smoke over it
and see how the air flows over,

[00:21:13.379]
and how aromatically
efficient it is.

[00:21:15.569]
Let's get your van, Dan.

[00:21:16.789]
[Dan] Hey, let's check it out.

[00:21:18.409]
[Jennifer]

[00:21:18.409]
[Unclear].

[00:21:19.339]
Let's find out how
you can learn more

[00:21:22.639]
about measuring in a wind tunnel.

[00:21:24.739]
With a special NASA
Connection to the Web,

[00:21:28.659]
here's Dr. Shelley
Cainwright to tell you more.

[00:21:32.869]
[Dr. Cainwright] Well,
thanks, Jennifer.

[00:21:33.339]
I'm visiting a space science
Academy which is being held

[00:21:35.609]
at Ann Beard elementary
school in Washington, DC.

[00:21:38.189]
This is a SEMA school.

[00:21:40.289]
That stands for science,
engineering, mathematics,

[00:21:42.849]
and aerospace academy.

[00:21:44.279]
It's an enrichment program
that runs on the weekends

[00:21:46.599]
and in the summer, and targets
math, science, and technology.

[00:21:49.909]
Its partner school is
located in Cleveland, Ohio,

[00:21:52.869]
[unclear] elementary school.

[00:21:54.299]
In just a minute we'll
hear from a couple

[00:21:55.909]
of these science campers
as they demonstrate

[00:21:59.279]
[unclear] simulation product called

[00:22:00.629]
[unclear].

[00:22:00.889]
That's a special software
created just for students

[00:22:04.499]
by the learning technology project

[00:22:06.209]
at NASA Glenn Research
Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

[00:22:09.319]
Now if you look just behind me,

[00:22:11.309]
you'll see a flight
demonstration went,

[00:22:13.069]
with some aeronautical
engineering students

[00:22:15.419]
from the American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics branch

[00:22:18.319]
at Iowa State University
have brought to share

[00:22:21.339]
with these younger students and
to serve as mentors to the camp.

[00:22:24.949]
So you can see the students here
at Beard are being offered a chance

[00:22:27.559]
to try their hands at a number
of technology research tolls.

[00:22:30.609]
Let's take a closer look now
at one of those technologies,

[00:22:35.249]
[unclear].

[00:22:35.499]
This is Alan Simmons,

[00:22:37.469]
a seventh-grade student
at Vail Junior High.

[00:22:41.799]
[Voice]

[00:22:42.199]
[Unclear] we are able to use
technology like a NASA researcher.

[00:22:46.129]
[Unclear] computer
based wind habitat

[00:22:49.869]
[unclear].

[00:22:50.219]
With this simulation, we can
quickly change the position

[00:22:55.609]
and shape of the wing,
and modify the air speed,

[00:22:59.009]
altitude, and angle of attack.

[00:23:02.289]
And then

[00:23:03.209]
[unclear] calculate the lift drag.

[00:23:05.269]
We are quickly learning the factors

[00:23:07.269]
that influence lift
on an airplane wing.

[00:23:10.629]
[Unclear] begin at the
NASA Connect web site.

[00:23:14.379]
We were able to get
set up by downloading

[00:23:17.099]
and installing our own copy of

[00:23:19.419]
[unclear].

[00:23:19.419]
Anyone can download this simulation
and use it at school or at home.

[00:23:26.769]
Let me show you how we have used

[00:23:29.289]
[unclear].

[00:23:30.249]
We start off my learning about
the basic aerodynamic forces

[00:23:34.439]
that affect lift.

[00:23:36.399]
Then we

[00:23:36.749]
[unclear] our own wing, and
learn how to generate lift.

[00:23:40.969]
We can see how much lift we
have generated right here.

[00:23:44.139]
After we tested it and
learned about a bunch

[00:23:48.259]
of different variables
that affect lift,

[00:23:53.939]
we got to work signing our
own wing, based on the meant

[00:23:59.259]
at the NASA Connect web site.

[00:24:03.469]
The

[00:24:04.329]
[unclear] data

[00:24:05.249]
[unclear].

[00:24:05.459]
[Dr. Cainwright] Jennifer,
I think you would agree

[00:24:06.909]
that these campers have given
us some interesting highlights

[00:24:09.439]
on how they are using
technology to conduct experiments.

[00:24:12.889]
A question for our viewers to think
about is what is the relationship

[00:24:16.589]
between scientific
inquiry and technology?

[00:24:20.289]
Let me add, Jennifer, that
our viewers are invited

[00:24:22.799]
to try their hand with

[00:24:24.529]
[unclear] by visiting the
NASA Connect web site.

[00:24:26.859]
They will also find links to kids
corner, where they will design

[00:24:29.989]
and test different
airplane models to find

[00:24:32.349]
out about how wind
tunnels are being used

[00:24:34.039]
to improve NASCAR
performance, and to information

[00:24:37.069]
about NASA Connect online chats.

[00:24:39.889]
There's also a query card
that features some of our

[00:24:42.469]
[unclear] partners
talking about their jobs.

[00:24:44.709]
Well, I'm Shelley
Cainwright reporting

[00:24:46.689]
from Ann Beard Elementary
School in Washington, DC.

[00:24:49.579]
Back to you,

[00:24:50.309]
[Jennifer]

[00:24:51.659]
[Voices] Bye!

[00:24:53.789]
[Jennifer] Thanks a lot, Shelley.

[00:24:57.949]
Well, a few moments
ago, the van was lifted

[00:25:00.849]
into the full-scale wind tunnel
and prepped for the big test.

[00:25:04.189]
As you can hear, the tunnel is on.

[00:25:07.219]
[Dan] Man!

[00:25:07.839]
Look at all that turbulence!

[00:25:10.419]
No wonder my van is such a slug.

[00:25:13.099]
[00:25:14.879]
[Drew] With all that turbulence,
this thing'll never move.

[00:25:18.659]
[Hector] Do you see, Dan?

[00:25:19.309]
With all that equipment
on top of your vehicle,

[00:25:20.969]
it's like driving a
refrigerator down the road.

[00:25:23.269]
What you're creating is a great
wall of resistance to the airflow.

[00:25:26.219]
[Jennifer] OK,

[00:25:26.739]
[Hector] So tell us then, what
can we do to reduce this drag

[00:25:29.709]
and get Dan to his gigs on time?

[00:25:31.419]
[Hector] You can put the
equipment in a wedge shape,

[00:25:33.519]
so that would reduce the drag

[00:25:34.879]
and help give you a good
slice through the air.

[00:25:38.499]
[Mike] Hey, everybody!

[00:25:41.229]
[Music]

[00:25:41.519]
[Jennifer] Hey there, Mike.

[00:25:42.629]
[Mike] What you got there?

[00:25:43.649]
[Unclear].

[00:25:43.649]
[Drew] Y'all come
down and take a look!

[00:25:47.529]
[Voice] Hey Mike,
what do you have here?

[00:25:51.179]
[Mike] Well, behold
the van of the future.

[00:25:56.859]
[Dan] You're kidding.

[00:25:58.279]
[Mike] No.

[00:25:59.179]
Your van, like a refrigerator, is
one of the worst aerodynamic shapes

[00:26:02.609]
that a designer can work with.

[00:26:04.509]
So I challenged myself.

[00:26:05.749]
Can I make a van fly?

[00:26:06.659]
And here you go.

[00:26:08.889]
By building a more
aerodynamic shell onto the front

[00:26:12.369]
and adding a tail, a router,
and wings, I built this model

[00:26:15.259]
from a computer design.

[00:26:16.049]
I actually tested this design

[00:26:17.589]
in NASA Langley's basic
aerodynamic research

[00:26:19.549]
[unclear].

[00:26:20.549]
[00:26:21.659]
[Jennifer] Way to go.

[00:26:23.319]
[Mike] So, Dan, someday, you
never know, you may be traveling

[00:26:26.499]
in your very own flying minivan.

[00:26:28.269]
[Dan] Wow.

[00:26:28.689]
That'd be great.

[00:26:29.849]
I'd never be late again.

[00:26:30.859]
[Jennifer] Well, that about wraps
up this episode of NASA Connect.

[00:26:35.159]
But before we go, we've got
lots of people we need to think.

[00:26:37.689]
Especially the students from
Prince William County math camp,

[00:26:40.539]
and Anders Elementary.

[00:26:41.679]
Of course, we want to thank
ODU, Hampton University,

[00:26:44.779]
the NASA researchers, and
Dr. Shelley Cainwright.

[00:26:47.989]
If you would like a videotaped
copy of this NASA Connect show,

[00:26:51.079]
and the educators guide a
lesson plans, contact CORE,

[00:26:54.519]
the NASA central operation
of resources for educators.

[00:26:58.029]
All this information
and more is located

[00:27:00.379]
in the NASA Connect web site.

[00:27:01.549]
So for Dan and the rest of the NASA
Connect group, I'm Jennifer Poli.

[00:27:06.539]
You guys, where did Dan go?

[00:27:13.869]
[Music]

[00:27:14.869]
[00:27:21.529]
[Dan] Hey guys, you
want to go do a show?

[00:27:29.489]
[Voice] How'd you get
this thing running?

[00:27:32.239]
[Dan] I measured it out.

[00:27:34.179]
[Voice] Dan, I didn't know you
were so handy with a socket wrench.

[00:27:38.449]
[Dan] What do you mean?

[00:27:39.099]
Metrics, or is that standard?

[00:27:40.529]
[Voice] Man, what are
you talking about?

[00:27:42.609]
[Dan] Well, I can't
take all the credit

[00:27:43.799]
for getting this van running right.

[00:27:45.069]
My friends at NASA helped
me measure it all out,

[00:27:47.219]
and they showed me a way that
we might travel in the future.

[00:27:51.239]
[Star Wars theme.]

[00:27:51.239]