Transcript for NASAConnect - Wherever You Go There You Are

[Speaker] It's good to be here at
Bradbury Heights Elementary School.

Let me ask.

Do any of you ever
need to navigate?

Is math and science -- are they
involved in being able to navigate?

And how does navigation tie in
with matters pertaining to safety?

Now, I know you're wondering
why am I standing here next

to this traffic signal.

Can anyone tell me who
invented the traffic signal?

[Student] Garrett A. Morgan.

[Speaker] Garrett A. Morgan.

Very good.

Now, let me ask.

Can you imagine a city
without traffic signals

to help us navigate?

Well, I can tell you 75 years
ago that was the case and that's

when Garrett A. Morgan,
an African American,

saw a collision involving
an automobile

and a horse-drawn carriage and so
he invented this navigation aid

that helps us as we
come to an intersection,

move through it safely.

Now, all of navigation though
doesn't just control the way we

move on the ground.

As a matter of fact, what Garrett
Morgan did with this traffic light,

we are now doing with satellite
navigation aids in the skies

and NASA is helping us to do that.

Now, before today's program ends,
you're going to be introduced

to the wonders of satellite
navigation through the persons

of Van Hughes and Shelley Canwrite,

the hosts of NASA CONNECTS.

Watch and be inspired.

[Van] Hi. I'm Van Hughes and
welcome to NASA CONNECT the show

that connects you with the world
of math, science, and NASA.

I'm supposed to be meeting my
friend, Dr. Shelley Canwrite,

somewhere around here
at NASA Langley

so we can start off our
show about navigation.

Well, in today's show,
you'll meet students

from North Hampton Middle School
on the eastern shore of Virginia

who are given a special
navigation challenge.

We'll also meet researchers
here at NASA Langley in Hampton,

Virginia who will show us
new forms of navigation.

Oh, and when you see this
symbol, that's your clue to check

out more information,
fun and activities

on the NASA CONNECT website.

So, to start things off,
Shelley has a special event lined

up for us.

So, let's go check it out.

Hey, Shelley.

[Shelley] Hey, Van.

[Van] Finally, I found you.

What's going on?

[Shelley] Oh, this so neat.

We are going to be in a road rally.

[Van] A road race.

That's awesome.

[Shelley] No, no, no, no.

This is not a race
against time or speed.

This is a race that's involved

with how well we can
navigate accurately.

Something you probably could
stand some help on, Van.

Oh, hey and this is Brad Ball.

He's from the geographic
information team,

and he's in charge
of the road rally.

[Brad] Hey, guys.

Shelley. Van.

This is a special road rally.

No maps allowed.

We're only going to
use GPS receivers.

[Van] What's a GPS receiver?

[Brad] GPS stands for
Global Positioning System.

This little device a GPS receiver
is the future of navigation.

[Shelley] So, just how
does this GPS receiver work

and how are we supposed to
use it in this road rally?

[Brad] The global positioning
system is a constellation

of 24 satellites that
orbit the earth.

GPS makes it possible for
people using ground receivers

to determine their
geographic location.

By measuring the travel
time of a signal tranmitted

from each satellite, a receiver
can calculate its distance

from the satellite.

From receiving signals from
at least four satellites,

a receiver can determine
the latitude,

longitude, altitude, and time.

If the receiver is equipped
with a computer that has a map,

the position is shown on the map.

If you are moving, a receiver
may also tell you your speed,

direction of travel, and estimated
time of arrival at the destination.

[Shelley] Oh, okay.

I think I understand
now how we are supposed

to use this receiver in this rally.

This receiver will help us navigate
to each of our destination points

but we only have a certain
amount of time to get there.

[Van] Which means
speed is important.

So, I'm driving.

[Brad] Wrong, Van on both points.

In a rally, you maintain
the posted speed limit.

Using the posted speed limit plus
the distance we have calculated the

time it should take you.

[Shelley] Time equals
distance divided by speed.

[Brad] Right.

Now program this receiver with
your check point coordinates.

Your challenge is
to find each points.

The time and accuracy
contributes to your score.

Shelley, you're the driver.

Van, you're the navigator.

[Van] Okay.

[Brad] One final rule:
Here's your logbook.

This must be signed and time
stamped at each check point.

Also, at each check point, you
are to collect the information

on the navigation and how GPS
applies to the featured site

and get a clue to the
next leg of your trip.

Wait for the green light.

I'll send each crew
one minute apart.

[Shelley] All right, Brad.

I think we're ready.

Okay. All right.

All of us.

How about hopping in?

We have got room in the back.

You can come along, help
us collect the information,

and maybe look over Van's shoulder.

He'll probably need the help.

Let's go.

[Van] I still think he
should have let me drive.

[Shelley] Hey, hey, hey.

Navigate. You navigate.

I drive.

[Van] Wow, this is awesome.

There's a computerized
map on this receiver.

It says that we have
to go northwesterly.

So, oh, take a right.

Right here.

[Shelley] Got it.

Oh, Van, are you sure you
have those coordinates right?

We are coming into Busch
Gardens, Williamsburg.

Okay. Listen, Van I think you
got us to the right place.

Read some more on
the GPS instructions.

I'm going to take this and
see what I can find out.

Okay? And I'll be back
in just a few moments.

Busch Gardens?

Barry said here.

Feathered follies?

Okay. Hello.

Excuse me, am I in the right place?

Is this the first leg
of the road rally?

[Denise] Yeah, come on down.

[Shelley] Oh, great.


Van, my man, you got us here.

You navigated us correctly.

All right.

Oh, I am so relieved.

Hi, I'm Shelley Canwrite.

[Denise] I'm Denise.

[Shelley] Oh, I am so glad to
know I'm at the right place.

Here's my rally log.

[Denise] Okay.

[Shelley] If you could
sign that, please.

And I'm curious.

Where am I?

What is feathered follies?

[Denise] This is the feathered
follies bird show at Busch Gardens.

What we do here is we
have hawks, falcons,

owls fly through the theater.

We have different types of
parrots that do different behaviors

to entertain the audience
while they're here.

[Shelley] So, what in the world
does feathered follies have to do

with navigation or GPS?

I'm confused.

[Denise] Well, all of
our birds that are here

out in the wild they do some
type of natural migration.

Song birds migrate at night.

They follow the stars.

The birds of prey they
migrate during the day.

So, they can move with
the way the sun changes.

They're following mainly their
food and looking for warm weather.

[Shelley] What is the farthest
that a bird has ever migrated?

Do you have --

[Denise] The arctic turn is the
bird species that migrates the most

and they can go from northern
Greenland down to Antarctica.

[Shelley] Wow.

No kidding?

This is fascinating, but I
know I need to be on my way.

So, you have got some
instructions there for me?

[Denise] Yes, your next leg
is going to take you to learn

about early navigation.

[Shelley] Early navigation.

All right, gang.

You heard that.

Back to the car and let's go.

Denise, thanks very much.

We're on our way.

[Denise] Good luck.

[Shelley] All right.

Thanks. Van, you were right.

You do know how to use
one of these things.

[Van] What did you see?

[Shelley] This is so neat.

Birds. I learned how birds
can navigate by instinct.

[Van] Well, gee, that makes me
wonder if the GPS could be used

to study animals and nature?

Did you find our next clue.

[Shelley] I did.

All I know though is it has
something do with early navigation.

[Van] Well, let's go.

[Shelley] All right.

Let's get out of here.

Okay. Is this our next stop?

[Van] Mariners museum.

There has to be something
on navigation here.

[Shelley] Excuse me, are you
with the NASA road rally?

[Speaker] Yes, I am.

Do you have your log book with you?

[Shelley] I sure do.

Now, according to our instructions
we're supposed to learn something

from you about early navigation.

[Speaker] Well, here as the
Mariners museam in Newport News,

Virginia, we tell the story
of man's conquest to the seas.

When people set off to explore the
oceans, they had to create a system

of measurement to
determine their location.

To determine the distance along
north to south, the navigator had

to determine the altitude
of the sun.

For instance, if the sun on the
equator at noon is 90 degrees

to the horizon and if the sun at
the north pole is zero degrees,

then the degrees in between
note a ship's position.

This is called latitude.

To locate his east to west
position, the navigator had

to measure the difference
between local times.

For example, when the sun was
at noon in different places.

This is called longitude and spring
driven clocks were a great boom

to determining that position.

Although the cross staff,
the magnetic compass

and the spring driven clock
were high-tech for their day,

ancient mariners continue
to navigate a lot

by what we call dead
reckoning; that is,

by estimating the position traveled

from a previously
predetermined position.

[Van] So, you have one of
those GPS contraptions.

That's the way to navigate today.

[Shelley] Captain, this has been
very interesting but, you know,

looking at my watch, I think
we need to be shoving off.

So, do you have a clue for us.

[Speaker] Well, I think I might.

On your next stop, you are going
to be studying how early aviators

and today's pilots navigate
their way through the skies.

Now, away with you.

[Van] I don't get it.

I mean, I don't see an airport;
and we're nowhere near any water.

[Shelley] Okay, Van.

This one is your turn.

How about you go in and check to
see if this is the right location.

[Van] Okay.

Well, there's a positive sign.

[Speaker] Van Houghes?

[Van] Yes.

How do you know my name?

[Speaker] Well, I watch
NASA CONNECT all the time.

I'm Jane Garvey, head of the
Federal Aviation Administration.

[Van] Oh, wow.

Nice to meet you.

[Jane] Nice to meet you.

[Van] Are you part
of the road rally?

[Jane] Yes, I am.

I am your next-to-last stop
on your navigational tour.

[Van] I'm here to learn
about how early aviators

and today's pilots
navigate through the air.

Can you help?

[Jane] Yes, I can.

Just as Garrett A. Morgan
improved roadway navigation

and sailors built on on early
successes and nautical navigation,

early aviators and the
Federal Government worked hard

to make air travel safer
and more efficient.

In the beginning, after the
Wright Brothers successful flights

at Kitty Hawk, the first pilots
had no navigational aids.

They simply watched for
landmarks and followed roads,

rivers, and railroad tracks.

This approach to navigation
obviously had its shortcomings.

It only worked in daylight
and in clear weather.

In 1921, pilots for the U.S.
post office conducted a daring

experiment for nightflying.

Bonfires lit by helpful
citizens helped

to aid pilots flying the
mail across the country.

This approach was
followed by airways marked

by a series of light beacons.

As technology developed,

the government introduced
still better navigational aids

using radio.

By listening to radio signals,
pilots could stay on course even

when bad weather kept them from
seeing lights on the ground.

Todays pilots draw on
the advantages of GPS

to guide aircraft along
highways in the sky.

The FAA and its partners,
such as NASA,

are working to build tomorrow's
air traffic control system

which will draw on the benefits
of the global positioning system.

[Van] Well, it sounds
like it can do anything.

How about the weather?

[Jane] Van, everybody
talks about the weather

but not even GPS can
do anything about it.

Weather is also a major factor
with aviation accidents but along

with NASA the FAA is developing
several tools to give pilots more

and better information on
hazardous weather conditions.

[Van] Well, it looks like I
have collected what I need.

Do you have a clue
for my next stop?

[Jane] Well, your last
stop will lead you to one

of our partners who's working
with us on GPS navigation.

Good luck.

[Van] Well, thanks bye.

You know, the more
I learn about GPS

and its everyday applications
the more I'm convinced

that I should get one of these
for when I go on the road

with my band, The Noodles.

[Shelley] Van, when Jane Garvey was
talking about some special friends,

she was talking about us, NASA.

[Van] Well, let's see who's here.

[Shelley] Hey.

Hi. Are you with the
NASA road rally?

[Speaker] Yeah, come on up.

All right.

[Dick] Hi, I'm Dick Hooshent and
this is and this is Charles Howell.

[Charles] Hi.

[Shelley] Hi.

Nice to meet you.

[Van] Hello.

[Charles] Hello.

[Dick] You did a good
job in navigating here.

[Van] It was as easy
as a videogame.

[Shelley] Sure.

Listen here's our logbook.

Now, according to the road
rally rules, we are supposed

to learn some information
from you on GPS navigation.

So, our question is
NASA how is NASA helping

to improve navigation
tools for aircraft?

[Dick] Well, we have been
investing the use of GPS

to help an aircraft navigate

on the airport's surface
using GPS navigation.

In -- particularly in bad
weather and foggy conditions.

Here is an example
of how this happens.

As a NASA 757 approaches
the runway,

computer generated graphics
outline the correct runway

and its precise location on
a head up display mounted

between the pilot
and the wind screen.

Upon contact to the ground a head

down moving map display shows
the pilot his or her location

on the runway and the taxi way
system as well as the location

of all other aircraft.

The aircraft location is provided

by the GPS satellite
navigation system.

Digital data link communications
are used between the pilot

and air traffic controller
greatly eliminating the possibility

of miscommunication.

Using this system, taxi
speeds can be increased

by as much as 25 percent.

Such a system will play a
role in helping reach the goal

of tripling our Nations aviation
system capacity while maintaining

safety in all weather conditions.

[Shelley] Dick and Charles, thank
you so much for your time today.

This has been so interesting.

This whole road rally has
been fun and informative.

Thank you so much for
sharing with us today.

[Both] You're welcome.

[Shelley] We'll see you.

Good bye.

[Van] You know, Shelley.

It's really amazing how GPS
keeps pilots on track in the sky.

Sort of like managing
flight traffic not

in a way not unlike the traffic
signal Garrett A. Morgan invented

for the ground.

[Shelley] Yeah, Morgan had a
great respect for education

which he used to help others.

Well, team, I think we did
a pretty good job navigating

in this road rally
but right now we want

to see just how good you
can navigate on your own.

We are going to send them on over
the North Hampton Middle School

which is located on the
eastern shore of Virginia,

where you are going to meet up
with science teacher Barbara Haines

and her students who are involved
in a navigational challenge.

For me, I am going to head on
back to the NASA CONNECT studio.

I am going to walk back there, send
you in the eastern shore and Van,

how about you parking in the car.

[Van] Well, sure.

I think I might even check
out a new location on my GPS.

[Shelley] Sounds good.

All right.

See ya.

[Van] Bye.

[Student] Hi, we're students from
North Hampton Middle School located

in Machipongo -- NASA CONNECT
asked us to investigation angles

and directions by plotting a course

on graph paper using
compass roads and ruler.

Our goal is to establish five
outdoor pathways: Mapping,

direction and distance with five
separate teams using a compass,

compass ways and transit.

We hope our five different paths
will converge at a angle point.

Here are the materials
for our experiment:

Five rolls of different colored
tape, five markers, tape,

five compasses, five large
compass rolls, transparencies,

15 pencils to be used
as fuel point markers,

15 pieces of paper marked with the
letters A through J, and five X's,

meter sticks, five paper towel
rolls, thread, five scissors,

and before we go outside, we
plot our course on graph paper.

[Student] We need to review
some simple vocabulary terms

to help us prepare
for this activity.

The bearing position or
direction of an object

or point based on
a compass reading.

Navigation is a science of
finding distance, direction,

compass positions and time of
travel to establish a course

or determine a certain
position on a map.

Triangulation is a mathematical
and scientific determination

of an unknown position
using distance

or bearings from known positions.

A transit is a siting device used
in surveying to plot a course

or establish level or heights.

Having reviewed these
terms, we are now ready

to divide into five teams.

Team A. Team C. Team
E. Team G. Team I.

We divide tasks among team members
before navigating our course.

One person will call out
the bearings and distance

and takes care of
field position marks.

One person handles the
compass and compass roads.

The third person handles
the transit sitings.

A fourth person handles the tape
roll, the measurement distance

and a fifth person
checks the transit sitings

and distance measurements.

[Student] The first step in our
activity is to create the transit.

We take the paper tube and
cut four slits into the end.

Each slit should divide the
diameter of the tube into quarters.

Now, put the string into the slits.

This will create cross hairs
giving us greater accuracy

as we look through the tube.

Next the tube is attached
to a meter stick.

We then mark three
separate pieces of paper

with three position letters for
our group: Group A marks A, B,

X. Group C marks C, B, X. Group E
marks E, F, X. Group G marks G, H,

X and Group I marks
I, J, X. These pieces

of paper will mark the
points on our course.

Now, we're ready to go.

[Student] Here are the procedures.

Each group lines up
exactly four meters apart

with the letter designating
our team

on a line facing magnetic north.

We mark our starting point and hold
the compass over the starting point

to confirm magnetic north.

We also set the transit
up at the starting point.

Using a compass roads as our
guide, we turn the transit

to the first bearing on our chart.

For your experiment remember:

North zero degrees must always
be pointing to magnetic north

on the roads, the
appropriate direction.

Then use the transit as a siting
guide and direct the student

with the tape roll to the
appropriate direction.

It's okay to use hand signals to
direct the person left to right.

Once we find a correct bearing,
we measure out our distance

and mark the point with
the pencil and paper

with the appropriate letter.

We then pick up the transit
and move the point number two

that we just determined.

We complete leg two according to
chart using the same procedure.

When all the groups finish, we
check for navigation errors.

Did everyone arrive
at the same point X?

Now that we have finished
our field experiment,

we are ready to apply
this knowledge

to questions involving flight
paths, distance, and time.

[Shelley] All right.

Joining me in the studio are some
friendly faces involved with GPS

but before we talk
to our researchers,

let's give you a chance
at some navigating

that will involve calculating
flight paths, distance, and time.

Then after the segment, our two
researchers Dick Hooshent from NASA

and Hough Bersheron from the FAA
will answer your e-mail questions

and take questions from some
students attending a special

anniversary event in Washington,
D.C. as guests of the FAA.

Okay. Now, look carefully at the
data and using the information

in the following diagram work
with your fellow students

to answer the questions as read
aloud by Mr. Rodney Slater,

Secretary U.S. Department
of Transportation.

Rodney: What is the total distance
in miles of an airplane flight

that starts at point C goes

through point D and
ends at point X?

What is the total
distance in kilometers?

Now, here's a hint.

Use the formula to convert
miles into kilometers.

How long would it take an airplane
traveling at 300 miles per hour

to fly from point C to point B?

From point D to point X?

How long would the
entire flight take?

How many miles are there in
a direct flight from point C

to point X. Here's a hint.

Use the pythagorean
theorum to find your answer.

[Shelley] All right.

So, how do you think you did?

Well your mathematical computations
and reasoning are going

to be important skills to
answering the questions.

And speaking of questions
here with me now

to answer some student
questions are Dick and Hough.

So, let's go to Washington,
D.C. and meet up with a group

of students from 14 schools
that are spending the day

with their adoptive
business partner the FAA

and a special event
recognizing the 95th anniversary

of the Wright Brothers
first flight.

On the stage we have some
important leaders to our country

and transportation research.

I'd like to take a moment to
introduce our viewers to them.

First, we have Mr. Rodney Slater,

secretary of the department
of transportation.

We also have Mrs. Jane Garvey,
who is the head of the FAA

and we have Mr. Daniel
Golden, the head of NASA

who also has very special message
for our viewers, Mr. Golden.

Hi, Mr. Golden.

I understand you have some
words for us for our viewers?

[Mr. Golden] Yes.

I hope all the students here in
Washington and around the country,

700,000 of them, see the kind
of tools we use at the FAA

to make planes fly safer at NASA,
to send the shuttle into space

and they understand that these
are real tools and they are going

to learn how to use them
and they also understand

that if they understand how to use
these tools, they'll have good jobs

when they grow up and they will
be able to lead our country.

[Shelley] Mr. Golden, thank you.

Those are very good
words for our viewers.

Now, beside Secretary Slater

and Mrs. Garvey is a student
whom they will introduce.

They will have a question
for our researchers back here

in the studio.

So, Mr. Slater will you
introduce your guest, please.

[Mr. Slater] Yes.

Thank you, Dr. Canwrite.

Let me just say that I'm
here next to Anthony Marino

and we we were listening

and saying these are
some good questions.

I'll tell ya.

Well, Anthony is a student at
the Tacaho Elementary School

and he actually has a
question that he'd like to ask.

Anthony. Anthony: Thank you.

My question is: How did
we navigate before GPS?

[Shelley] All right.

Good question and let's see
who would like to answer that?

Hough, all right.

[Hough] The -- that's a really
good question because before GPS,

people didn't navigate.

So, I think the best way to answer

that is take you back
several hundred years ago

and show you how some of
the early people navigated.

Well, one thing people would do is
they would go to certain location,

as they traveled over
the land, they would mark

where they went and make a map.

That would become a map and
they could give to somebody else

and they could navigate
the same route.

In fact, we still use that today.

We have highways, that's a
path and we have road maps,

that's how we get
from city to city.

So, you'll see some of these
techniques even though they are

very old, they still
use them today.

Another technique was developed
when we invented the compass.

Now, the compass has a needle
that points to the north

and if you know what direction
you are going to do go,

you point in that direction
and you see the angle

and that's called a bearing
and you follow that bearing

and then you can travel
in that direction.

Again, the compass
is still used today.

Any aircraft that you fly
in will have a compass.

[Shelley] That's great.

So, what I'm hearing from
you is some of the tools

from the past are
still being used today.

[Hough] That is true.

[Shelley] That is great.

[Hough] It's a combination of all
of these tools and they help back

up each other and make sure

that you have a more
accurate path and direction.

[Shelley] Great.

That's a good answer.

I know we have somebody else
back there with and Mrs. Garvey.

So, Mrs. Garvey could you please
introduce for us your guest

and then the question, please.

[Mrs. Garvey] Well, yes.

Thank you very much and I am joined

by a wonderful student named
Britney Jones and Britney is

from Bradbury Heights
Elementary School,

and she has a question
for us today.

[Britney] Thank you: My
question is: How does GPS work?

[Shelley] All right.

How does GPS work?

Got something there for us?

[Speaker] Yes, I expected
this question

and I use this illustration to
try to answer that question.

The GPS satellite sends
signals down to the earth

and then the receiver on the
earth makes measurements on these

and the first thing it does is
determine the distance or range

to those satellites and so let's
let this wire here represent the

range from this satellite and this
one the range from this satellite

and then with mathematical
equations in the computer,

the GPS receiver, it calculates
where these ranges intersect

and that becomes your
latitude and longitude

of your position on earth.

[Shelley] All right.

And that's how Van and I were
able to get where we needed to go.

Well, I see we are quickly
running out of time.

Thank you, Dick and Hough.

Oh, but I understand we have a
special caller with a message.

It's from senator and
astronaut, John Glenn.

Mr. Glenn, welcome.

Mr. Glenn: Thank you.

Glad to be able to
participate this morning.

[Shelley] Thank you.

I understand you have some
words for our viewers.

Mr. Glenn: I do indeed
and I'm glad to be able

to give some incouragement
to our young people today.

You know, today is
the 95th anniversary

of when the first airplane
ever lifted off the ground

under powered flight.

When the Wright Brothers made that
first flight from Kill Devil Hill

down in North Carolina.

And it wasn't a very long flight
but they were the first people

to ever get airborne in a
powered vehicle and ever

since then we have been trying to
get higher and faster and higher

and faster and we
are into space now.

You might even look at the Wright
Brothers as the first astronauts,

if you wanted to look
at it that way.

They didn't get where they
were and make their discoveries

by just having an interest in it.

You know, they were
people who studied things.

They made little wind
tunnels at the time.

They did the mathematical

They had to know their mathematics.

They had to have a scientific
mind and that's what we like

to encourage in all
our young people today.

You just have to have the
background that you get in school

with regard to math and reading
skills and all those other things.

That's the good part
about being in school.

You can all have the ability
and the place that you're at now

in school to do all
those same things

and make tremendous contributions

in the future just like the
Wright Brothers did 95 years ago.

[Shelley] Senator Glenn, thank you.

Powerful words there
and appreciate it.

Now, if you want to discover more
ways researchers are using GPS,

check out our website.

For those of you interested in
the world of transportation,

check out the online resources
of our program partners.

We are going to have
to say good-bye now.

Let's wrap up.

Thanks program partners
and all our guests.

Thank you.

[Speaker] Here you will
engage in an online road rally

with a checkpoint on each
continent as seen from space.

Finally, for a videotaped copy of
the show along with lesson plans,

contact the NASA central operation
of resources for educators.

[Shelley] And now I wonder
what ever happened to Van.

Hello, Van.

[Van] Hello?


[Shelley] Van, where are you?

[Van] Oh, I was just checking
out one more stop on the GPS.

[Shelley] And where might that be?

[Van] Well, what's a road
trip without a milk shake?

[Shelley] Van, wrong answer.

What is it that you
are supposed to say?

[Van] Oh. Well, we hope you join
us next time on NASA CONNECT

when we connect you to
math, science, and NASA.

See you later.