Transcript for NASAConnect - Wherever You Go There You Are

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[Speaker] It's good to be here at
Bradbury Heights Elementary School.

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Let me ask.

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Do any of you ever
need to navigate?

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Is math and science -- are they
involved in being able to navigate?

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And how does navigation tie in
with matters pertaining to safety?

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Now, I know you're wondering
why am I standing here next

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to this traffic signal.

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Can anyone tell me who
invented the traffic signal?

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[Student] Garrett A. Morgan.

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[Speaker] Garrett A. Morgan.

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Very good.

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Now, let me ask.

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Can you imagine a city
without traffic signals

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to help us navigate?

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Well, I can tell you 75 years
ago that was the case and that's

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when Garrett A. Morgan,
an African American,

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saw a collision involving
an automobile

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and a horse-drawn carriage and so
he invented this navigation aid

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that helps us as we
come to an intersection,

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move through it safely.

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Now, all of navigation though
doesn't just control the way we

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move on the ground.

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As a matter of fact, what Garrett
Morgan did with this traffic light,

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we are now doing with satellite
navigation aids in the skies

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and NASA is helping us to do that.

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Now, before today's program ends,
you're going to be introduced

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to the wonders of satellite
navigation through the persons

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of Van Hughes and Shelley Canwrite,

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the hosts of NASA CONNECTS.

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Watch and be inspired.

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[Van] Hi. I'm Van Hughes and
welcome to NASA CONNECT the show

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that connects you with the world
of math, science, and NASA.

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I'm supposed to be meeting my
friend, Dr. Shelley Canwrite,

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somewhere around here
at NASA Langley

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so we can start off our
show about navigation.

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Well, in today's show,
you'll meet students

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from North Hampton Middle School
on the eastern shore of Virginia

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who are given a special
navigation challenge.

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We'll also meet researchers
here at NASA Langley in Hampton,

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Virginia who will show us
new forms of navigation.

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Oh, and when you see this
symbol, that's your clue to check

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out more information,
fun and activities

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on the NASA CONNECT website.

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So, to start things off,
Shelley has a special event lined

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up for us.

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So, let's go check it out.

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Hey, Shelley.

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[Shelley] Hey, Van.

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[Van] Finally, I found you.

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What's going on?

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[Shelley] Oh, this so neat.

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We are going to be in a road rally.

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[Van] A road race.

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That's awesome.

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[Shelley] No, no, no, no.

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This is not a race
against time or speed.

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This is a race that's involved

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with how well we can
navigate accurately.

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Something you probably could
stand some help on, Van.

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Oh, hey and this is Brad Ball.

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He's from the geographic
information team,

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and he's in charge
of the road rally.

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[Brad] Hey, guys.

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Shelley. Van.

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This is a special road rally.

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No maps allowed.

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We're only going to
use GPS receivers.

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[Van] What's a GPS receiver?

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[Brad] GPS stands for
Global Positioning System.

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This little device a GPS receiver
is the future of navigation.

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[Shelley] So, just how
does this GPS receiver work

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and how are we supposed to
use it in this road rally?

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[Brad] The global positioning
system is a constellation

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of 24 satellites that
orbit the earth.

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GPS makes it possible for
people using ground receivers

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to determine their
geographic location.

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By measuring the travel
time of a signal tranmitted

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from each satellite, a receiver
can calculate its distance

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from the satellite.

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From receiving signals from
at least four satellites,

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a receiver can determine
the latitude,

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longitude, altitude, and time.

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If the receiver is equipped
with a computer that has a map,

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the position is shown on the map.

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If you are moving, a receiver
may also tell you your speed,

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direction of travel, and estimated
time of arrival at the destination.

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[Shelley] Oh, okay.

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I think I understand
now how we are supposed

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to use this receiver in this rally.

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This receiver will help us navigate
to each of our destination points

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but we only have a certain
amount of time to get there.

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[Van] Which means
speed is important.

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So, I'm driving.

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[Brad] Wrong, Van on both points.

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In a rally, you maintain
the posted speed limit.

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Using the posted speed limit plus
the distance we have calculated the

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time it should take you.

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[Shelley] Time equals
distance divided by speed.

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[Brad] Right.

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Now program this receiver with
your check point coordinates.

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Your challenge is
to find each points.

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The time and accuracy
contributes to your score.

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Shelley, you're the driver.

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Van, you're the navigator.

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[Van] Okay.

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[Brad] One final rule:
Here's your logbook.

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This must be signed and time
stamped at each check point.

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Also, at each check point, you
are to collect the information

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on the navigation and how GPS
applies to the featured site

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and get a clue to the
next leg of your trip.

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Wait for the green light.

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I'll send each crew
one minute apart.

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[Shelley] All right, Brad.

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I think we're ready.

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Okay. All right.

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All of us.

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How about hopping in?

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We have got room in the back.

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You can come along, help
us collect the information,

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and maybe look over Van's shoulder.

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He'll probably need the help.

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Let's go.

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[Van] I still think he
should have let me drive.

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[Shelley] Hey, hey, hey.

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Navigate. You navigate.

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I drive.

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[Van] Wow, this is awesome.

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There's a computerized
map on this receiver.

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It says that we have
to go northwesterly.

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So, oh, take a right.

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Right here.

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[Shelley] Got it.

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Oh, Van, are you sure you
have those coordinates right?

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We are coming into Busch
Gardens, Williamsburg.

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Okay. Listen, Van I think you
got us to the right place.

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Read some more on
the GPS instructions.

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I'm going to take this and
see what I can find out.

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Okay? And I'll be back
in just a few moments.

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Busch Gardens?

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Barry said here.

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Feathered follies?

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Okay. Hello.

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Excuse me, am I in the right place?

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Is this the first leg
of the road rally?

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[Denise] Yeah, come on down.

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[Shelley] Oh, great.

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Fantastic.

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Van, my man, you got us here.

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You navigated us correctly.

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All right.

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Oh, I am so relieved.

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Hi, I'm Shelley Canwrite.

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[Denise] I'm Denise.

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[Shelley] Oh, I am so glad to
know I'm at the right place.

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Here's my rally log.

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[Denise] Okay.

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[Shelley] If you could
sign that, please.

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And I'm curious.

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Where am I?

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What is feathered follies?

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[Denise] This is the feathered
follies bird show at Busch Gardens.

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What we do here is we
have hawks, falcons,

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owls fly through the theater.

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We have different types of
parrots that do different behaviors

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to entertain the audience
while they're here.

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[Shelley] So, what in the world
does feathered follies have to do

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with navigation or GPS?

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I'm confused.

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[Denise] Well, all of
our birds that are here

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out in the wild they do some
type of natural migration.

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Song birds migrate at night.

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They follow the stars.

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The birds of prey they
migrate during the day.

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So, they can move with
the way the sun changes.

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They're following mainly their
food and looking for warm weather.

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[Shelley] What is the farthest
that a bird has ever migrated?

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Do you have --

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[Denise] The arctic turn is the
bird species that migrates the most

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and they can go from northern
Greenland down to Antarctica.

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[Shelley] Wow.

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No kidding?

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This is fascinating, but I
know I need to be on my way.

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So, you have got some
instructions there for me?

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[Denise] Yes, your next leg
is going to take you to learn

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about early navigation.

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[Shelley] Early navigation.

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All right, gang.

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You heard that.

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Back to the car and let's go.

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Denise, thanks very much.

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We're on our way.

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[Denise] Good luck.

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[Shelley] All right.

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Thanks. Van, you were right.

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You do know how to use
one of these things.

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[Van] What did you see?

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[Shelley] This is so neat.

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Birds. I learned how birds
can navigate by instinct.

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[Van] Well, gee, that makes me
wonder if the GPS could be used

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to study animals and nature?

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Did you find our next clue.

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[Shelley] I did.

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All I know though is it has
something do with early navigation.

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[Van] Well, let's go.

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[Shelley] All right.

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Let's get out of here.

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Okay. Is this our next stop?

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[Van] Mariners museum.

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There has to be something
on navigation here.

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[Shelley] Excuse me, are you
with the NASA road rally?

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[Speaker] Yes, I am.

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Do you have your log book with you?

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[Shelley] I sure do.

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Now, according to our instructions
we're supposed to learn something

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from you about early navigation.

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[Speaker] Well, here as the
Mariners museam in Newport News,

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Virginia, we tell the story
of man's conquest to the seas.

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When people set off to explore the
oceans, they had to create a system

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of measurement to
determine their location.

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To determine the distance along
north to south, the navigator had

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to determine the altitude
of the sun.

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For instance, if the sun on the
equator at noon is 90 degrees

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to the horizon and if the sun at
the north pole is zero degrees,

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then the degrees in between
note a ship's position.

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This is called latitude.

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To locate his east to west
position, the navigator had

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to measure the difference
between local times.

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For example, when the sun was
at noon in different places.

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This is called longitude and spring
driven clocks were a great boom

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to determining that position.

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Although the cross staff,
the magnetic compass

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and the spring driven clock
were high-tech for their day,

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ancient mariners continue
to navigate a lot

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by what we call dead
reckoning; that is,

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by estimating the position traveled

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from a previously
predetermined position.

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[Van] So, you have one of
those GPS contraptions.

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That's the way to navigate today.

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[Shelley] Captain, this has been
very interesting but, you know,

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looking at my watch, I think
we need to be shoving off.

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So, do you have a clue for us.

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[Speaker] Well, I think I might.

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On your next stop, you are going
to be studying how early aviators

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and today's pilots navigate
their way through the skies.

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Now, away with you.

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[Van] I don't get it.

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I mean, I don't see an airport;
and we're nowhere near any water.

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[Shelley] Okay, Van.

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This one is your turn.

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How about you go in and check to
see if this is the right location.

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[Van] Okay.

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Well, there's a positive sign.

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[Speaker] Van Houghes?

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[Van] Yes.

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How do you know my name?

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[Speaker] Well, I watch
NASA CONNECT all the time.

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I'm Jane Garvey, head of the
Federal Aviation Administration.

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[Van] Oh, wow.

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Nice to meet you.

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[Jane] Nice to meet you.

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[Van] Are you part
of the road rally?

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[Jane] Yes, I am.

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I am your next-to-last stop
on your navigational tour.

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[Van] I'm here to learn
about how early aviators

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and today's pilots
navigate through the air.

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Can you help?

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[Jane] Yes, I can.

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Just as Garrett A. Morgan
improved roadway navigation

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and sailors built on on early
successes and nautical navigation,

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early aviators and the
Federal Government worked hard

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to make air travel safer
and more efficient.

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In the beginning, after the
Wright Brothers successful flights

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at Kitty Hawk, the first pilots
had no navigational aids.

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They simply watched for
landmarks and followed roads,

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rivers, and railroad tracks.

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This approach to navigation
obviously had its shortcomings.

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It only worked in daylight
and in clear weather.

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In 1921, pilots for the U.S.
post office conducted a daring

[00:11:47.589]
experiment for nightflying.

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Bonfires lit by helpful
citizens helped

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to aid pilots flying the
mail across the country.

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This approach was
followed by airways marked

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by a series of light beacons.

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As technology developed,

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the government introduced
still better navigational aids

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using radio.

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By listening to radio signals,
pilots could stay on course even

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when bad weather kept them from
seeing lights on the ground.

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Todays pilots draw on
the advantages of GPS

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to guide aircraft along
highways in the sky.

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The FAA and its partners,
such as NASA,

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are working to build tomorrow's
air traffic control system

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which will draw on the benefits
of the global positioning system.

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[Van] Well, it sounds
like it can do anything.

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How about the weather?

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[Jane] Van, everybody
talks about the weather

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but not even GPS can
do anything about it.

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Weather is also a major factor
with aviation accidents but along

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with NASA the FAA is developing
several tools to give pilots more

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and better information on
hazardous weather conditions.

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[Van] Well, it looks like I
have collected what I need.

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Do you have a clue
for my next stop?

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[Jane] Well, your last
stop will lead you to one

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of our partners who's working
with us on GPS navigation.

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Good luck.

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[Van] Well, thanks bye.

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You know, the more
I learn about GPS

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and its everyday applications
the more I'm convinced

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that I should get one of these
for when I go on the road

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with my band, The Noodles.

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[Shelley] Van, when Jane Garvey was
talking about some special friends,

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she was talking about us, NASA.

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[Van] Well, let's see who's here.

[00:13:19.429]
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[Shelley] Hey.

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Hi. Are you with the
NASA road rally?

[00:13:24.949]
[Speaker] Yeah, come on up.

[00:13:25.989]
All right.

[00:13:26.789]
[Dick] Hi, I'm Dick Hooshent and
this is and this is Charles Howell.

[00:13:32.789]
[Charles] Hi.

[00:13:33.169]
[Shelley] Hi.

[00:13:33.329]
Nice to meet you.

[00:13:34.279]
[Van] Hello.

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[Charles] Hello.

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[Dick] You did a good
job in navigating here.

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[Van] It was as easy
as a videogame.

[00:13:41.189]
[Shelley] Sure.

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Listen here's our logbook.

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Now, according to the road
rally rules, we are supposed

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to learn some information
from you on GPS navigation.

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So, our question is
NASA how is NASA helping

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to improve navigation
tools for aircraft?

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[Dick] Well, we have been
investing the use of GPS

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to help an aircraft navigate

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on the airport's surface
using GPS navigation.

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In -- particularly in bad
weather and foggy conditions.

[00:14:09.169]
Here is an example
of how this happens.

[00:14:11.639]
As a NASA 757 approaches
the runway,

[00:14:14.979]
computer generated graphics
outline the correct runway

[00:14:18.319]
and its precise location on
a head up display mounted

[00:14:21.699]
between the pilot
and the wind screen.

[00:14:24.199]
Upon contact to the ground a head

[00:14:26.319]
down moving map display shows
the pilot his or her location

[00:14:30.179]
on the runway and the taxi way
system as well as the location

[00:14:34.409]
of all other aircraft.

[00:14:37.109]
The aircraft location is provided

[00:14:39.079]
by the GPS satellite
navigation system.

[00:14:42.019]
Digital data link communications
are used between the pilot

[00:14:45.129]
and air traffic controller
greatly eliminating the possibility

[00:14:49.039]
of miscommunication.

[00:14:50.449]
Using this system, taxi
speeds can be increased

[00:14:53.429]
by as much as 25 percent.

[00:14:56.019]
Such a system will play a
role in helping reach the goal

[00:14:59.629]
of tripling our Nations aviation
system capacity while maintaining

[00:15:03.849]
safety in all weather conditions.

[00:15:07.259]
[Shelley] Dick and Charles, thank
you so much for your time today.

[00:15:10.419]
This has been so interesting.

[00:15:11.649]
This whole road rally has
been fun and informative.

[00:15:14.339]
Thank you so much for
sharing with us today.

[00:15:16.699]
[Both] You're welcome.

[00:15:17.339]
[Shelley] We'll see you.

[00:15:17.749]
Good bye.

[00:15:19.719]
[00:15:22.489]
[Van] You know, Shelley.

[00:15:23.099]
It's really amazing how GPS
keeps pilots on track in the sky.

[00:15:27.049]
Sort of like managing
flight traffic not

[00:15:28.889]
in a way not unlike the traffic
signal Garrett A. Morgan invented

[00:15:32.399]
for the ground.

[00:15:33.089]
[Shelley] Yeah, Morgan had a
great respect for education

[00:15:35.769]
which he used to help others.

[00:15:38.179]
[00:15:39.499]
Well, team, I think we did
a pretty good job navigating

[00:15:42.789]
in this road rally
but right now we want

[00:15:45.199]
to see just how good you
can navigate on your own.

[00:15:47.579]
We are going to send them on over
the North Hampton Middle School

[00:15:50.799]
which is located on the
eastern shore of Virginia,

[00:15:53.179]
where you are going to meet up
with science teacher Barbara Haines

[00:15:55.589]
and her students who are involved
in a navigational challenge.

[00:15:59.429]
For me, I am going to head on
back to the NASA CONNECT studio.

[00:16:02.239]
I am going to walk back there, send
you in the eastern shore and Van,

[00:16:05.029]
how about you parking in the car.

[00:16:07.089]
[Van] Well, sure.

[00:16:07.729]
I think I might even check
out a new location on my GPS.

[00:16:11.309]
[Shelley] Sounds good.

[00:16:11.789]
All right.

[00:16:12.329]
See ya.

[00:16:13.939]
[Van] Bye.

[00:16:15.579]
[Student] Hi, we're students from
North Hampton Middle School located

[00:16:18.059]
in Machipongo -- NASA CONNECT
asked us to investigation angles

[00:16:26.009]
and directions by plotting a course

[00:16:27.749]
on graph paper using
compass roads and ruler.

[00:16:30.419]
Our goal is to establish five
outdoor pathways: Mapping,

[00:16:33.739]
direction and distance with five
separate teams using a compass,

[00:16:37.319]
compass ways and transit.

[00:16:38.969]
We hope our five different paths
will converge at a angle point.

[00:16:42.449]
Here are the materials
for our experiment:

[00:16:44.839]
Five rolls of different colored
tape, five markers, tape,

[00:16:48.709]
five compasses, five large
compass rolls, transparencies,

[00:16:52.629]
15 pencils to be used
as fuel point markers,

[00:16:55.679]
15 pieces of paper marked with the
letters A through J, and five X's,

[00:17:00.639]
meter sticks, five paper towel
rolls, thread, five scissors,

[00:17:05.689]
and before we go outside, we
plot our course on graph paper.

[00:17:09.849]
[Student] We need to review
some simple vocabulary terms

[00:17:11.919]
to help us prepare
for this activity.

[00:17:13.889]
The bearing position or
direction of an object

[00:17:16.419]
or point based on
a compass reading.

[00:17:18.559]
Navigation is a science of
finding distance, direction,

[00:17:21.999]
compass positions and time of
travel to establish a course

[00:17:24.779]
or determine a certain
position on a map.

[00:17:27.249]
Triangulation is a mathematical
and scientific determination

[00:17:30.689]
of an unknown position
using distance

[00:17:32.949]
or bearings from known positions.

[00:17:35.949]
A transit is a siting device used
in surveying to plot a course

[00:17:39.359]
or establish level or heights.

[00:17:42.019]
Having reviewed these
terms, we are now ready

[00:17:44.039]
to divide into five teams.

[00:17:45.629]
Team A. Team C. Team
E. Team G. Team I.

[00:17:49.099]
We divide tasks among team members
before navigating our course.

[00:17:52.619]
One person will call out
the bearings and distance

[00:17:54.779]
and takes care of
field position marks.

[00:17:57.089]
One person handles the
compass and compass roads.

[00:17:59.669]
The third person handles
the transit sitings.

[00:18:01.999]
A fourth person handles the tape
roll, the measurement distance

[00:18:05.369]
and a fifth person
checks the transit sitings

[00:18:07.459]
and distance measurements.

[00:18:09.389]
[Student] The first step in our
activity is to create the transit.

[00:18:12.549]
We take the paper tube and
cut four slits into the end.

[00:18:15.909]
Each slit should divide the
diameter of the tube into quarters.

[00:18:19.859]
Now, put the string into the slits.

[00:18:21.989]
This will create cross hairs
giving us greater accuracy

[00:18:25.499]
as we look through the tube.

[00:18:27.269]
Next the tube is attached
to a meter stick.

[00:18:30.729]
We then mark three
separate pieces of paper

[00:18:33.249]
with three position letters for
our group: Group A marks A, B,

[00:18:37.719]
X. Group C marks C, B, X. Group E
marks E, F, X. Group G marks G, H,

[00:18:45.129]
X and Group I marks
I, J, X. These pieces

[00:18:49.259]
of paper will mark the
points on our course.

[00:18:52.569]
Now, we're ready to go.

[00:18:53.369]
[Student] Here are the procedures.

[00:18:56.619]
Each group lines up
exactly four meters apart

[00:18:59.449]
with the letter designating
our team

[00:19:01.429]
on a line facing magnetic north.

[00:19:03.739]
We mark our starting point and hold
the compass over the starting point

[00:19:06.629]
to confirm magnetic north.

[00:19:08.649]
We also set the transit
up at the starting point.

[00:19:11.289]
Using a compass roads as our
guide, we turn the transit

[00:19:14.039]
to the first bearing on our chart.

[00:19:15.999]
For your experiment remember:

[00:19:17.629]
North zero degrees must always
be pointing to magnetic north

[00:19:20.419]
on the roads, the
appropriate direction.

[00:19:22.809]
Then use the transit as a siting
guide and direct the student

[00:19:25.499]
with the tape roll to the
appropriate direction.

[00:19:28.259]
It's okay to use hand signals to
direct the person left to right.

[00:19:31.849]
Once we find a correct bearing,
we measure out our distance

[00:19:34.769]
and mark the point with
the pencil and paper

[00:19:36.459]
with the appropriate letter.

[00:19:38.219]
We then pick up the transit
and move the point number two

[00:19:40.569]
that we just determined.

[00:19:42.209]
We complete leg two according to
chart using the same procedure.

[00:19:45.819]
When all the groups finish, we
check for navigation errors.

[00:19:48.749]
Did everyone arrive
at the same point X?

[00:19:51.319]
Now that we have finished
our field experiment,

[00:19:53.219]
we are ready to apply
this knowledge

[00:19:54.659]
to questions involving flight
paths, distance, and time.

[00:19:58.569]
[00:19:59.949]
[Shelley] All right.

[00:20:00.789]
Joining me in the studio are some
friendly faces involved with GPS

[00:20:04.399]
but before we talk
to our researchers,

[00:20:06.289]
let's give you a chance
at some navigating

[00:20:08.269]
that will involve calculating
flight paths, distance, and time.

[00:20:11.629]
Then after the segment, our two
researchers Dick Hooshent from NASA

[00:20:15.259]
and Hough Bersheron from the FAA
will answer your e-mail questions

[00:20:18.849]
and take questions from some
students attending a special

[00:20:21.529]
anniversary event in Washington,
D.C. as guests of the FAA.

[00:20:25.509]
Okay. Now, look carefully at the
data and using the information

[00:20:28.849]
in the following diagram work
with your fellow students

[00:20:31.299]
to answer the questions as read
aloud by Mr. Rodney Slater,

[00:20:34.459]
Secretary U.S. Department
of Transportation.

[00:20:38.779]
Rodney: What is the total distance
in miles of an airplane flight

[00:20:42.989]
that starts at point C goes

[00:20:45.539]
through point D and
ends at point X?

[00:20:48.879]
What is the total
distance in kilometers?

[00:20:52.649]
Now, here's a hint.

[00:20:54.379]
Use the formula to convert
miles into kilometers.

[00:20:59.419]
[00:21:20.669]
How long would it take an airplane
traveling at 300 miles per hour

[00:21:24.889]
to fly from point C to point B?

[00:21:28.939]
From point D to point X?

[00:21:31.499]
How long would the
entire flight take?

[00:21:34.979]
[00:22:00.489]
How many miles are there in
a direct flight from point C

[00:22:04.489]
to point X. Here's a hint.

[00:22:07.889]
Use the pythagorean
theorum to find your answer.

[00:22:12.419]
[00:22:39.529]
[Shelley] All right.

[00:22:40.209]
So, how do you think you did?

[00:22:41.569]
Well your mathematical computations
and reasoning are going

[00:22:44.169]
to be important skills to
answering the questions.

[00:22:46.429]
And speaking of questions
here with me now

[00:22:48.429]
to answer some student
questions are Dick and Hough.

[00:22:51.199]
So, let's go to Washington,
D.C. and meet up with a group

[00:22:53.969]
of students from 14 schools
that are spending the day

[00:22:56.569]
with their adoptive
business partner the FAA

[00:22:58.529]
and a special event
recognizing the 95th anniversary

[00:23:02.669]
of the Wright Brothers
first flight.

[00:23:04.769]
On the stage we have some
important leaders to our country

[00:23:07.509]
and transportation research.

[00:23:09.159]
I'd like to take a moment to
introduce our viewers to them.

[00:23:12.659]
First, we have Mr. Rodney Slater,

[00:23:14.709]
secretary of the department
of transportation.

[00:23:18.339]
We also have Mrs. Jane Garvey,
who is the head of the FAA

[00:23:23.679]
and we have Mr. Daniel
Golden, the head of NASA

[00:23:27.049]
who also has very special message
for our viewers, Mr. Golden.

[00:23:32.039]
Hi, Mr. Golden.

[00:23:32.879]
I understand you have some
words for us for our viewers?

[00:23:36.939]
[Mr. Golden] Yes.

[00:23:37.529]
I hope all the students here in
Washington and around the country,

[00:23:41.809]
700,000 of them, see the kind
of tools we use at the FAA

[00:23:46.909]
to make planes fly safer at NASA,
to send the shuttle into space

[00:23:52.449]
and they understand that these
are real tools and they are going

[00:23:55.179]
to learn how to use them
and they also understand

[00:23:58.669]
that if they understand how to use
these tools, they'll have good jobs

[00:24:01.899]
when they grow up and they will
be able to lead our country.

[00:24:05.979]
[Shelley] Mr. Golden, thank you.

[00:24:07.349]
Those are very good
words for our viewers.

[00:24:09.629]
Now, beside Secretary Slater

[00:24:11.909]
and Mrs. Garvey is a student
whom they will introduce.

[00:24:15.029]
They will have a question
for our researchers back here

[00:24:17.249]
in the studio.

[00:24:17.809]
So, Mr. Slater will you
introduce your guest, please.

[00:24:20.939]
[Mr. Slater] Yes.

[00:24:21.439]
Thank you, Dr. Canwrite.

[00:24:22.579]
Let me just say that I'm
here next to Anthony Marino

[00:24:27.179]
and we we were listening

[00:24:28.409]
and saying these are
some good questions.

[00:24:30.149]
I'll tell ya.

[00:24:31.309]
Well, Anthony is a student at
the Tacaho Elementary School

[00:24:34.639]
and he actually has a
question that he'd like to ask.

[00:24:37.849]
Anthony. Anthony: Thank you.

[00:24:40.289]
My question is: How did
we navigate before GPS?

[00:24:46.869]
[Shelley] All right.

[00:24:47.899]
Good question and let's see
who would like to answer that?

[00:24:50.749]
Hough, all right.

[00:24:51.889]
[Hough] The -- that's a really
good question because before GPS,

[00:24:57.189]
people didn't navigate.

[00:24:59.409]
So, I think the best way to answer

[00:25:00.749]
that is take you back
several hundred years ago

[00:25:03.279]
and show you how some of
the early people navigated.

[00:25:06.119]
Well, one thing people would do is
they would go to certain location,

[00:25:09.629]
as they traveled over
the land, they would mark

[00:25:12.049]
where they went and make a map.

[00:25:14.049]
That would become a map and
they could give to somebody else

[00:25:16.479]
and they could navigate
the same route.

[00:25:18.509]
In fact, we still use that today.

[00:25:20.559]
We have highways, that's a
path and we have road maps,

[00:25:24.539]
that's how we get
from city to city.

[00:25:26.029]
So, you'll see some of these
techniques even though they are

[00:25:27.959]
very old, they still
use them today.

[00:25:30.089]
Another technique was developed
when we invented the compass.

[00:25:34.269]
Now, the compass has a needle
that points to the north

[00:25:37.129]
and if you know what direction
you are going to do go,

[00:25:39.399]
you point in that direction
and you see the angle

[00:25:41.469]
and that's called a bearing
and you follow that bearing

[00:25:43.629]
and then you can travel
in that direction.

[00:25:46.059]
Again, the compass
is still used today.

[00:25:48.439]
Any aircraft that you fly
in will have a compass.

[00:25:50.829]
[Shelley] That's great.

[00:25:51.419]
So, what I'm hearing from
you is some of the tools

[00:25:53.549]
from the past are
still being used today.

[00:25:55.839]
[Hough] That is true.

[00:25:56.529]
[Shelley] That is great.

[00:25:57.029]
[Hough] It's a combination of all
of these tools and they help back

[00:26:00.439]
up each other and make sure

[00:26:02.519]
that you have a more
accurate path and direction.

[00:26:05.889]
[Shelley] Great.

[00:26:06.329]
That's a good answer.

[00:26:07.429]
I know we have somebody else
back there with and Mrs. Garvey.

[00:26:10.629]
So, Mrs. Garvey could you please
introduce for us your guest

[00:26:13.379]
and then the question, please.

[00:26:14.969]
[Mrs. Garvey] Well, yes.

[00:26:15.409]
Thank you very much and I am joined

[00:26:17.969]
by a wonderful student named
Britney Jones and Britney is

[00:26:22.489]
from Bradbury Heights
Elementary School,

[00:26:24.799]
and she has a question
for us today.

[00:26:27.299]
[Britney] Thank you: My
question is: How does GPS work?

[00:26:32.429]
[Shelley] All right.

[00:26:33.299]
How does GPS work?

[00:26:34.479]
Got something there for us?

[00:26:36.069]
[Speaker] Yes, I expected
this question

[00:26:38.119]
and I use this illustration to
try to answer that question.

[00:26:41.489]
The GPS satellite sends
signals down to the earth

[00:26:44.789]
and then the receiver on the
earth makes measurements on these

[00:26:48.289]
and the first thing it does is
determine the distance or range

[00:26:52.269]
to those satellites and so let's
let this wire here represent the

[00:26:56.579]
range from this satellite and this
one the range from this satellite

[00:27:01.209]
and then with mathematical
equations in the computer,

[00:27:05.039]
the GPS receiver, it calculates
where these ranges intersect

[00:27:09.839]
and that becomes your
latitude and longitude

[00:27:12.499]
of your position on earth.

[00:27:13.979]
[Shelley] All right.

[00:27:14.409]
And that's how Van and I were
able to get where we needed to go.

[00:27:17.529]
Well, I see we are quickly
running out of time.

[00:27:19.899]
Thank you, Dick and Hough.

[00:27:21.349]
Oh, but I understand we have a
special caller with a message.

[00:27:24.069]
It's from senator and
astronaut, John Glenn.

[00:27:26.739]
Mr. Glenn, welcome.

[00:27:27.769]
Mr. Glenn: Thank you.

[00:27:28.889]
Glad to be able to
participate this morning.

[00:27:30.999]
[Shelley] Thank you.

[00:27:31.389]
I understand you have some
words for our viewers.

[00:27:33.729]
Mr. Glenn: I do indeed
and I'm glad to be able

[00:27:35.709]
to give some incouragement
to our young people today.

[00:27:38.679]
You know, today is
the 95th anniversary

[00:27:41.049]
of when the first airplane
ever lifted off the ground

[00:27:43.459]
under powered flight.

[00:27:44.479]
When the Wright Brothers made that
first flight from Kill Devil Hill

[00:27:49.569]
down in North Carolina.

[00:27:50.789]
And it wasn't a very long flight
but they were the first people

[00:27:53.849]
to ever get airborne in a
powered vehicle and ever

[00:27:57.669]
since then we have been trying to
get higher and faster and higher

[00:28:00.759]
and faster and we
are into space now.

[00:28:03.269]
You might even look at the Wright
Brothers as the first astronauts,

[00:28:06.539]
if you wanted to look
at it that way.

[00:28:08.629]
They didn't get where they
were and make their discoveries

[00:28:12.729]
by just having an interest in it.

[00:28:14.269]
You know, they were
people who studied things.

[00:28:16.159]
They made little wind
tunnels at the time.

[00:28:18.509]
They did the mathematical
measurements.

[00:28:20.899]
They had to know their mathematics.

[00:28:22.499]
They had to have a scientific
mind and that's what we like

[00:28:25.939]
to encourage in all
our young people today.

[00:28:28.229]
You just have to have the
background that you get in school

[00:28:30.999]
with regard to math and reading
skills and all those other things.

[00:28:36.979]
That's the good part
about being in school.

[00:28:39.089]
You can all have the ability
and the place that you're at now

[00:28:43.429]
in school to do all
those same things

[00:28:45.499]
and make tremendous contributions

[00:28:47.889]
in the future just like the
Wright Brothers did 95 years ago.

[00:28:51.139]
[Shelley] Senator Glenn, thank you.

[00:28:52.489]
Powerful words there
and appreciate it.

[00:28:54.279]
Now, if you want to discover more
ways researchers are using GPS,

[00:28:57.289]
check out our website.

[00:28:58.949]
For those of you interested in
the world of transportation,

[00:29:01.699]
check out the online resources
of our program partners.

[00:29:04.129]
We are going to have
to say good-bye now.

[00:29:05.429]
Let's wrap up.

[00:29:06.139]
Thanks program partners
and all our guests.

[00:29:08.949]
Thank you.

[00:29:09.439]
[Speaker] Here you will
engage in an online road rally

[00:29:12.009]
with a checkpoint on each
continent as seen from space.

[00:29:17.729]
Finally, for a videotaped copy of
the show along with lesson plans,

[00:29:22.109]
contact the NASA central operation
of resources for educators.

[00:29:26.539]
[Shelley] And now I wonder
what ever happened to Van.

[00:29:31.359]
[00:29:34.859]
Hello, Van.

[00:29:37.679]
[Van] Hello?

[00:29:39.539]
Shelley?

[00:29:39.769]
[Shelley] Van, where are you?

[00:29:41.939]
[Van] Oh, I was just checking
out one more stop on the GPS.

[00:29:49.709]
[Shelley] And where might that be?

[00:29:53.999]
[Van] Well, what's a road
trip without a milk shake?

[00:29:58.749]
[Shelley] Van, wrong answer.

[00:30:01.619]
What is it that you
are supposed to say?

[00:30:05.209]
[Van] Oh. Well, we hope you join
us next time on NASA CONNECT

[00:30:10.539]
when we connect you to
math, science, and NASA.

[00:30:13.239]
See you later.

[00:30:15.139]
[00:30:16.199]
Thanks.

[00:30:16.769]