Transcript for NASAConnect - World Space Congress


[Leland] Hi I'm Leland Melvin,
former NFL player, engineer

and now NASA astronaut.

NASA is looking for the next
generation of explorers;

and I'm here to promote
careers in science, technology,

engineering, and mathematics.

In today's special mission of
NASA CONNECT, host Jennifer Pulley

with show you the world's
premier space convention.

It's called World Space Congress
2002, the new face of space.

You will see how science,
technology, engineering,

and mathematics are being used
to develop the world's vision

of space exploration over the
next ten years and beyond.

You'll see great exhibits,
new technologies and students

who are dreaming of becoming the
next generation of space explorers.

Bianca Baker from the NASA
Sci Files will be on location

to show you a really cool
math game called Tivee

that will enhance your
basic math skills.

See students compete
in the Tivee tournament

in cooperation with NASA.

All this and more


[Jennifer] Hi I'm Jennifer Pulley
and welcome to NASA connect.

The show that connects
you to the world of math,

science, technology, and NASA.

I'm here in Houston, Texas at
the World Space Congress 2002.

Let's take a quick preview
of what we're going to see.


So, what is World Space Congress?

Well, it's the largest,
scientific, technical

and space exhibition event ever.

More than 13,000 international
space leaders in industy, science

and engineering have gathered
right here in Houston, Texas.

It brings together international
space leaders and decision makers

to share their knowledge

and experiences providing
a guiding vision

for an improved future.

The very people who will
populate that future and serve

as its leaders are with world's
brightest and best students

and young space professionals.

In fact, this global event brings
together over 10,000 educators,

young professionals and students
from more than 30 countries.

And speaking of students
hey, look who's here.

It's Bianca Baker from
the NASA Sci Files.

[Bianca] Hey Jennifer.

[Jennifer] Hey Bianca.

Shouldn't you be in school?

[Bianca] My math teacher
asked me to stop by and check

out some math activities to
bring back to the classroom.

[Jennifer] You know
that's a great idea.

There are so many
math activities here.

[Bianca] I heard about a math
tournament called the Tivee

tournament in cooperation
with NASA.

I think I'm going to check it out.

Fill you in later.

[Jennifer] That sound great.

While Bianca checks out
the math tournament,

let's visit some of
the exhibits here.

[Music] Hey guys.

We're here at NASA's
commercialization exhibit

and I'm here with Mike Winegarden
and he works at NASA headquarters

in Washington, D.C. Now, Mike when
I hear of commercialization --

well what is commercialization?

I think of TV commercials.

[Mike] That's not it exactly it.

What our program does
is we actually work

to bring space technology
back down to earth

so that people can
buy products made

from space technology
using their everyday lives.

[Jennifer] Any people?

[Mike] Yeah, we have a
whole wide range of products

that we are working on that
we have developed in the past.

Oh, here are some
really neat things.

Just as an example, NASA
developed the antifog coatings

that are currently
being used ski goggles

that you can buy at
your local store.

Those come from the
shuttle main windows.

We also worked on gold coatings
for sunglasses that come

from the visors that the
astronauts currently use

and then another really
interesting story you can actually

go out and buy clogs right now that
were developed from foam developed

to protect the astronauts
from the g-force

when the shuttle is launched.

So, you see Jennifer,
these are just some

of the cool things we
are working on at NASA.

[Jennifer] Man, you guys are
working on awesome stuff.

Well, you know I am going to
spin off to another exhibit.

Okay. We're here with
Sharon Cobb and Sharon is

from NASA Marshall Space Flight
Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Now, Sharon it kind of
looks like we are inside the

international space station.

[Sharon] Well, we are actually in
a mock up of the space station.

This is the way we show people what
kind of experiments we are going

to be doing on the space station.

This is the U.S. laboratory
called the destiny module.

[Jennifer] Great.

Now, what are you working on?

[Sharon] We're working on racks
that house experiments that we do

in the microgravity environment
and there are 24 racks in the space

in the U.S. laboratory.

They're on the ceiling.

They're on the floor.

They're on both sides but
it doesn't really matter

because the astronauts
can operate from anywhere

because gravity doesn't
pull them down to ground.

[Jennifer] Wow.

So, there's 24 racks in
this particular module.

[Sharon] In the U.S. module.

[Jennifer] Okay.

Is this particular rack important?

[Sharon] This rack is
important for several people

in fact it is important to
everyone because we're going

to be processing material science.

Material science is something
that touches everybody's lives

because it involves materials
that go in cars and airplanes,

even in the computers
that we use everyday.

They all are based
on material science.

So, we're looking at this rack to
understand some of the problems

that occur when we form
these materials on the ground

so that we can produce better
materials on the earth.

[Jennifer] Okay.

So, tell me what do you mean by
doing things to these material --

I mean what do you want to do?

How can you make -- are you
trying to make them better?

[Sharon] We're trying
to make them better.

We are trying to understand
some of the problems that happen

when you process them on earth
like light things float to the top

and heavy things drop to
the bottom of the container

and in the microgravity

we don't have that problem.

Everything stays mixed up.

[Jennifer] Wow.

I'm going to ask about mathematics
here because it is very important.

Is mathematics important in what
you do, in material science?

[Sharon] Mathematics are
important in everything

but it governs everything
we do in these racks.

It looks at how heat gets moved
from one place to another.

There are equations
that govern that.

There are equations that
govern how liquids move

around inside these experiments;
in fact, there is a whole group

of people that on computers grow
materials and grow crystals based

on mathematical equations.

[Jennifer] Oh, that's so cool.

Now, my final question is what
do you think is the future

of material science?

I mean, obviously you
are going to be taking

up into the international
space station but long term.

[Sharon] What we hope to do
here is gain a lot of knowledge

and information that helps us
to produce better materials

on the ground and, in
fact, what we're hoping is

that we'll help make
some of the discoveries

that help us achieve space flight
to long duration orbits like

to Mars maybe someday.

We have a lot of things we
understand before we can do that.

So, hopefully material science
will play a part in that.

[Jennifer] Thanks so much.

[Speaker] Thank you.

[Student] Why are we
doing space research?

[Speaker] I remember when my
kid many years ago asked me why

Columbus went to America.

I told him because at Columbus
time, there was no refrigerator.

And he said, oh, what do you mean?

At that time to preserve the food,
it was necessary to have spices

and Christopher Columbus
was going to find new land

where they could take the spices.

So, what do I mean with this?

That for every research
that we are taking to go,

there is always another part of
the story that we have to keep

in mind and this is the fact

that for every research we
have a counterpart here.

We are going to go to Mars.

It will be impossible to go there

if we do not solve some specific
problems that we have now,

and we will continue to
have in the future on earth.

I mean going to Mars means
problem of long-term isolation,

problem connected to the loss

of calcium an astronaut
loses 1.5 percent

of calcium a month
and this is a lot.

If you take into account how
long does it take to go to Mars,

you know that 50 percent of
the population on the earth

after 50 years old will suffer
of from specific problem

which is called osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease connected
to loss of calcium in bones.

If we found a way to solve
the problem of loss of calcium

when the astronauts
are going to Mars,

we will solve the same
problem for million

of persons here on the earth.


[Jennifer] Hey, guys.

We're here as the naze da exhibit.

Now, NASDA national space
development agency of Japan

and NASDA is Japan's core
space development program.

It's a simple analogy.

NASDA is to Japan as NASA
is to the United States.

And I'm here with Mr. Ketahara.

Mr. Ketahara, what is Japan's role
in the international space station?

[Ketahara] We have three roles.

First we are developing a JEM which
is attached to the space station.

JEM stands for the Japanese
experimental module.

Second, we are developing a
centrifuge of a module for NASA.

It plays for


This is very unique facility
that generates artificial

to experiment how microgravity
affects biological processes

in a space environment.

Third, we are developing logistic
vehicle that will transport

to the earth batteries,
experimental payloads and water

which is needed for
space station operation.

[Jennifer] In your opinion,
how is space research important

to us right here on earth?

[Ketahara] I think the space
research will give us beneficial

thing to us.

Let me give you some example here
it will produce the lightweighted

metal, new medicine which is needed

to cure the very difficult

[Jennifer] Does mathematics play
a key role in space research?

[Ketahara] I think it does.

To experimental module
we have to calculate

and it cannot understand
phenomena without mathematics.

We need to analyze
the data obtained.

[Jennifer] And a final
question Mr. Ketahara,

what do you think space
exploration will be like

in say ten years?

[Ketahara] Well, it's
a difficult question

but I feel ten years is a
long or ten years short.

It depends.

About 30 years ago, Apollo
astronaut landed on the moon.

I think that was the
space exploration

and I think it will need more
time to explore beyond that

but I think the preparation for
that will begin within ten years.

I think such a huge program
will never be realized

without international corporation,

and I think it's a young
generation to realize it.


[Speaker] How is math involved in
the future of space transportation?

[Anna] Hello, I'm Anna Ratsman.

I am working for the
Swedish space corporation.

I am an electrical engineer and I
have been working as the designer,

as a system engineer,
and as a manager.

If you need mathematics to be able
to design the satellite to be able

to launch in space
and also to be able

to understand the data you get
back to solve the problems.

Right now we are having
satellite looking for ozone holes.

You know, I have two children of
my own, your age and I'm worried

about the pollution,
how we use water.

Nothing use space to get
the right answer on this.

I would just like to say this: You
need the math to be able to ask

and understand the big questions.


[Jennifer] We're here
at the NASA ends exhibit

at World Space Congress and
I'm here with Kevin Bass.

Now, Kevin works NASA ends Research
Center in Moffetfield, California.

Kevin, tell me some of the cool
things that you are working on.

[Kevin] I get to work with
a lot of fun toys but one

of my favorites is the PSA, the
personal satellite assistant.

[Jennifer] Tell me about the PSA.

[Kevin] The main goal of the
PSA is to be a palm pilot,

if you will, for each astronaut.

So hopefully each astronaut
will have one of these

on the international space
station that will fly

around like a little
buddy up on their shoulder

and it will have a wide array
of sensor and other features,

things that it can do.

One of them would be
video teleconferencing.

So, we can use this with
anybody in the mission control

or with somebody, say the
scientists that are on earth.

So, while the astronauts
are working

on a specific science expeerment,
the scientist can interact

with a astronaut while they
are doing the experiment.

[Jennifer] So, can it
talk to the astronauts?

[Kevin] The PSA can
take voice commands.

So, if the astronaut is curious

about a specific compartment
it can fly

to that specific compartment
and take temperature readings

or what other type of sensor
readings and then dictate to back

to the astronaut what's happening.

Possibly in an event of
overheating or things like that,

it can also turn fans
on and off or open

and close hatch doors,
things like that.

[Jennifer] Now, wait a minute.

You said this is going
to fly around.

How is this going to fly around
the international space station?

[Kevin] Well, there
are many different ways

that it flies around.

It has a wide array of infrared
sensors as well as a cameras

and a few other functions
that it can use to fly itself

around the international
space station.

[Jennifer] So, it doesn't
use fuel to propel itself?

[Kevin] It's propelled by fans.

So, there's 12 fans on here.

And each set of fans moves
in a specific direction.

[Jennifer] So, I guess robotics
will play a really big part

in the future of space exploration.

[Kevin] Absolutely.

Robotics is the number
one way to explore space

without putting human
lives in jeopardy.

[Jennifer] I agree.

Thank you so much, Kevin.

We appreciate it.

[Kevin] Sure.

[Jennifer] Well, let' see
where we're off to next.

[Music] We we just left Kevin
and we moved around and I'm here

with Jim Murphy who works at
NASA Ames Research Center.

Jim, what are some of the
technologies you're working on.

[Jim] We have here one of the
five tools that we're working

on for the Mars exploration
rover project at JPL.

This is called the MER board.

[Jennifer] MER stands for.

[Jim] Mars exploration
rover project.

This is an advanced electronic
collaborative white board.

We have to ability
to pull up images

from the scientific database.

You see a typical image
here and then draw those

into the white board space
where with a set of tools,

the scientists can mark this up,
point out targets and interact

and use this as their
planning tool.

The other feature of
this is the ability then

to save what they have done
with these images and share them

to the different groups,
the other planning groups.

So, again it's a very
interactive, collaborative tool

that will be used in the very
short operational planning cycle

everyday in MER.

[Jennifer] Now, how do to
scientists and engineers

that are working on the MER
project actually get the

information from the Mars rovers?

[Jim] It's actually quite a
complex rovers are on Mars

and have their storage of data and
those radio links go up to orbiters

that are in Mars and also in some
cases direct to the large antennas

in the deep space
network down on earth.

In any case, all of the data comes
down to the deep space network

and then over a network is
sent to the operation center

in the data center at JBL and
finally into data bases and files

that store the data and can
be accessed with the kind

of tools that we talk about.

So, it's quite a complex process.

On a daily basis the
scientists and engineers have

to retrieve this data, assess it
scientificically, engineering wise

and then again plan the next
set of commands and sequences

for the rover and take
into account what kind

of transmission capability
they will have if, in fact,

to get data back again
from the rover.

So they have to take all of
these factors into account

in their daily operation.

[Jennifer] Sounds
like the scientists

and engineers are in a time crunch.

[Jim] Yeah, they are in a time
crunch they literally have several

hours every day to go
through this process.


[Speaker] What is space
transportation going

to be like ten years from now?

[Speaker] What would you like
to see being done in space

in the next ten years?

[Speaker] How does math play
a key role in your research?

[Speaker] When do you think
we will be going to Mars?

[Speaker] Hi.

My name is Steve Cook.

I'm the deputy manager

of the advanced space
transportation program

at NASA's Marshall
Space Flight Center.

We're responsible for
developing the next generation

of reusable space transportation
systems to make it much more safe,

affordable and routine to get
to space along with getting

in space much faster between earth
and the outer planet and beyond.

Math is critical to the future
of space transportation.

We use math everyday in
developing new trojectories

that will take us to orbit.

We use it in developing
new propulsion systems

and computational fluid dynamics
from research to tests math factors

into everything we do.

Ten years from now, we envision
that we will have much safer access

to space through our second
generation reusable launch vehicle.

As we look to space propulsion,

we have got some exciting
things that are going on.

We look to being able to
move faster between earth

and the outer planets to
advanced electric propulsion

to advanced vision technologies
and within earth's orbit

with advanced tether
technologies ten years from now.

We are developing the
building blocks for you,

the next generation
of space explorers.


[Jennifer] I'm with Dr. Joe Laveen.

Dr. Laveen works at the
NASA Langley Research Center

in Hampton, Virginia.

Dr. Laveen, what kind
of a plane is this?

[Dr. Laveen] Jennifer,
this is an airplane

that we hope one day will fly
through the atmosphere of Mars

to study the atmosphere,
the surface

and the interior of the red planet.

[Jennifer] Wow.

The plane will be
exactly like this?

[Dr. Laveen] Actually
this is half scale

so the real airplane
will be twice this size.

[Jennifer] Dr. Laveen, exactly how
will this plane survey the entire

planet of Mars?

[Dr. Laveen] Well, it won't
survey the whole entire planet

of Mars Jennifer.

It will fly regional
scale distances.

It will fly about a
mile above the surface.

It will measure gases
in the atmosphere.

It will measure the
composition and mineralogy,

it will take photographs
of the surface

and it will measure the magnetic
field in the surface of Mars.

[Jennifer] Will this
vehicle be manned?

[Dr. Laveen] This is
a robotic mission.

The whole mission
will be preprogrammed

by an onboard computer and it
will determine the whole sequence

of events.

[Jennifer] Now, tell me a
little bit about mathematics.

Do you think mathematics play
a key role in having a plane

such as this one survey Mars?

[Dr. Laveen] Yes, Jennifer.

In fact, mathematics
is very important

because mathematics determines
where we send the plane into Mars,

how the orbit is determined and
where the airplane will fly.

The trajectory of the
spacecraft to Mars is based

on celestial mechanics which
is all mathematics and the area

on Mars where the plane will fly
is all determined by mathematics.

Mathematics is very important
to get the airplane to Mars

and then once in the vicinity of
Mars to fly through the atmosphere.

[Jennifer] What is the time frame
for having this plane survey Mars?

[Dr. Laveen] We think we can
launch in 2007 and about eight

or nine months later fly through
the atmosphere of Mars 2008.

And interestingly just
about a hundred years

after the first flight
of the powered plane

on earth, the Wright Brothers.

This will be a very exciting way

to commemorate this very
historic event in human history.

[Jennifer] So, let's
go beyond 2008.

What do you think is the
future of space exploration?

[Dr. Laveen] Well, up to now we
have put orbiters around planets.

We have put landers on the
surface and rovers on the surface.

Now, we are talking about the brand
new technology the use of airplanes

for scientific exploration to do
things that you can't do from orbit

and to do things that you
can't do from the surface.

We believe airplanes are the
scientific platform of the future

to explore planets
that have atmospheres.

[Jennifer] At World Space Congress
2002 not only are there tons

of exhibits but there
are lots of students

and young professionals here.

I'm here with a group of students
called the space generation advisor

council and we are going
to talk to them and find

out exactly what they do.

This is Shane.

Shane, tell me about this program.

[Shane] Thanks Jennifer.

I'm with the space
generation advisory council.

We represent the World's

[inaudible ]

on various types of
space activities.

We also work on many different
projects throughout the world.

Two of them include a
bus trip across Africa

to teach Africans about space.

The second project we do
is to distribute telescopes

to inner city youths
across the United States.

[Speaker] This past weekend the
space generation advisory council

helped space generation where we
gathered over 200 young people

from 47 countries around the
world to come up with a vision

on the future of space exploration.

These people came up with projects,

ideas so that we can
get into space now.

[Speaker] Coming to the space
generation summit has been a

fantastic opportunity for
me because I get together

with people my own age who are as
enthusiastic about space as I am.

Together we put together some plans

on how we are going
to get to space.

One of them includes developing a
center to work on space propulsion.

I believe space travel should
be at easy as catching a bus

and together we are going
to make that happen.

[Speaker] We share the definition
of ethics and human rights

in other space activities
and we find it hard

to protect space environment
for all

of us including space
generation and European countries.

[Speaker] Well at space generation
summit, my working group focus

on space to enhance life on earth
and basically the main topic was

to use mobile and satellite
communication in terms

of disaster management
and emergency relief

in developed nations to use
the available information

that is provided to
satellites and NASA and


[Speaker] We believe
that every child all

around the world should
be educated about space.


[Jennifer] You know, I haven't
seen Bianca in quite a while.

I wonder what's going on
at the Tivee tournament.

[Bianca] Hi Jennifer.

I'm here with 30 kids from the
Houston Independent School District

in Houston, Texas taking part
in the Tivee math tournament

in cooperation with NASA.

[Speaker] The game is
called space Tivee.

It's a exciting math based
strategy and critical thinking game

that will enhance students
basic math skills of addition,

subtration, multiplication and
division by using decimals,

fractions, percentages, integers,
square roots, and exponents.

The list of materials you
will need can be downloaded

from NASA CONNECT website.

Organize students
into groups of two.

Distribute a game board and the
necessary materials for each group.

Each player selects a Tivee color
piece or movable playing piece.

The white Tivee player moves first.

The gray Tivee player gets the last
move if a lega move is available.

There are four legal moves.

You can move forward one diagonal
space jump over one Tivee, jump two

or more Tivee of one
color in one turn.

To do that there must be an
integral between jump Tivees

and you can move on to or
jump into a black hole goal.

Remember you cannot move
a Tivee piece sideways.

You cannot move into our jump

through your opponents
seven exclusive goals.

You cannot move into or jump
through your opponents home base

or you can't jump
over a vacant goal.

Choose a game sheet
that you want to play.

There are different game
sheets to choose from depending

on what basic math skill
you want to address.

Choose the Tivee symbol
and numbers you want to use

with the game sheet chosen.

For example, use the Tivee sets
for answers without remainders.

Using these Tivees may have answers
with remainders or you can play

with the whole number rounding.

The game is over when one player
captures all seven exclusive score

goals and the two common
score goals are captures

and the two common
score goals are captured

or when either player
has a forward legal move.

Students will then
elect a score sheet.

Make sure you double
check your answers

because once the score
sheets have been filled

out students will exchange score
sheets and check each others work.

For advanced playing using the
force jump, blocking or trapping,

check out the educators
guide, which can be downloaded

from the NASA CONNECT website.

[Bianca] So, what do you think
of this really cool math game?

[Speaker] I like it because it
makes you think a lot and you have

to position the players
exactly where you want

to put the players on the board.

[Speaker] I like this math game
a lot because at the beginning

of the year I didn't
fractions and decimals

and our math teacher
introduced it to us.

I like it.

It's really fun.

[Bianca] Well, Jennifer, I can tell
you these kids had a great time

playing this game.

Back to you.

[Jennifer] Well, that
wraps up another episode

of NASA CONNECT we would
like to thank everyone

who helped make this
episode possible.

Got a question?

A comment or suggestion?

Then write us at NASA center
for distance learning,

NASA Langley Research Center, Mail
Stop 400 Hampton, Virgina 23681

or send us on e-mail at

So, until next time.

Stay connected to math,
science, technology, and NASA.

And where do you think
space exploration will be

in the next ten years?