Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of the Biological Biosphere

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THE CATEGORY IS SCIENCE, AND
THE ANSWER IS...THE SCIENCE

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OF LIVING THINGS: THE STUDY
OF PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE.

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THE CORRECT QUESTION, OF
COURSE: WHAT IS BIOLOGY?

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HELLO, EVERYONE.

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I'M ALEX TREBEK, HOST OF JEOPARDY,
WHERE WE TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

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BY GIVING YOU THE ANSWERS
AND ASKING YOU TO COME

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UP WITH THE CORRECT QUESTIONS.

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IF YOU'RE AS EXCITED ABOUT
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AS I AM,

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THEN YOU DON'T WANT TO MISS THIS
EPISODE OF THE NASA SCI FILES,

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AS THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
HELP JACOB LEARN THE ANSWERS

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TO HIS QUESTIONS ABOUT
STAYING HEALTHY.

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STAY TUNED, AND LEARN MORE ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

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WITH THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
IN THE NASA SCI FILES:

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THE CASE OF THE BIOLOGICAL
BIOSPHERE.

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COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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BE SURE AND LOOK FOR THE ANSWERS
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHAT IS AGAR AND WHAT
IS IT USED FOR?

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HOW ARE BACTERIA AND
VIRUSES DIFFERENT?

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HOW DOES A QUARANTINE WORK?

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WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON,
THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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HEY, JACOB, WHAT'S HAPPENING?

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UH, JACOB.

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HEY, RJ.

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I WAS JUST CHECKING ON
MY ITINERARY AND STUFF

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FOR MY VACATION NEXT WEEK.

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COOL.

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WHERE ARE YOU GOING?

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YOU WON'T BELIEVE IT.

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I'M GOING TO BE SPENDING A FEW
DAYS IN THE GLORIOUS DRY TORTUGAS.

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I HOPE YOU DON'T GET
SICK BEFORE YOU GO.

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WHAT DO YOU MEAN,
GET SICK BEFORE I GO?

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OH, NOTHING.

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MY, UH, UNCLE BABAR GOT SICK BEFORE
WE WENT DEEP-SEA FISHING ONE YEAR.

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HE MISSED EVERYTHING.

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HIS WHOLE VACATION WAS RUINED.

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OH, MAN, I CAN'T GET SICK.

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MY SISTER WAS COUGHING AT THE
BREAKFAST TABLE THIS MORNING.

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I CAN'T GO HOME.

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OF COURSE, THERE'S THE TIME THAT
MY SISTER GOT MONTEZUMA'S REVENGE

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ON CHRISTMAS.

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UH, DUDE, IT WASN'T PLEASANT.

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THE TREE HOUSE, I'LL
GO TO THE TREE HOUSE.

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SEND A FLASH PRIORITY MESSAGE
TO ALL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES

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TO MEET AT THE TREE HOUSE.

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IF ANY OF THEM THINK THEY
EVEN MIGHT BE SICK, STAY AWAY.

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GOT IT?

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NO PROBLEM.

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CALM DOWN.

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CALM DOWN.

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YOU'RE NOT GONNA GET SICK.

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YOU'RE NOT GONNA GET SICK.

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YOU'RE NOT GONNA GET SICK.

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98.6, PERFECT.

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SO FAR, SO GOOD.

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HI, JACOB.

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WAIT.

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STOP.

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DID YOU GUYS GET RJ'S MESSAGE?

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WE GOT THE MESSAGE.

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NO, WAIT.

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IF YOU'RE SICK, UNDER THE WEATHER,
OR NOT FEELING WELL, I'M GONNA HAVE

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TO ASK YOU TO LEAVE, OR AT
LEAST KEEP YOUR DISTANCE.

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AS USUAL, I'M IN PERFECT
HEALTH AND ILLNESS-FREE.

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CATHERINE?

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EXCEPT FOR A FEW SOCCER
BRUISES, I'M JUST FINE,

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BUT DON'T YOU THINK YOU'RE
BEING A LITTLE PARANOID?

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SORRY TO BE SO SERIOUS, BUT I DON'T
WANT TO GET SICK BEFORE MY TRIP.

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YOU CAN'T JUST AVOID
ALL CONTACT WITH PEOPLE.

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I DON'T WANT TO AVOID EVERYONE,
JUST EVERYONE WHO'S SICK.

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THAT'S IMPOSSIBLE.

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HOW DO YOU KNOW WHO'S
SICK AND WHO ISN'T?

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I WAS THINKING ABOUT A QUARANTINE,

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LIKE THE ASTRONAUTS DO
BEFORE THEY GO INTO SPACE.

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MAYBE I'LL JUST STAY IN THE
TREE HOUSE UNTIL MY TRIP.

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WE'RE TOO LATE.

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HE'S ALREADY DELIRIOUS.

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I THINK IT'S A GREAT IDEA.

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WAIT, BIANCA -- DON'T WORRY, JACOB.

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RJ TOLD ME ALL ABOUT YOUR PROBLEM.

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IN FACT, I'M DOING A REPORT
ON HOW PEOPLE RESPOND

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TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.

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IF YOU QUARANTINE YOURSELF,
YOU CAN BE MY SUBJECT.

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I'VE ALWAYS WANTED TO
DONATE MY BODY TO SCIENCE.

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I'M NOT SURE THAT STAYING IN THE
TREE HOUSE IS SUCH A GREAT IDEA.

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WE DON'T EVEN HAVE A BATHROOM.

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I'VE GOT IT ALL TAKEN CARE OF.

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I CAN USE THE BATHROOM
IN DR. D'S LAB,

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AND MY MOM CAN SEND MEALS OVER.

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IT'S REALLY NO DIFFERENT
THAN CAMPING.

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I DON'T KNOW.

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THIS IDEA SEEMS PRETTY
HALF-BAKED TO ME.

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NO, IT'S FULLY BAKED.

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AND IT'S PERFECT FOR MY PROJECT.

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WOULD YOU MIND GOING TO
THE SCI FILES WEBSITE

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AND PRINTING OFF A
PROBLEM STATEMENT MAP?

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IT'LL HELP ME ORGANIZE HOW
I'M GOING TO KEEP TRACK

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OF YOU AND YOUR PROGRESS.

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GUYS, KSNN IS COMING ON.

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GOOD MORNING.

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I'M TED TUNE.

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IT'S COLD AND FLU
SEASON ONCE AGAIN.

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FOR A LIVE REPORT, WE GO...

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LIVE TO I.M. LISSNING,
WHO'S...LIVE AT THE CENTERS

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FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN ATLANTA.

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SORRY, FOLKS, TED TUNE AGAIN.

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APPARENTLY, I.M. HAS COME DOWN
WITH A CASE OF MICROPHONE FLU.

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BUT DON'T WORRY.

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THE CDC TELLS ME THAT THE
MICROPHONE FLU ONLY AFFECTS...

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UH, ANIMATED NEWS REPORTERS?

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UH-OH.

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THIS IS EXACTLY WHAT
I'M TALKING ABOUT.

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IT ISN'T SAFE OUT THERE.

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IT MAY NOT BE SAFE IN HERE.

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HE'S RIGHT, JACOB.

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YOU'RE JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS.

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WE DON'T EVEN KNOW HOW YOU CATCH
THE FLU OR ANY OTHER ILLNESSES.

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IF YOU WANT TO STAY INFECTION-FREE,
WE NEED TO DO SOME RESEARCH.

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LET'S GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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DO YOU REALLY THINK THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD CAN HELP YOU AVOID

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GETTING SICK?

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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
IS AN EXCELLENT TOOL

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FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS,
EVEN THIS ONE.

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OKAY, NOW THAT WE'VE IDENTIFIED
THE PROBLEM OF KEEPING JACOB WELL,

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WE NEED TO CONDUCT RESEARCH.

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WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THAT I NEED TO STAY
HEALTHY FOR THE NEXT THREE DAYS.

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AND WE KNOW WE'RE
APPROACHING THE FLU SEASON.

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WE ALSO KNOW THAT I WANT

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TO QUARANTINE MYSELF
IN THE TREE HOUSE.

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OKAY, SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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WE NEED TO KNOW WHAT THE
FLU IS AND HOW IT'S SPREAD.

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AND WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW
MORE ABOUT QUARANTINE.

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RIGHT.

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SO WHERE DO WE GO?

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KSNN MENTIONED SOMETHING
ABOUT THE CDC.

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RIGHT, THE CENTER FOR DISEASE
CONTROL IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA.

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WOW, HOW DID YOU KNOW THAT?

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I REMEMBER READING ABOUT IT
IN A STOCKHOLDERS' REPORT

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ON SOME BIOMEDICAL
COMPANIES I'M EVALUATING.

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JACOB, CHECK THE INTERNET.

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MAYBE YOU CAN FIND A
CONTACT PERSON FOR THE CDC.

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LET ME GO TO A SEARCH ENGINE.

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I'LL TYPE IN CDC.

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HERE WE GO.

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THE CENTER FOR DISEASE
CONTROL IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA.

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CHECK AND SEE IF THEY
HAVE A "CONTACT US" LINK.

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YEAH, THEY DO...

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AND HOT LINE NUMBERS TOO.

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MAYBE I'LL GIVE 'EM A CALL.

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I DON'T THINK IT'S AN EMERGENCY.

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OH, HERE WE GO.

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WE CAN EMAIL QUESTIONS.

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I'LL SEE IF SOMEONE CAN HELP US.

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I'M GOING TO MEET DR. D TODAY AT
THE VIRGINIA MARINE SCIENCE MUSEUM

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AT 2:30 THIS AFTERNOON.

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MAYBE HE CAN HELP.

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I THINK KALI IS IN
ATLANTA VISITING FAMILY.

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WHY DON'T YOU SEND HER AN EMAIL
AND SEE IF SHE CAN GO TO THE CDC?

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GREAT, I'LL ALSO FORWARD
HER A GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET

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FROM THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

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YOU CAN GET YOUR OWN GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEETS FROM THE PROBLEM BOARD

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WHEN YOU VISIT THE
NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

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I WONDER WHERE DR. D IS.

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WELL, YOU NEVER KNOW WITH DR. D.
WOW, SOMEONE'S IN THE AQUARIUM.

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DR. D?

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UH, DR. D, WHAT WERE YOU DOING
SWIMMING IN THE AQUARIUM?

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I WAS HELPING CLEAN THE
CHESAPEAKE BAY AQUARIUM HERE

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AT THE VIRGINIA MARINE
SCIENCE MUSEUM.

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I UNDERSTAND YOU'RE TRYING TO HELP
JACOB STAY WELL BEFORE HE GOES

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ON HIS VACATION.

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YES, WE'VE LEARNED
ABOUT ALL KINDS OF WAY

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THAT DISEASES CAN BE TRANSMITTED,

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SO JACOB QUARANTINED
HIMSELF IN THE TREE HOUSE.

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I'VE GOT JUST THE THING FOR
YOU TO TEST YOUR TREE HOUSE.

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TEST IT FOR WHAT?

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THIS WILL BE A TEST TO SEE
IF THE TREE HOUSE IS FREE

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FROM AIRBORNE MICROBES.

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WHAT'S A MICROBE?

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MICROBES ARE VERY SMALL ORGANISMS,

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TOO SMALL TO SEE WITHOUT
A MICROSCOPE.

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MICROBES LIKE BACTERIA, FUNGI, AND
VIRUSES SOMETIMES CAUSE DISEASE.

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SO HOW DO WE DO THE TEST?

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THIS IS CALLED A PETRI DISH.

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ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS TAKE
IT TO THE TREE HOUSE TONIGHT

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AND LEAVE IT OPEN FOR TEN MINUTES.

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UH, WHAT'S THE STUFF AT
THE BOTTOM OF THE DISH?

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IT'S CALLED NUTRIENT AGAR.

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IT'S FOOD FOR MICROBES.

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WHEN MICROBES LIKE BACTERIA
OR FUNGI LAND IN THE DISH,

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THEY MULTIPLY AND GROW.

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EACH MICROBE WILL
GROW INTO A COLONY.

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WOW, WILL YOU BE ABLE TO
TELL WHAT GROWS IN THE DISH?

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YES, LET THE MICROBES GROW UNTIL
TOMORROW, AND YOU'LL BE ABLE TO GO

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BY AND SEE MY FRIEND MR. FRANK,

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A BIOLOGIST AT TIDEWATER
COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

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HE'LL BE ABLE TO SHOW YOU WHAT
MICROBIAL COLONIES LOOK LIKE

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AND HELP YOU COUNT THE COLONIES.

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I HAVE AN IDEA.

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CAN I HAVE A SECOND DISH TO TAKE
TO JACOB'S HOUSE SO WE CAN SEE

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IF THE TREE HOUSE HAS MORE OR LESS
MICROBES THAN HE WOULD GET AT HOME?

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SURE, THAT'S AN EXCELLENT IDEA.

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BUT HOW DO WE KNOW THAT THE PETRI
DISH DOESN'T ALREADY HAVE MICROBES

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GROWING IN IT RIGHT NOW?

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GOOD QUESTION.

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WHAT YOU NEED IS A THIRD
DISH THAT YOU NEVER OPEN.

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THIS WILL SERVE AS A CONTROL.

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IN ANY EXPERIMENT, YOU NEED
TO HAVE ONLY ONE VARIABLE.

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WE'LL NEED TO KEEP THE EXPOSURE
TIMES THE SAME IN BOTH PETRI DISHES

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AND USE THE SAME KIND
OF MICROBE FOOD.

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THAT'S NUTRIENT AGAR.

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RIGHT.

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AND MAKE SURE NOTHING IS
ALREADY GROWING IN THE DISH,

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AND YOU'LL HAVE A CAREFULLY
CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT.

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IF WE CAN PROVE THAT THERE
ARE NO AIRBORNE MICROBES

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THAT CAN CAUSE ILLNESS AND
KEEP ALL INFECTED PEOPLE OUT--

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THEN WE CAN BE TOTALLY SURE
THAT JACOB WILL STAY WELL.

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NOW, WAIT A MINUTE.

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TOTALLY SURE?

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I DON'T THINK YOU CAN DO THAT.

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WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

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WELL, SOMETIMES, IF YOU
MISS A SMALL DETAIL,

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IT CAN BECOME A MAJOR PROBLEM.

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THIS IS CALLED THE
BUTTERFLY EFFECT.

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BUTTERFLY EFFECT?

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YES.

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EDWARD LORENZ, WHO WAS A
PIONEER IN CHAOS THEORY,

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ONCE GAVE A TALK ENTITLED,
"PREDICTABILITY: "DOES THE FLAP

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OF A BUTTERFLY'S WING IN BRAZIL
SET OFF A TORNADO IN TEXAS?"

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LET ME SHOW YOU.

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I'M GOING TO TRY TO RELEASE
THIS BALL EXACTLY THE SAME WAY

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EACH TIME.

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NOW, LET'S TRY IT AGAIN.

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LOOK AT HOW LITTLE VARIATIONS

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IN THE BEGINNING MAKE A
BIG DIFFERENCE IN THE END.

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DOES THAT MEAN THAT OUR MISSION
TO KEEP JACOB WELL IS IMPOSSIBLE?

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NO, IT JUST MEANS IT'S
NOT AS EASY AS YOU THINK

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TO HAVE COMPLETE CONTROL.

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YOU CAN STAY AWAY FROM
CROWDS, BUT FOR EXAMPLE,

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YOU CAN'T STOP BREATHING.

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OH, I GET IT.

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THERE ARE JUST SO MANY FACTORS.

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THERE ARE ALSO A LOT OF
INTERNAL THINGS TO CONSIDER,

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LIKE HOW THE BODY FIGHTS DISEASES.

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YOU MEAN LIKE WHETHER OR NOT
WE'VE HAD A DISEASE BEFORE.

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AND WHETHER WE'VE
TAKEN ANY MEDICATIONS.

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AND IF WE HAVE GOOD GENES.

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YES, THOSE ARE A FEW.

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THANKS, DR. D. IT
SOUNDS LIKE WE NEED

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TO INVESTIGATE THIS A LITTLE MORE.

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YOU'RE WELCOME.

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LET'S GO GET SOME
MORE PETRI DISHES.

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HI, I'M KALI, ONE OF THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

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YOU MUST BE DR. BECK-SAGUE.

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YES, I AM.

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HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

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MY FRIEND JACOB IS PLANNING
A VACATION, BUT HE'S WORRIED

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THAT HE MIGHT GET SICK
AND NOT BE ABLE TO GO.

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WE'RE TRYING TO THINK OF
WAYS TO KEEP HIM HEALTHY.

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SO WE FIGURED THAT WE NEEDED
TO KNOW MORE ABOUT DISEASES

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AND HOW PEOPLE GET SICK.

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WELL, YOU'VE COME
TO THE RIGHT PLACE.

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I'M A DETECTIVE TOO OF SORTS, A
MEDICAL DETECTIVE, AND I WORK HERE

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AT THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
AND PREVENTION OR CDC FOR SHORT.

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WHAT SORT OF DETECTIVE
WORK DO YOU DO?

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MEDICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY.

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THAT MEANS I INVESTIGATE HOW
INFECTIOUS DISEASES SPREAD

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THROUGH A POPULATION AND
HOW TO STOP THE SPREAD.

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BUT CDC DOES EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MANY
OTHER THINGS, INCLUDING PREVENTION

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OF BIRTH DEFECTS AND
PREVENTION OF INJURIES.

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WHAT EXACTLY IS AN
INFECTIOUS DISEASE?

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WELL, FIRST, YOU NEED TO KNOW A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT BACTERIA, VIRUSES,

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AND OTHER MICROORGANISMS.

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AS WE'RE STANDING
HERE, WE ARE NOT ALONE.

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WE'RE COVERED INSIDE AND OUT
WITH MILLIONS OF MICROORGANISMS.

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WHAT ARE MICROORGANISMS?

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WITH MILLIONS OF THEM, I
HOPE THEY'RE NOT ALL BAD.

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WELL, THAT WORD IS JUST
TAKEN FROM THE LATIN WORD

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THAT MEANS TINY, LIVING BEINGS.

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AND NO, THEY'RE NOT ALL BAD.

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MOST OF THEM ARE HARMLESS, AND SOME

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OF THEM ARE EVEN VERY
HELPFUL TO US.

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THAT'S GOOD.

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ARE VIRUSES AND BACTERIA
MICROORGANISMS?

[00:12:47.779]
YES, SOME MICROORGANISMS
ARE ONE-CELLED.

[00:12:50.499]
THEY'RE CALLED BACTERIA.

[00:12:51.649]
YOU CAN'T SEE THEM WITH THE
NAKED EYE, BUT YOU CAN SEE THEM

[00:12:53.759]
WITH A LIGHT MICROSCOPE.

[00:12:55.559]
VIRUSES ARE SO SMALL THAT
THEY CAN ONLY BE SEEN

[00:12:58.399]
WITH AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.

[00:13:00.049]
OTHER THAN SIZE, HOW
DO BACTERIA DIFFER?

[00:13:03.159]
BACTERIA HAVE CELL WALLS AND A
NUCLEUS WITH BOTH DNA AND RNA

[00:13:07.129]
WHICH ARE THE BUILDING
BLOCKS FOR REPLICATING.

[00:13:09.469]
VIRUSES ONLY HAVE
DNA OR RNA, NOT BOTH.

[00:13:13.559]
ANOTHER DIFFERENCE IS THAT THERE
ARE MEDICINES CALLED ANTIBIOTICS

[00:13:17.269]
THAT CAN CURE MOST INFECTIOUS
DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA.

[00:13:20.949]
HOWEVER, THERE ARE
VERY FEW MEDICINES

[00:13:23.029]
THAT CAN TREAT DISEASES
CAUSED BY VIRUSES.

[00:13:26.339]
HOW DOES A PERSON GET
AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE?

[00:13:28.929]
BY BEING EXPOSED TO A
BACTERIA OR A VIRUS.

[00:13:31.649]
BUT NOT EVERYONE WHO IS
EXPOSED GETS INFECTED.

[00:13:34.509]
WHY NOT?

[00:13:35.369]
IF THE MICROORGANISM GETS PAST
THE BODY'S DEFENSE MECHANISMS,

[00:13:39.749]
THEN THE PERSON MAY BECOME
INFECTED, AND THEY MAY BECOME SICK.

[00:13:42.789]
THIS IS CALLED AN
INFECTIOUS DISEASE.

[00:13:45.009]
WE'VE ALL HAD INFECTIOUS DISEASES
IN OUR LIVES: COLDS, PNEUMONIA,

[00:13:49.709]
CHICKEN POX, AND EVEN SOME CANCERS.

[00:13:52.509]
SOUNDS LIKE INFECTIOUS
DISEASES ARE VERY SERIOUS.

[00:13:55.499]
YES, SOME ARE.

[00:13:56.689]
INFECTIOUS DISEASES KILL MORE
PEOPLE ON EARTH THAN WARS

[00:14:00.399]
AND ACCIDENTS CAUSING INJURIES.

[00:14:02.939]
YET SOME ARE SO MILD THAT,
AFTER A LITTLE SCRATCHY THROAT

[00:14:06.419]
OR A DRY PATCH OF
SKIN, THEY'RE GONE.

[00:14:09.189]
HOW DO THEY SPREAD?

[00:14:10.399]
SOME ARE SPREAD BY FOOD OR WATER.

[00:14:12.319]
IF PEOPLE DRINK OR EAT
CONTAMINATED FOOD OR WATER,

[00:14:15.209]
THEN THEY MAY BECOME INFECTED.

[00:14:17.079]
OTHERS ARE SPREAD THROUGH THE AIR.

[00:14:18.869]
WHEN A PERSON SPEAKS OR COUGHS,
THE MICROORGANISMS BECOME AIRBORNE,

[00:14:22.909]
AND THEN OTHER PEOPLE
BREATHE THEM IN.

[00:14:25.429]
SO THAT'S WHY IT'S IMPORTANT TO
COVER YOUR MOUTH WHEN YOU COUGH.

[00:14:28.219]
YES, AND MANY OTHERS ARE
SPREAD THROUGH DIRECT CONTACT.

[00:14:31.819]
SO IF A PERSON HAS PINKEYE OR A
COLD, AND THEY TOUCH THEIR EYE

[00:14:35.609]
OR NOSE, AND THEN THEY
TOUCH ANOTHER PERSON'S HAND,

[00:14:38.339]
THEY CAN TRANSMIT
THOSE MICROORGANISMS.

[00:14:40.919]
SO THAT'S WHY IT'S IMPORTANT
TO WASH YOUR HANDS OFTEN.

[00:14:43.699]
YES, ESPECIALLY BEFORE EATING.

[00:14:45.619]
JUST 15 SECONDS OF WASHING
YOUR HANDS WITH WARM WATER

[00:14:48.819]
AND SOAP CAN PREVENT SO MUCH
SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

[00:14:52.509]
THANKS, DR. BECK-SAGUE.

[00:14:53.959]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:14:57.749]
LET'S SEE.

[00:14:58.849]
I NEED PAJAMAS, TOOTHBRUSH,
SLEEPING BAG, AIR PURIFIER --

[00:15:03.889]
I HAVE TO HAVE AN AIR PURIFIER.

[00:15:06.809]
WHAT ABOUT SURGICAL MASKS?

[00:15:08.819]
DON'T DOCTORS USE THEM TO
PREVENT SPREADING GERMS?

[00:15:11.689]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:15:12.239]
YOU SHOULD GET SOME OF
THOSE FOR YOU GUYS TO WEAR.

[00:15:14.419]
I WAS ACTUALLY THINKING
ABOUT YOU WEARING ONE.

[00:15:17.019]
I'M NOT SICK.

[00:15:18.529]
I DON'T THINK I'M SICK.

[00:15:21.099]
SO I'VE COME UP WITH A
HYPOTHESIS FOR MY PROBLEM.

[00:15:23.559]
IF I QUARANTINE MYSELF IN THE
TREE HOUSE, I CAN'T GET SICK.

[00:15:26.739]
I THINK IT'S TOO SOON
FOR A HYPOTHESIS.

[00:15:29.329]
I THINK WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT HOW QUARANTINES REALLY WORK.

[00:15:32.159]
I'LL CONTACT NASA JOHNSON SPACE
CENTER AND SEE IF THEY CAN HELP.

[00:15:35.159]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:15:36.529]
OH.

[00:15:37.259]
HERE'S AN EMAIL FROM BIANCA
WITH NOTES FROM OUR MEETING

[00:15:39.739]
WITH DR. D. 98.7, I
THINK THAT'S STILL OKAY.

[00:15:43.999]
MISS STEVENS FROM JOHNSON
SPACE CENTER JUST EMAILED US

[00:15:46.749]
AND SAID SHE'LL BE
HAPPY TO TALK TO US.

[00:15:48.439]
GREAT, LET'S DIAL HER UP.

[00:15:50.549]
HI, MISS STEVENS.

[00:15:52.819]
THANKS FOR RESPONDING TO OUR EMAIL.

[00:15:54.469]
NO PROBLEM.

[00:15:55.309]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU TODAY?

[00:15:57.019]
AS I MENTIONED IN THE
EMAIL, JACOB IS WORRIED

[00:15:59.419]
ABOUT GETTING SICK
BEFORE HIS VACATION.

[00:16:01.539]
WE ARE CONSIDERING QUARANTINING
HIM IN THE TREE HOUSE.

[00:16:03.939]
HOW DOES A QUARANTINE WORK?

[00:16:05.589]
QUARANTINE IS A DESIGNATED PERIOD
OF TIME FOR A PERSON TO STAY AWAY

[00:16:09.259]
FROM OTHER INDIVIDUALS
AND VICE VERSA.

[00:16:11.179]
HOW DO YOU MAKE SURE
THAT PEOPLE WHO COME

[00:16:13.139]
AROUND THE ASTRONAUTS ARE NOT SICK?

[00:16:14.879]
NASA CREATED THE HEALTH
STABILIZATION PROGRAM,

[00:16:17.579]
OR H.S.P. FOR SHORT.

[00:16:19.539]
THIS PROGRAM DEVELOPS AN
AWARENESS AMONG ALL NASA PERSONNEL,

[00:16:23.429]
CREW FAMILIES, AND OTHER
GUESTS OF THE IMPORTANCE

[00:16:26.149]
OF PROTECTING A FLIGHT CREW
FROM INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

[00:16:29.609]
HOW DOES IT WORK?

[00:16:30.859]
DURING THE QUARANTINE PERIOD,
INDIVIDUALS THAT MUST HAVE CONTACT

[00:16:34.099]
WITH THE FLIGHT CREW ARE
BADGED AS PRIMARY CONTACTS

[00:16:37.519]
OR P.C.S. THEY'RE
MEDICALLY SCREENED BEFOREHAND

[00:16:40.519]
AND MONITORED FOR ILLNESS.

[00:16:41.829]
HOW LONG ARE THE ASTRONAUTS
QUARANTINED?

[00:16:44.879]
A QUARANTINE, THE TIME OF LIMITED
CONTACT, BEGINS SEVEN DAYS PRIOR

[00:16:49.179]
TO A LAUNCH AND EXTENDS
THROUGH THE ACTUAL LAUNCH DATE.

[00:16:52.549]
THIS PERIOD MAY BE EXTENDED
DEPENDING ON MANY FACTORS.

[00:16:56.279]
WE'RE HAVING A FLU
OUTBREAK IN OUR TOWN.

[00:16:58.389]
WOULD THAT AFFECT THE
LENGTH OF THE QUARANTINE?

[00:17:01.009]
YES, IF THERE'S AN OUTBREAK
OF ILLNESS IN THE COMMUNITY,

[00:17:03.699]
WE COULD LENGTHEN THE STAY.

[00:17:05.639]
IT ALSO DEPENDS ON THE CREW'S
IMMUNITY TO SOME ILLNESSES.

[00:17:09.129]
FOR THE SEVEN DAYS PRIOR TO THE
LAUNCH, THE P.C.S ARE THE ONLY ONES

[00:17:12.889]
THAT CAN BE WITHIN
SIX FEET OF THE CREW.

[00:17:15.269]
THEY ALSO NEED TO
MINIMIZE THEIR CONTACT

[00:17:17.229]
WITH THE FLIGHT CREW
AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.

[00:17:19.609]
MEETINGS SHOULD BE
HELD IN LARGE AREAS

[00:17:21.609]
TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE
SPACING OF PEOPLE.

[00:17:24.349]
SHAKING HANDS AND EMBRACING

[00:17:25.939]
OF THE FLIGHT CREW SHOULD BE
MINIMIZED AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.

[00:17:29.389]
WE CERTAINLY DON'T HAVE
TO WORRY ABOUT EMBRACING.

[00:17:32.009]
P.C.S MUST ALSO WASH
THEIR HANDS BEFORE MEETING

[00:17:34.769]
WITH THE FLIGHT CREW.

[00:17:36.039]
AND MOST IMPORTANTLY,
IF A P.C. BECOMES ILL,

[00:17:39.329]
THEY SHOULD NOT HAVE CONTACT
WITH THE FLIGHT CREW AT ALL.

[00:17:42.429]
IT SOUNDS LIKE QUARANTINE
IS THE ANSWER TO MY PROBLEM.

[00:17:44.869]
THANKS, MISS STEVENS.

[00:17:46.019]
YOU'VE BEEN A LOT OF HELP.

[00:17:47.139]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:17:48.009]
GOOD LUCK WITH YOUR QUARANTINE,
AND I HOPE YOU STAY WELL.

[00:17:50.579]
EMAIL IF YOU NEED ANYTHING ELSE.

[00:17:52.619]
ACCORDING TO MISS STEVENS, WE DON'T
EXACTLY NEED A COMPLETE QUARANTINE.

[00:17:56.759]
WHAT WE NEED IS OUR OWN
HEALTH STABILIZATION PROGRAM.

[00:17:59.729]
WHAT?

[00:18:00.559]
EACH TREE HOUSE DETECTIVE
MUST BE CERTIFIED

[00:18:02.649]
AS HEALTHY BEFORE ENTERING
THE TREE HOUSE EACH DAY.

[00:18:04.989]
CERTIFIED HEALTHY?

[00:18:06.329]
YES.

[00:18:06.779]
I'LL GET STARTED ON A
CHECKLIST RIGHT AWAY.

[00:18:08.889]
I'VE GOT TO GET HOME TO
STUDY FOR A MATH TEST.

[00:18:11.159]
I'VE GOT A LOT TO DO TO GET MY
HEALTH STABILIZATION PROGRAM

[00:18:13.599]
UP AND RUNNING.

[00:18:14.179]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:18:14.829]
WHAT WILL THE PETRI DISHES TELL
JACOB ABOUT THE TREE HOUSE?

[00:18:21.679]
HOW WILL JACOB AVOID
INFECTIOUS DISEASES?

[00:18:25.089]
IS QUARANTINE THE ANSWER?

[00:18:26.499]
FIND OUT NEXT TIME IN THE CASE
OF THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE.

[00:18:30.719]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:18:37.799]
WHAT VARIOUS TISSUES
MAKE UP THE SKIN?

[00:18:40.959]
WHAT ARE THREE KINDS OF BACTERIA?

[00:18:43.739]
WHAT IS AN EPIDEMIC?

[00:18:52.739]
[00:18:53.139]
ARE YOU SURE YOU HAVE EVERYTHING?

[00:18:55.009]
THIS SHOULD BE IT.

[00:18:56.749]
[00:18:58.059]
BY THE WAY, THANKS FOR ORDERING
THE BADGES, BUT DON'T FORGET

[00:19:00.499]
TO REMOVE THEM IF YOU
START FEELING SICK.

[00:19:02.759]
"DAY ONE: SUBJECT IS HAPPY,
CONFIDENT, AND COOPERATIVE."

[00:19:08.079]
I DON'T KNOW HOW YOU
CAN BE SO CALM.

[00:19:10.359]
KALI SAID IN HER NOTES
FROM THE CDC THAT VIRUSES

[00:19:13.319]
AND BACTERIA CAN ATTACK OUR
BODIES IN SO MANY DIFFERENT WAYS.

[00:19:16.309]
DON'T FORGET WHAT DR. D SAID
ABOUT AIRBORNE MICROBES.

[00:19:19.289]
HAVE YOU CHECKED THE PETRI DISH?

[00:19:20.989]
GUYS, THIS IS REAL SIMPLE.

[00:19:23.309]
I'M HEALTHY; YOU'RE HEALTHY.

[00:19:25.619]
AS LONG AS I STAY HERE, I'M FINE.

[00:19:28.709]
I'M SURE THAT MY HYPOTHESIS
IS CORRECT.

[00:19:30.829]
"SUBJECT WAY TOO CONFIDENT."

[00:19:33.399]
WELL, IT DOES SAY HERE THAT SOME
BACTERIA CAN BE GOOD FOR YOU.

[00:19:36.729]
LIKE I SAID, I SHOULD BE FINE.

[00:19:38.749]
JACOB, WE STILL HAVE A LOT
TO LEARN ABOUT THE BODY

[00:19:41.539]
AND HOW IT DEFENDS
ITSELF FROM THESE ATTACKS.

[00:19:43.849]
SHE'S RIGHT.

[00:19:44.339]
WE KNOW THAT VIRUSES AND
INFECTIONS ATTACK CELLS,

[00:19:47.569]
BUT I'M NOT SURE WHAT
A CELL IS EXACTLY.

[00:19:49.539]
DO YOU HAVE YOUR ENCYCLOPEDIA?

[00:19:52.419]
UH, LET ME SEE.

[00:19:54.509]
I HAVE "A," "D," AND
"Q," BUT NO "C."

[00:19:58.069]
YOU'RE SLIPPING, RJ.

[00:19:59.489]
WELL, WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:20:00.509]
DR. TEXTBOOK HAS SOMETHING
ABOUT THE BODY.

[00:20:03.169]
CHECK IT OUT.

[00:20:03.829]
HELLO.

[00:20:05.209]
WELCOME TO ANOTHER DEMONSTRATION
OF MY TECHNOLOGICAL BRILLIANCE.

[00:20:13.739]
I HAVE MODIFIED THIS
ORDINARY TELEVISION SET

[00:20:17.389]
TO LOOK INSIDE THE HUMAN BODY
TO SEE HOW THE HUMAN BODY WORKS.

[00:20:21.899]
FIRST, LET'S START WITH
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

[00:20:24.329]
WHICH HELPS US TO BREATHE.

[00:20:26.799]
OXYGEN IS BROUGHT INTO OUR
BODY THROUGH THE MOUTH, NOSE,

[00:20:30.319]
AND TRACHEA INTO THE LUNGS

[00:20:32.159]
WHERE IT CAN BE ABSORBED
INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.

[00:20:35.819]
NEXT, WE HAVE THE
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.

[00:20:38.329]
THIS SYSTEM INCLUDES THE HEART

[00:20:40.719]
WHICH PUMPS THE OXYGENATED BLOOD
WHEREVER IT IS NEEDED IN THE BODY

[00:20:44.869]
THROUGH A VAST NETWORK OF
ARTERIES, VEINS, AND CAPILLARIES.

[00:20:49.069]
BOY, THIS DEMONSTRATION IS
HARD WORK, AND IT'S BEGINNING

[00:20:52.479]
TO MAKE ME HUNGRY, WHICH
LEADS TO THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

[00:20:57.579]
THIS SYSTEM USES THE TEETH, MOUTH,
ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, INTESTINES,

[00:21:02.159]
AND MORE TO HELP THE BODY TAKE THE
NUTRIENTS FROM THE FOOD WE EAT--

[00:21:05.919]
YUM, YUM-- AND TURN IT INTO ENERGY.

[00:21:08.339]
AND BEFORE WE LOOK AT
THE OTHER BODY SYSTEMS,

[00:21:11.219]
I AM GOING TO BOOST THE
POWER ON MY LATEST INVENTION

[00:21:14.629]
TO SEE WHAT MAKES
THE BODY REALLY TICK.

[00:21:17.489]
AAAAGGGGHHHHHH.

[00:21:18.749]
[00:21:20.729]
NOT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:21:24.079]
DR. TEXTBOOK IS TOO FUNNY.

[00:21:25.679]
I HOPE HE FINDS HIMSELF.

[00:21:27.689]
ME TOO.

[00:21:28.269]
AND HE SURE HAS GIVEN
US A LOT TO THINK ABOUT.

[00:21:31.429]
I DIDN'T REALIZE THAT
THE BODY WAS MADE UP OF

[00:21:33.089]
SO MANY DIFFERENT
AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS.

[00:21:35.279]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:21:36.419]
I MEAN, YOU'RE PROBABLY
ONE GOOD INFECTION AWAY

[00:21:38.409]
FROM SOMETHING REALLY DEVASTATING.

[00:21:40.319]
WHAT?

[00:21:40.929]
WHAT RJ MEANT TO SAY WAS
THAT WE NEED TO LEARN MORE

[00:21:43.679]
ABOUT HOW CELLS WORK
TO PROTECT THEMSELVES.

[00:21:46.239]
JUST TO BE SAFE--
HI, DR. D. HI, KIDS.

[00:21:54.959]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
CELLS AND HOW THEY OPERATE.

[00:21:57.439]
CAN YOU HELP US?

[00:21:58.609]
SURE.

[00:21:59.549]
A CELL IS A BASIC BUILDING BLOCK
OF THE BODY, AND YOUR BODY HAS

[00:22:02.679]
ABOUT 10 TRILLION CELLS.

[00:22:04.639]
10 TRILLION?

[00:22:05.859]
THAT'S A 1 FOLLOWED BY 13 ZEROS.

[00:22:08.349]
THAT'S A LOT.

[00:22:09.309]
HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF CELLS
YOU MIGHT FIND IN YOUR BODY.

[00:22:12.349]
THIS NERVE CELL IS LONG
AND HAS A LOT OF BRANCHES.

[00:22:16.379]
IT'S VERY DIFFERENT FROM
THIS WHITE BLOOD CELL.

[00:22:18.669]
WHAT DO THEY BOTH HAVE IN COMMON?

[00:22:20.139]
IT LOOKS LIKE THEY ALL HAVE
THAT THING IN THE MIDDLE.

[00:22:22.429]
THAT THING IN THE MIDDLE
IS CALLED THE NUCLEUS.

[00:22:24.409]
THEY ALSO HAVE A MEMBRANE
WHICH HOLDS THE CELLS TOGETHER,

[00:22:27.599]
AND THIS SEMIFLUID REGION INSIDE

[00:22:29.869]
OF EACH CELL IS CALLED
THE CYTOPLASM.

[00:22:32.069]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:22:32.759]
OVER THERE, YOU HAVE WHAT LOOKS
LIKE A LOT OF CELLS TOGETHER.

[00:22:36.689]
WHAT'S THAT CALLED?

[00:22:37.609]
CELLS OF THE SAME
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

[00:22:39.619]
THAT ARE GROUPED TOGETHER
ARE CALLED TISSUE,

[00:22:41.549]
LIKE THIS MUSCLE TISSUE
OR LIKE THIS TISSUE

[00:22:43.969]
WHICH IS THE OUTER
LAYER OF THE SKIN.

[00:22:45.539]
THIS SKIN MODEL LOOKS
LIKE SHINGLES ON A ROOF.

[00:22:48.089]
VERY GOOD.

[00:22:48.909]
IT'S DESIGNED TO KEEP
MOISTURE IN AND MICROBES OUT.

[00:22:52.199]
NOW, WHEN YOU COMBINE VARIOUS
TISSUES TOGETHER, YOU GET AN ORGAN.

[00:22:55.239]
YOU MEAN LIKE A HEART OR THE LUNG?

[00:22:57.419]
EXACTLY.

[00:22:57.959]
NOW, HERE'S A MODEL OF THE
LARGEST ORGAN IN THE BODY.

[00:23:00.679]
IT LOOKS LIKE SKIN.

[00:23:02.399]
IT IS.

[00:23:03.339]
NOW, WHEN YOU COMBINE TWO OR MORE
ORGANS THAT HAVE A COMMON TASK,

[00:23:06.769]
THEY'RE CALLED AN ORGAN SYSTEM.

[00:23:08.589]
DR. TEXTBOOK MENTIONED
SOMETHING ABOUT BODY SYSTEMS.

[00:23:12.009]
LET'S LOOK AT THIS HUMAN
TORSO AS AN EXAMPLE.

[00:23:14.379]
THIS IS THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

[00:23:16.079]
IT STARTS WITH THE TEETH, THE
TONGUE AND SALIVARY GLANDS,

[00:23:19.909]
THEN THE ESOPHAGUS, THEN THE
STOMACH AND THE INTESTINES.

[00:23:24.029]
THEY ALL WORK TOGETHER
TO DIGEST FOOD.

[00:23:26.349]
THE BODY IS VERY COMPLEX.

[00:23:27.939]
YES, IT IS.

[00:23:28.509]
IT'S AMAZING HOW THE SYSTEMS WORK
TOGETHER FOR THE GOOD OF THE BODY.

[00:23:31.989]
THE BODY WORKS REALLY HARD TO
KEEP ITSELF IN HOMEOSTASIS.

[00:23:35.089]
WAIT A MINUTE, DR.
D. THAT'S A BIG WORD.

[00:23:37.439]
OKAY.

[00:23:38.349]
HOMEOSTASIS MEANS KEEPING THE
BODY'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT,

[00:23:41.909]
LIKE ITS TEMPERATURE,
FAIRLY CONSTANT.

[00:23:44.269]
IT HAS WHAT ARE CALLED
FEEDBACK CONTROLS THAT ACT

[00:23:46.779]
TO REVERSE ANY CHANGES.

[00:23:48.339]
IT'S LIKE A THERMOSTAT.

[00:23:49.529]
LET ME SHOW YOU HOW
A THERMOSTAT WORKS.

[00:23:52.079]
WHEN I HEAT UP THIS BIMETAL
STRIP, IT BENDS UPWARD.

[00:23:54.839]
WHEN IT TOUCHES THIS ROD, IT
MAKES AN ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

[00:23:58.749]
WHICH TURNS ON THIS FAN
AND COOLS THINGS DOWN.

[00:24:02.289]
THEN WHEN THE METAL BECOMES
COOLER, IT STRAIGHTENS OUT

[00:24:04.769]
AND BREAKS THE ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION AND TURNS OFF THE FAN.

[00:24:08.169]
THAT'S PRETTY COOL, BUT WHAT
DOES IT HAVE TO DO WITH THE BODY?

[00:24:11.799]
WELL, WHEN THE BODY HEATS UP, THE
FEEDBACK CONTROLS CAUSE THE BODY

[00:24:15.099]
TO PERSPIRE AND THE BLOOD
VESSELS NEAR THE SKIN TO DILATE

[00:24:17.959]
OR GET LARGER IN DIAMETER.

[00:24:19.189]
WHEN THE PERSPIRATION
EVAPORATES, IT COOLS THE BODY,

[00:24:21.969]
AND THE INCREASED BLOOD FLOW

[00:24:23.969]
TO THE LARGER VESSELS
ALSO RELEASES MORE HEAT.

[00:24:26.909]
SO WHEN THESE THINGS COOL THE
BODY DOWN, THE PERSPIRATION STOPS,

[00:24:30.439]
AND THE BLOOD VESSELS
RETURN TO NORMAL?

[00:24:32.259]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:24:33.269]
SO ARE DIFFERENT BODY
SYSTEMS AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY?

[00:24:35.799]
YES, SOME SYSTEMS,
LIKE THE DIGESTIVE

[00:24:37.929]
AND THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS, ARE
MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION.

[00:24:41.259]
DO YOU KNOW WHY?

[00:24:41.969]
I GUESS WE ALL HAVE TO EAT
AND BREATHE, AND VIRUSES

[00:24:44.369]
AND BACTERIA CAN GET
INTO THE FOOD THAT WE EAT

[00:24:46.619]
AND THE AIR THAT WE BREATHE.

[00:24:47.609]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:24:48.379]
THANKS, DR. D, BUT WE
STILL NEED TO LEARN MORE

[00:24:50.979]
ABOUT HOW CELLS ARE INFECTED.

[00:24:52.649]
I THOUGHT YOU MIGHT.

[00:24:53.479]
WHEN YOU TAKE YOUR PETRI DISHES TO
MR. FRANK AT T.C.C. THIS AFTERNOON,

[00:24:57.069]
YOU CAN ALSO ASK HIM
ABOUT INFECTION.

[00:24:59.199]
GREAT.

[00:24:59.529]
THANKS, DR. D. YOU'RE WELCOME,
AND LET ME KNOW WHAT YOU FIND OUT.

[00:25:03.369]
HI, ARE YOU MR. GREG FRANK?

[00:25:07.859]
YES, YOU MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:25:09.629]
I HEAR YOU HAVE SOME PETRI
DISHES FOR ME TO LOOK AT.

[00:25:12.439]
THIS IS THE ONE FROM
THE TREE HOUSE.

[00:25:14.339]
THIS IS THE CONTROL DISH.

[00:25:15.849]
IT LOOKS LIKE YOU'VE BEEN VERY
CAREFUL IN LABELING THESE DISHES.

[00:25:19.119]
WE MADE SURE THAT EACH DISH
WAS ONLY OPEN FOR TEN MINUTES

[00:25:22.269]
AT THE SAME TIME OF DAY SO THAT
ANY MICROBES WOULD HAVE THE SAME

[00:25:26.199]
CHANCE OF GROWING.

[00:25:27.069]
AND TO MAKE SURE WE WERE
MANIPULATING ONLY ONE VARIABLE,

[00:25:30.379]
WE'VE KEPT THEM TOGETHER
FOR THE LAST 24 HOURS.

[00:25:32.999]
SO THEY HAD THE SAME
GROWING CONDITIONS.

[00:25:35.439]
WELL, LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT THEM

[00:25:36.409]
UNDER THIS DARK FIELD
COLONY COUNTER.

[00:25:38.219]
IT WILL ILLUMINATE THE
COLONIES AND MAKE THEM LARGER.

[00:25:41.109]
WOW.

[00:25:41.929]
THIS IS PRETTY COOL.

[00:25:47.219]
I COUNT 45 COLONIES IN
THE TREE HOUSE DISH.

[00:25:50.349]
I COULDN'T SEE ANYTHING YESTERDAY.

[00:25:52.639]
WHAT'S HAPPENED?

[00:25:53.489]
INDIVIDUAL BACTERIAL CELLS ARE
SO SMALL, THEY'RE HARD TO SEE

[00:25:56.579]
WITH YOUR EYE AND
EVEN SOME MICROSCOPES.

[00:25:58.929]
HOWEVER, THEY GROW SO RAPIDLY
THAT, OVER A 24-HOUR PERIOD,

[00:26:02.109]
THEY GROW FROM 1 TO 1,000 CELLS,

[00:26:04.109]
AND THAT'S WHAT YOU'RE
SEEING IN THESE COLONIES.

[00:26:06.849]
THERE ARE ABOUT 15
COLONIES IN MY DISH.

[00:26:09.089]
THE CONTROL DISH DOESN'T
HAVE ANY COLONIES.

[00:26:11.689]
WHY DO YOU THINK THE TREE
HOUSE HAS MORE COLONIES?

[00:26:13.679]
I THINK IT HAS SOMETHING
TO DO WITH THE FACT

[00:26:16.039]
THAT THE TREE HOUSE IS OUTSIDE.

[00:26:17.889]
THAT COULD BE ONE REASON.

[00:26:19.139]
DR. D WARNED US THAT IT'S
HARD TO CONTROL EVERYTHING.

[00:26:22.189]
PERHAPS THE TREE HOUSE IS NOT
AS ISOLATED AS YOU THOUGHT.

[00:26:25.289]
WE KNOW THAT MICROBES LIKE BACTERIA
AND VIRUSES CAUSE DISEASES,

[00:26:28.829]
BUT WE DON'T KNOW MUCH ABOUT THEM.

[00:26:30.449]
CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT MICROBES?

[00:26:32.029]
IT WOULD BE VERY DIFFICULT TO
SHOW YOU VIRUSES SINCE THEY ARE

[00:26:34.589]
SO SMALL, BUT LET'S TAKE
A LOOK AT SOME BACTERIA.

[00:26:37.189]
WE CAN REMOVE THEM FROM THE INSIDE
OF YOUR MOUTH WITH THIS SWAB.

[00:26:40.049]
RJ TOLD US THAT THERE'S
BACTERIA INSIDE US ALL THE TIME,

[00:26:45.199]
EVEN WHEN WE'RE NOT SICK.

[00:26:47.439]
LET'S RUB THIS ON A
CLEAN MICROSCOPE SLIDE.

[00:26:49.889]
BEFORE WE LOOK AT IT,
LET'S STAIN THE CELLS

[00:26:51.779]
SO WE CAN SEE THEM BETTER.

[00:26:53.989]
LET'S MAGNIFY THIS 1,000 TIMES AND
PROJECT IT UP ONTO THE TV MONITOR.

[00:26:58.179]
THERE ARE LOTS OF DIFFERENT SHAPES.

[00:27:01.729]
WHAT'S THE ROUND ONE?

[00:27:02.959]
THAT'S A BACTERIA
THAT WE CALL A COCCUS.

[00:27:05.489]
THAT ONE LOOKS LIKE A CYLINDER.

[00:27:06.959]
WHAT'S IT CALLED?

[00:27:08.029]
YES, WE CALL THAT A ROD
SHAPE OR A BACILLUS BACTERIA.

[00:27:10.879]
THAT BACTERIA IS ROUND,
BUT IT'S IN CHAINS.

[00:27:13.899]
YES, WE CALL THAT A STREPTOCOCCUS.

[00:27:15.829]
IS THAT LIKE STREP THROAT?

[00:27:17.659]
DOES THAT MEAN I'M SICK?

[00:27:19.519]
NOT NECESSARILY.

[00:27:20.339]
THERE ARE OTHER BACTERIA THAT
LOOK LIKE THE STREP THROAT KIND,

[00:27:23.099]
BUT THEY'RE ACTUALLY
BENEFICIAL TO US.

[00:27:25.139]
ARE YOU SAYING THAT
BACTERIA CAN BE HELPFUL?

[00:27:27.659]
MOST BACTERIA ARE
GOOD, AND IN FACT,

[00:27:29.709]
WE COULDN'T SURVIVE WITHOUT THEM.

[00:27:31.219]
I NEVER THOUGHT ABOUT
BACTERIA BEING GOOD.

[00:27:33.529]
THINK ABOUT TERMITES.

[00:27:34.559]
AS YOU KNOW, TERMITES EAT WOOD,
BUT THEY CANNOT DIGEST IT.

[00:27:37.319]
IT IS THE BACTERIA IN THEIR
GUT THAT DIGESTS THE WOOD.

[00:27:40.259]
THIS IS ALSO TRUE OF OUR OWN
STOMACHS WHERE A BACTERIA KNOWN

[00:27:43.129]
AS E. COLI HELPS US DIGEST OUR
OWN FOOD AND PRODUCE VITAMINS.

[00:27:46.679]
WHAT ABOUT THE BAD BACTERIA?

[00:27:48.729]
SOME BACTERIA ENTERS OUR CELLS
AND DESTROYS THEM FROM WITHIN.

[00:27:51.919]
OTHERS PRODUCE VERY DEADLY
TOXINS LIKE BOTULISM.

[00:27:54.899]
IF BACTERIA CAN MULTIPLY SO
FAST AND CAUSE SUCH DAMAGE

[00:27:58.059]
TO THE BODY, HOW DO WE SURVIVE?

[00:28:00.109]
THE BODY HAS ITS OWN DEFENSE
SYSTEM TO FIGHT OFF DISEASE.

[00:28:02.909]
IT'S CALLED THE IMMUNE
SYSTEM, AND MOST OF THE TIME,

[00:28:05.509]
IT KEEPS US PRETTY HEALTHY.

[00:28:06.619]
SOUNDS LIKE WE NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:28:09.619]
THANKS, MR. FRANK.

[00:28:10.889]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:28:11.779]
GOOD LUCK, AND COME BACK
IF YOU NEED ANYTHING ELSE.

[00:28:18.879]
LET'S SEE IT.

[00:28:21.409]
OH, SORRY ABOUT THAT.

[00:28:23.499]
HERE IT IS.

[00:28:24.119]
AS USUAL, I'M PERFECTLY
FIT...WHICH IS MORE THAN I CAN SAY

[00:28:28.959]
ABOUT THIS TREE HOUSE.

[00:28:30.279]
DON'T WORRY.

[00:28:30.879]
I'LL CLEAN IT UP.

[00:28:31.979]
BY THE WAY, I TALKED TO
BIANCA AND KALI ABOUT MEETING

[00:28:34.339]
WITH DR. D AND MR. FRANK.

[00:28:36.609]
JACOB, I THINK YOU NEED TO TAKE
THIS A LITTLE MORE SERIOUSLY.

[00:28:39.179]
YOU MAY BE RIGHT, BUT I FEEL FINE,
AND I'M STICKING TO MY HYPOTHESIS.

[00:28:43.079]
IF I DON'T COME INTO CONTACT WITH
SICK PEOPLE, I CAN STAY HEALTHY.

[00:28:46.739]
AFTER READING KALI AND BIANCA'S
NOTES, THERE MUST BE MORE

[00:28:49.559]
TO STAYING HEALTHY THAN
SETTING UP QUARANTINES

[00:28:51.509]
AND AVOIDING PEOPLE WHO ARE SICK.

[00:28:52.999]
ACCORDING TO DR. D AND MR. FRANK,
THAT'S WHAT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DOES.

[00:28:56.399]
WHAT IS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:28:58.189]
I WAS JUST READING SOMETHING
ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:29:00.869]
OH, HERE IT IS.

[00:29:02.439]
IT SAYS THAT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS
MADE UP OF BONE MARROW, THE THYMUS,

[00:29:06.209]
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, AND
THE TONSILS AND SPLEEN.

[00:29:08.869]
WOW.

[00:29:09.499]
AND IT'S RESPONSIBLE FOR
PROTECTING THE BODY FROM VIRAL

[00:29:12.629]
AND BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.

[00:29:14.219]
I THINK WE NEED TO DO SOME MORE
RESEARCH ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:29:16.959]
LET'S GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:29:22.369]
OKAY, WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:29:24.169]
WE KNOW THAT EVERYONE IS HEALTHY,
AND I HAVE ESTABLISHED A QUARANTINE

[00:29:27.149]
AND HEALTH STABILIZATION PROGRAM.

[00:29:29.179]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE BODY IS
MADE UP OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

[00:29:31.789]
THAT ARE CONSTANTLY BEING
ATTACKED BY BACTERIA AND VIRUSES.

[00:29:34.519]
ON A CELLULAR LEVEL.

[00:29:35.569]
AND THE BODY PROTECTS ITSELF
WITH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:29:38.239]
OKAY, WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:29:40.199]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE
IMMUNE SYSTEM AND HOW IT WORKS.

[00:29:43.919]
OKAY, WHERE DO WE GO?

[00:29:45.379]
WELL, I'M GOING TO HOUSTON.

[00:29:46.729]
THAT ISN'T GOING TO HELP US MUCH.

[00:29:48.859]
OH, YE OF LITTLE FAITH.

[00:29:50.549]
I'M GOING TO HOUSTON TO ATTEND
A YOUNG INVESTORS CONVENTION.

[00:29:53.529]
HOWEVER, I'M CONSULTING MY CONTACTS
AT NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:29:57.009]
I BET THEY CAN HELP.

[00:29:58.039]
THAT'S GREAT.

[00:29:59.019]
WE COULD STILL DO MORE
RESEARCH ON THE INTERNET.

[00:30:00.949]
COULD YOU PRINT OFF A
WEBSITE EVALUATION SHEET?

[00:30:04.059]
GO TO THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE TO
GET YOUR WEBSITE EVALUATION SHEET.

[00:30:07.569]
IT'S A GREAT TOOL TO USE
WHILE CONDUCTING RESEARCH

[00:30:09.429]
ON THE INTERNET.

[00:30:10.539]
AND I'LL TRY TO BRING MY
ENCYCLOPEDIA TOMORROW.

[00:30:13.099]
AND IF EVERYONE FOLLOWS THE RULES
OF MY QUARANTINE, I SHOULD BE FINE.

[00:30:16.389]
AND NOW I'VE GOT TO
GO PACK FOR HOUSTON.

[00:30:18.729]
LATER, TONY.

[00:30:19.729]
WHAT ABOUT THE SCI FILES KIDS CLUB?

[00:30:21.249]
WILL THEY BE ABLE TO HELP OUT?

[00:30:22.569]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:30:23.339]
I'LL CONTACT S.W.E. THEY WORK WITH
CLASSROOMS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY.

[00:30:27.069]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:30:27.689]
THEY'VE HELPED US BEFORE.

[00:30:28.579]
COOL.

[00:30:29.689]
MISS THOLEN IS ONLINE.

[00:30:31.289]
I'LL INSTANT MESSAGE HER.

[00:30:34.259]
IT SAYS THAT SIGSBEE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN KEY WEST, FLORIDA,

[00:30:37.629]
IS DOING AN EXPERIMENT ON BACTERIA.

[00:30:39.539]
YOU DON'T THINK I
COULD CATCH SOMETHING

[00:30:40.719]
THROUGH THE TRANSMISSION, DO YOU?

[00:30:42.529]
DON'T WORRY.

[00:30:43.649]
HERE THEY ARE NOW.

[00:30:45.089]
HI, I'M KEEYA.

[00:30:46.259]
AND I'M JUSTIN.

[00:30:47.799]
YOU MUST BE THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:30:50.049]
YES, WE ARE, AND I'M TRYING
TO AVOID INFECTIOUS BACTERIA.

[00:30:53.669]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
HOW INFECTIOUS DISEASES SPREAD.

[00:30:56.509]
WE CAN HELP.

[00:30:57.239]
OUR MENTOR FROM THE SOCIETY
OF WOMEN ENGINEERS HELPED US

[00:31:00.179]
WITH A GREAT EXPERIMENT
THAT SIMULATES AN EPIDEMIC.

[00:31:03.399]
AN EPIDEMIC OCCURS WHEN
THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE

[00:31:05.079]
IN A GROUP ALL GET AN
INFECTIOUS DISEASE.

[00:31:08.379]
HOW DO YOU SIMULATE AN EPIDEMIC?

[00:31:10.099]
FIRST, OUR TEACHER, MISS FRAGA,

[00:31:11.609]
PREPARED THE TEST
TUBES FOR EACH STUDENT.

[00:31:14.459]
ALL THE TEST TUBES HAD WATER
IN THEM, EXCEPT FOR ONE,

[00:31:17.319]
WHICH HAD A SOLUTION OF AMMONIA,

[00:31:19.119]
BUT WE DIDN'T KNOW
WHICH ONE WAS WHICH.

[00:31:21.009]
WHY ONLY ONE?

[00:31:22.159]
TO SIMULATE THE STUDENT
WHO HAS THE COLD VIRUS.

[00:31:25.079]
WHAT DID YOU DO NEXT?

[00:31:26.419]
WE EACH USED AN EYE DROPPER TO
EXCHANGE FOUR DROPS OF FLUID

[00:31:29.419]
WITH FOUR OTHER PEOPLE TO SIMULATE
AN EXCHANGE OF BODY FLUIDS,

[00:31:33.029]
SUCH AS EATING OR DRINKING
AFTER ANOTHER PERSON.

[00:31:35.669]
WE ALSO MADE SURE
TO RECORD THE NAME

[00:31:37.399]
OF THE PERSON WE EXCHANGED
THE FLUID WITH.

[00:31:39.759]
WHY WAS THAT IMPORTANT?

[00:31:40.959]
WE WANTED TO SEE IF WE
COULD TRACE THE VIRUS BACK

[00:31:43.109]
TO THE ORIGINAL PERSON.

[00:31:44.579]
HOW COULD YOU TELL
WHO WAS INFECTED?

[00:31:46.969]
AFTER WE FINISHED EXCHANGING THE
FLUIDS, MISS FRAGA ADDED 100 DROPS

[00:31:51.419]
OF AN INDICATOR MADE FROM
CABBAGE LEAVES TO OUR TEST TUBES.

[00:31:55.499]
IF THE TEST TUBE WAS INFECTED,
IT CHANGED COLOR TO YELLOW,

[00:31:59.579]
GREEN, BLUE, OR PURPLE.

[00:32:00.739]
WHY THE DIFFERENT COLORS?

[00:32:01.939]
THE COLOR DIFFERENCES
WERE DUE TO THE AMOUNT

[00:32:04.189]
OF AMMONIA IN EACH TEST TUBE.

[00:32:05.979]
THE INFECTED TEST
TUBE TURNED YELLOW,

[00:32:07.719]
AND THE ONES WITH THE
NEXT GREATEST AMOUNT

[00:32:09.379]
OF AMMONIA TURNED GREEN.

[00:32:10.989]
THE ONES THAT WERE ONLY SLIGHTLY
INFECTED WITH AMMONIA TURNED BLUE,

[00:32:14.199]
AND THE ONES THAT WEREN'T
INFECTED AT ALL TURNED PURPLE.

[00:32:16.979]
I UNDERSTAND.

[00:32:18.259]
THE TEST TUBES WITH THE MOST
AMMONIA HAD THE MOST EXPOSURE

[00:32:21.249]
TO THE COLD VIRUS.

[00:32:22.539]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:32:23.499]
THAT PARTICULAR STUDENT HAD
EXCHANGED OR BEEN EXPOSED

[00:32:26.389]
TO THE VIRUS MORE THAN
THE OTHER STUDENTS.

[00:32:28.659]
HOW MANY STUDENTS WERE INFECTED
AT THE END OF THE EXPERIMENT?

[00:32:31.189]
12 OUT OF 15 STUDENTS
WERE INFECTED.

[00:32:33.579]
THAT'S 80% THAT CONTRACTED
THE COLD VIRUS.

[00:32:36.249]
IT'S GOOD TO KNOW THAT NOT
ALL STUDENTS WERE INFECTED.

[00:32:39.139]
YES, IT IS, AND IT'S
EVEN BETTER TO KNOW

[00:32:40.939]
THAT YOU CAN PREVENT
THE SPREAD OF DISEASE

[00:32:42.919]
BY NOT EXCHANGING BODY
FLUIDS WITH OTHER PEOPLE.

[00:32:45.699]
TO BE SAFE, IT'S BEST NOT TO EAT
OR DRINK AFTER ANYONE AND TO TRY

[00:32:48.959]
TO AVOID CONTACT WITH SICK PEOPLE.

[00:32:51.139]
THAT'S GOOD ADVICE.

[00:32:52.399]
THANKS FOR ALL YOUR HELP.

[00:32:54.039]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:32:54.859]
ANYTIME.

[00:32:55.669]
GOOD LUCK, JACOB.

[00:32:56.119]
HOPE YOU STAY WELL.

[00:32:57.959]
AND THANKS TO S.W.E.
FOR ALL THEIR HELP.

[00:33:00.319]
GOOD-BYE FROM SIGSBEE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN KEY WEST, FLORIDA.

[00:33:04.319]
[00:33:06.619]
THAT WAS A COOL EXPERIMENT.

[00:33:08.099]
IT'S SCARY TO THINK HOW WE CAN
BE INFECTED AND NOT EVEN KNOW IT.

[00:33:11.019]
YES, BUT NOT EVERYONE WAS
EXPOSED TO THE BACTERIA,

[00:33:13.749]
SO THERE IS SOME HOPE.

[00:33:14.749]
THIS RESEARCH IS MAKING ME HUNGRY.

[00:33:17.449]
ARE YOU GOING TO BE OKAY TONIGHT?

[00:33:19.029]
I'LL BE FINE.

[00:33:19.959]
OKAY, WELL, SEE YOU TOMORROW.

[00:33:22.429]
SEE YOU LATER, RJ.

[00:33:23.059]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:33:25.079]
HOW CAN JACOB PREVENT AN
INFECTION TO HIS RESPIRATORY

[00:33:32.419]
AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS?

[00:33:34.319]
WHAT CAN JACOB DO TO
HELP HIS IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:33:37.139]
HOW CAN JACOB AVOID BECOMING
A VICTIM OF THE FLU EPIDEMIC?

[00:33:40.729]
STAY TUNED FOR THE ANSWER IN THE
NEXT EXCITING CHAPTER OF THE CASE

[00:33:44.569]
OF THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE.

[00:33:46.279]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:33:54.479]
WHAT IS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:33:56.759]
HOW CAN YOU STRENGTHEN
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:33:59.639]
WHAT IS MUCUS AND HOW DOES IT HELP
PROTECT THE BODY FROM INFECTION?

[00:34:03.019]
[MUSIC, ANIMAL NOISES]

[00:34:12.019]
[00:34:49.049]
I KEPT TOSSING AND
TURNING ALL NIGHT.

[00:34:52.179]
THERE WERE ANIMAL NOISES,
AND I HAD WEIRD DREAMS.

[00:34:56.329]
IT WAS AN AWFUL, MISERABLE NIGHT.

[00:34:59.709]
"SUBJECT IS VERY TIRED."

[00:35:02.229]
HAVE YOU HAD ANY BREAKFAST?

[00:35:03.929]
NO.

[00:35:05.679]
I ACCIDENTALLY STEPPED ON MY POP
TARTS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT.

[00:35:08.509]
NOW I CAN'T FIND THEM.

[00:35:10.149]
THEY WERE PROBABLY EATEN
BY SOME WILD RACCOON.

[00:35:13.839]
"SUBJECT IS TIRED,
DISORIENTED, AND GRUMPY."

[00:35:17.879]
I'M NOT GRUMPY.

[00:35:18.889]
"SUBJECT IS VERY GRUMPY."

[00:35:21.929]
WELL, AT LEAST YOU
STILL HAVE YOUR HEALTH.

[00:35:23.949]
BUT IF YOU WANT TO KEEP
IT, YOU'RE GONNA HAVE

[00:35:25.749]
TO GET SOME REST AND
SOME DECENT FOOD.

[00:35:28.489]
SPEAKING OF HEALTH,
LET'S SEE THOSE BADGES.

[00:35:32.359]
THESE BADGES ARE GREAT, BUT
WE STILL DON'T KNOW VERY MUCH

[00:35:35.089]
ABOUT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:35:36.359]
HAVE WE HEARD FROM TONY YET?

[00:35:37.909]
NOT YET.

[00:35:38.409]
I TALKED TO MY MOM ABOUT IT,

[00:35:40.269]
AND SHE SAID WE SHOULD
TALK TO AN IMMUNOLOGIST.

[00:35:42.979]
IMMUNOLOGIST?

[00:35:44.259]
WHAT'S THAT?

[00:35:45.219]
IT'S A DOCTOR THAT SPECIALIZES
IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:35:47.989]
I'LL SEE IF I CAN LOOK
ONE UP ON THE INTERNET.

[00:35:50.429]
AND I'LL HELP YOU STRAIGHTEN UP.

[00:35:52.209]
THIS PLACE IS A MESS.

[00:35:53.589]
ONLY ONE DAY TO GO...

[00:35:56.479]
AFTER TODAY.

[00:35:57.809]
GUYS, MY MOM FOUND A
SPECIALIST ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:36:01.579]
I'M SURE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS
IMPORTANT, BUT I STILL THINK--

[00:36:06.639]
MY HEALTH STABILIZATION
PROGRAM IS WORKING GREAT.

[00:36:11.479]
I'M GOING TO BE-- I CAN'T BELIEVE
THAT JACOB ACTUALLY KICKED YOU

[00:36:17.729]
OUT OF THE TREE HOUSE.

[00:36:18.879]
HE MAY BE HEALTHY, BUT HE
HAS CABIN FEVER REALLY BAD.

[00:36:22.349]
I'M JUST GLAD DR. ZILLIOX AGREED
TO MEET WITH US AT HER OFFICE.

[00:36:26.279]
[00:36:27.519]
HI, YOU MUST BE DR. ZILLIOX.

[00:36:29.099]
WE'RE THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:36:30.559]
HELLO, GLAD YOU COULD COME.

[00:36:32.599]
I HEAR YOU NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:36:35.029]
YES, WE'RE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT
HOW TO HELP JACOB STAY WELL.

[00:36:38.969]
WHAT EXACTLY IS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:36:42.019]
WELL, THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS A
BODY-WIDE, COORDINATED GROUP

[00:36:44.119]
OF CELLS THAT HELP PROTECT
YOU AGAINST SERIOUS INFECTION.

[00:36:46.689]
THESE CELLS ACT LIKE AN ARMY TO
HELP DEFEND US AGAINST ATTACK

[00:36:49.769]
FROM DANGEROUS GERM INVADERS.

[00:36:51.589]
WHERE ARE THESE CELLS LOCATED?

[00:36:53.579]
WELL, WITH MOST BODY
SYSTEMS, THERE'S A LARGE PART

[00:36:56.709]
THAT YOU CAN POINT TO, LIKE YOUR
BRAIN OR YOUR HEART OR YOUR LUNGS,

[00:36:59.989]
BUT WITH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, IT'S
NOT FOUND IN JUST ONE PLACE.

[00:37:02.859]
THESE CELLS TRAVEL
THROUGHOUT YOUR BODY.

[00:37:05.149]
SO HOW DOES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM WORK?

[00:37:06.589]
WELL, THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IS MADE UP
OF LOTS OF DIFFERENT SMALL CELLS.

[00:37:11.079]
THESE CELLS HAVE SOME FUNNY
NAMES, LIKE NEUTROPHILS,

[00:37:13.849]
EOSINOPHILS, AND LYMPHOCYTES.

[00:37:15.819]
THOSE ARE FUNNY NAMES.

[00:37:17.129]
WHAT DO THEY MEAN?

[00:37:18.099]
WELL, THOSE ARE ACTUALLY
GREEK AND LATIN NAMES

[00:37:20.239]
THAT DESCRIBE WHAT THESE CELLS
LOOK LIKE UNDER THE MICROSCOPE.

[00:37:22.959]
WHY DOES YOUR BODY HAVE
MORE THAN ONE KIND OF CELL

[00:37:25.659]
TO FIGHT OFF INFECTION?

[00:37:27.509]
WELL, JUST LIKE AN ARMY HAS
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOLDIERS,

[00:37:30.499]
EACH OF THESE CELLS HAS
THEIR OWN SPECIAL JOB.

[00:37:33.029]
THEY CRUISE AROUND QUIETLY
THROUGH YOUR BLOODSTREAM,

[00:37:35.879]
WAITING TO GET A CALL INTO ACTION.

[00:37:38.079]
WHEN AN INFECTION OCCURS,
THEY SWARM IN AT THE SITE

[00:37:40.979]
OF THE INFECTION READY TO
DEFEND YOU AGAINST THE GERM.

[00:37:44.499]
THE CELLS SOUND LIKE
THEY ARE REALLY IMPORTANT

[00:37:46.119]
IN HELPING OUR BODY FIGHT
OFF INFECTIONS AND DISEASES.

[00:37:48.339]
IS THERE ANY WAY THAT YOU COULD
STRENGTHEN YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM

[00:37:51.639]
TO MAKE IT WORK BETTER?

[00:37:53.059]
THERE ARE THINGS YOU CAN DO TO
KEEP YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM STRONG

[00:37:55.279]
AND HEALTHY.

[00:37:55.689]
YOU NEED TO CERTAINLY EAT RIGHT AND
GET PLENTY OF SLEEP AND EXERCISE.

[00:37:59.549]
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE YOU CAN DO?

[00:38:01.399]
THERE IS ANOTHER TRICK TO KEEP YOUR
IMMUNE SYSTEM SMART AND STRONG,

[00:38:04.459]
AND THAT'S TO GET
ALL THE IMMUNIZATIONS

[00:38:06.129]
THAT THE DOCTORS GIVE
YOU WHEN YOU'RE YOUNG.

[00:38:07.959]
WHAT IS AN IMMUNIZATION?

[00:38:09.939]
WELL, IMMUNIZATIONS ARE
ALSO CALLED VACCINES.

[00:38:12.219]
THEY'RE EITHER WEAKENED FORMS
OF THE GERM OR GERM PARTS

[00:38:15.329]
THAT HELP PROTECT US AGAINST
DANGEROUS INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

[00:38:18.759]
HOW DO THEY WORK?

[00:38:19.299]
WELL, WHEN A VACCINE
ENTERS THE BODY,

[00:38:21.669]
IT SHOWS YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE GERM,

[00:38:24.679]
AND THAT ALLOWS YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM

[00:38:26.459]
TO CREATE SPECIALIZED
PROTEINS CALLED ANTIBODIES.

[00:38:29.679]
IF THE VACCINE PUTS GERMS IN OUR
BODIES, WHY DON'T WE GET SICK?

[00:38:33.649]
WELL, IT'S JUST ENOUGH
GERM EXPOSURE

[00:38:35.729]
TO HELP US BUILD ANTIBODIES,

[00:38:37.379]
NOT ENOUGH TO ACTUALLY
HAVE YOU GET SICK.

[00:38:39.349]
THEN LATER, WHEN THAT GERM
TRIES TO ENTER YOUR BODY,

[00:38:41.869]
THERE'S LOTS OF GOOD
STOCKPILED ANTIBODIES AVAILABLE

[00:38:45.259]
TO FEND OFF INFECTION
FROM THAT PARTICULAR GERM.

[00:38:47.659]
CAN YOU GET IMMUNIZED
FOR ALL ILLNESSES?

[00:38:50.089]
WELL, NO, NOT EVERY INFECTION
CAN BE PREVENTED IN THIS WAY.

[00:38:53.289]
FIRST, SCIENTISTS HAVE TO LEARN
AN AWFUL LOT ABOUT THE GERM

[00:38:55.959]
AND EXACTLY HOW IT'S BUILT
TO BE ABLE TO MAKE A VACCINE

[00:38:59.259]
THAT COAXES YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
INTO MAKING THE RIGHT ANTIBODIES.

[00:39:02.679]
I WISH THEY HAD A VACCINE
FOR THE COMMON COLD.

[00:39:05.329]
WELL, I DO TOO, BUT WITH
A COLD, IT'S JUST YOU

[00:39:07.579]
AND YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM BATTLING
IT OUT AGAINST THE COLD GERM.

[00:39:10.999]
SO FOR NOW, TO AVOID COLDS, IT'S
BEST TO DO EVERYTHING YOU CAN

[00:39:14.859]
TO KEEP YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
AS HEALTHY AS POSSIBLE.

[00:39:17.289]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:39:18.199]
YOU NEED TO REST,
EAT RIGHT, AND SLEEP.

[00:39:21.369]
I THINK JACOB NEEDS TO
RETHINK HIS QUARANTINE IDEA.

[00:39:24.139]
THANKS, DR. ZILLIOX.

[00:39:25.769]
YOU'VE BEEN A LOT OF HELP.

[00:39:27.269]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:39:27.889]
CALL IF YOU HAVE ANY
OTHER QUESTIONS.

[00:39:29.609]
BYE.

[00:39:30.169]
BYE.

[00:39:31.529]
[00:39:43.619]
DR. D SAID THAT HE
WOULD MEET US HERE.

[00:39:45.329]
HE'S BEEN TO SOME
PRETTY WEIRD PLACES,

[00:39:47.459]
BUT THIS REALLY TAKES THE CAKE.

[00:39:49.959]
[00:39:51.409]
LOOK AT THAT NOSE.

[00:39:55.899]
GROSS.

[00:39:56.759]
DR. D?

[00:39:58.209]
HI, KIDS.

[00:39:59.189]
CATHERINE AND I JUST
TALKED TO DR. ZILLIOX.

[00:40:01.559]
SHE TOLD US THAT THE BODY HAS A
NUMBER OF WAYS OF PROTECTING ITSELF

[00:40:04.309]
FROM INFECTION, BUT WE NEED

[00:40:05.899]
TO KNOW SOME OTHER WAYS
THE BODY DEFENDS ITSELF.

[00:40:08.149]
WELL, YOU'RE IN THE RIGHT PLACE.

[00:40:09.399]
THIS GROSSOLOGY EXHIBIT HERE

[00:40:10.799]
AT THE VIRGINIA MARINE SCIENCE
MUSEUM IS A PERFECT SPOT

[00:40:13.459]
TO INVESTIGATE SOME OF THE GROSS
WAYS THE BODY PROTECTS ITSELF LIKE

[00:40:17.059]
SNOT AND VOMIT.

[00:40:18.229]
WHAT DOES VOMIT HAVE TO DO
WITH PROTECTING YOUR BODY?

[00:40:24.379]
I THINK I KNOW.

[00:40:25.279]
IF YOU EAT SOMETHING
THAT MIGHT HARM THE BODY,

[00:40:28.609]
THEN THE BODY GETS RID OF
IT AS FAST AS POSSIBLE.

[00:40:30.839]
VERY GOOD.

[00:40:32.109]
POISONS, BACTERIA, AND
VIRUSES CAN UPSET THE STOMACH

[00:40:35.329]
AND CAUSE AN UPCHUCK.

[00:40:36.629]
HERE'S SOME VOMIT RIGHT HERE.

[00:40:39.059]
YOU'RE KIDDING.

[00:40:40.869]
WELL, IT'S JUST FAKE VOMIT.

[00:40:42.999]
IN FACT, IT'S EDIBLE.

[00:40:44.969]
[00:40:48.789]
MMM.

[00:40:50.319]
GROSS.

[00:40:50.779]
KIDS, DON'T TRY THIS AT HOME.

[00:40:54.089]
REAL VOMIT IS A COMBINATION
OF FOOD, STOMACH ACID,

[00:40:57.399]
MUCUS, AND OTHER STUFF.

[00:40:59.139]
LET'S TALK ABOUT MUCUS.

[00:41:00.709]
YOU MEAN WHAT WE CALL SNOT?

[00:41:02.909]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:41:04.099]
MUCUS IS A SLIMY LIQUID THAT
TRAPS MICROBES ALONG WITH DUST

[00:41:07.979]
AND OTHER FOREIGN PARTICLES.

[00:41:09.429]
I READ ON A WEBSITE THAT BODILY
FLUIDS LIKE MUCUS, SALIVA,

[00:41:12.719]
AND TEARS CONTAIN ENZYMES
THAT KILL BACTERIA.

[00:41:15.639]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:41:16.579]
THESE FLUIDS ARE FOUND
IN THE NOSE, EYES,

[00:41:18.589]
AND MOUTH WHICH ARE
THE EASIEST PLACES

[00:41:20.479]
FOR MICROBES TO ENTER THE BODY.

[00:41:22.019]
DO YOU KNOW THAT YOU SWALLOW
ABOUT A QUART OF SNOT EVERY DAY?

[00:41:26.269]
DID YOU HAVE TO TELL US THAT?

[00:41:28.329]
AND NOSE MUCUS, OR SNOT, TRAPS
INVADING MICROBES, LIKE BACTERIA,

[00:41:32.849]
VIRUSES, AND FUNGUS SPORES.

[00:41:34.879]
LITTLE HAIRS CALLED CILIA THEN
PUSH THE SNOT TOWARD THE BACK

[00:41:37.789]
OF THE NOSE AND INTO THE
THROAT WHERE YOU SWALLOW IT.

[00:41:41.029]
WHEN IT ENDS UP IN THE STOMACH,
STOMACH ACID KILLS A LOT

[00:41:43.709]
OF THE DANGEROUS MICROBES.

[00:41:45.379]
WE HAVE ACID IN OUR STOMACH?

[00:41:47.279]
YES, WE DO, HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

[00:41:49.769]
IT'S NOT ONLY DEADLY
TO CERTAIN MICROBES,

[00:41:51.629]
IT ALSO AIDS IN DIGESTION.

[00:41:53.069]
IT'S PRETTY STRONG STUFF.

[00:41:54.879]
WATCH AS THIS ACID
DISSOLVES THIS PIECE OF ZINC.

[00:41:59.109]
SO WHY DOESN'T OUR
STOMACH GET DISSOLVED?

[00:42:08.109]
[00:42:16.089]
THE STOMACH ALSO CREATES THAT
MAGIC STUFF CALLED MUCUS.

[00:42:19.439]
THIS TIME, THE MUCUS IS A
PROTECTIVE COATING FOR THE STOMACH.

[00:42:23.129]
HERE'S SOME MUCUS RIGHT HERE.

[00:42:29.969]
PLEASE TELL ME THAT'S FAKE MUCUS.

[00:42:32.549]
OKAY, I ADMIT IT IS.

[00:42:34.479]
IT'S MADE OF CORN SYRUP AND
GELATIN, BUT IT HAS A LOT

[00:42:37.649]
OF THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS
AND INGREDIENTS OF REAL MUCUS.

[00:42:40.869]
I HATE TO ASK, BUT WHAT ARE SOME
OTHER WAYS THE BODY DEFENDS ITSELF?

[00:42:45.289]
SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS A SNEEZE CAN
EXPEL INFECTED MUCUS FROM THE NOSE

[00:42:49.249]
AT A SPEED OF UP TO
100 MILES AN HOUR.

[00:42:51.559]
WOW, THAT'S FAST.

[00:42:52.939]
I GUESS A COUGH DOES
THE SAME THING.

[00:42:55.289]
YES, IT DOES, BUT A COUGH
IS EXPELLING PARTICLES

[00:42:57.699]
AND MICROBE-LADEN MUCUS OUT
OF THE THROAT AND LUNGS.

[00:43:00.499]
WE LEARNED AT THE CENTERS
FOR DISEASE CONTROL

[00:43:03.159]
THAT COUGHING IS ALSO A
WAY TO SPREAD DISEASES.

[00:43:06.139]
ONE MORE EXAMPLE: WHAT
DO YOU KNOW ABOUT SWEAT?

[00:43:09.079]
WE LEARNED IN SCHOOL THAT
IT HELPS TO COOL THE BODY

[00:43:11.079]
WHEN YOU GET OVERHEATED.

[00:43:12.559]
VERY GOOD.

[00:43:13.529]
DID YOU ALSO KNOW THAT IT PROVIDES
FOOD FOR BACTERIA AND FUNGI

[00:43:16.899]
THAT LIVE ON THE SURFACE
OF THE SKIN?

[00:43:18.609]
I DON'T WANT BACTERIA
LIVING ON MY SKIN.

[00:43:21.599]
MR. FRANK TOLD US
ABOUT GOOD BACTERIA.

[00:43:24.029]
IS THAT WHAT YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT?

[00:43:25.679]
INDEED.

[00:43:26.509]
THIS GOOD BACTERIA MUNCHES
ON SWEAT AND OIL ON THE SKIN

[00:43:29.819]
AND PRODUCES ACIDIC WASTE PRODUCTS.

[00:43:31.799]
THESE ACIDS MAKE IT DIFFICULT
FOR INVADING HARMFUL BACTERIA

[00:43:34.849]
TO SURVIVE ON THE SKIN.

[00:43:36.359]
SO BACTERIA IS PART
OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:43:38.889]
YES, IT ACTS AS A BARRIER
TO HARMFUL BACTERIA.

[00:43:41.569]
IT'S A GOOD THING THE BODY HAS
LOTS OF WAYS OF DEFENDING ITSELF.

[00:43:45.639]
I THINK WE HAVE A NEW HYPOTHESIS.

[00:43:47.689]
IF JACOB STAYS AWAY
FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE SICK

[00:43:49.669]
AND STRENGTHENS HIS IMMUNE
SYSTEM WITH REST, GOOD NUTRITION,

[00:43:52.849]
AND EXERCISE, THEN
HE'LL STAY HEALTHY.

[00:43:57.589]
THANKS, DR. D. YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:44:03.589]
ENJOY THE EXHIBIT.

[00:44:08.039]
UH, JACOB?

[00:44:11.029]
JACOB, I HAVE GOOD NEWS.

[00:44:12.789]
ALL YOU NEED TO IS-- ALL I
NEED IS TO SEE YOUR BADGE.

[00:44:15.299]
YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND.

[00:44:16.619]
YOU'RE FINE.

[00:44:17.549]
I JUST READ KALI AND
BIANCA'S REVISED HYPOTHESIS,

[00:44:20.209]
AND THEY SAY THAT YOU JUST
CAN'T QUARANTINE YOURSELF.

[00:44:22.319]
YOU HAVE TO STRENGTHEN
YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:44:24.589]
HOW DO I DO THAT?

[00:44:25.789]
ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS GET PLENTY
OF SLEEP AND EAT THE RIGHT FOOD.

[00:44:28.879]
GREAT.

[00:44:30.149]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:44:31.919]
I'M JUST RELAXING...

[00:44:34.219]
HERE BY THE POOL.

[00:44:35.889]
[00:44:39.119]
SUBJECT IS GROGGY AND DELUSIONAL."

[00:44:42.749]
HEY, JACOB, WAKE UP.

[00:44:45.909]
KSNN IS COMING ON.

[00:44:47.879]
G-G-GOOD MORNING.

[00:44:49.449]
I'M T-TED T-TUNE.

[00:44:51.929]
IT SEEMS THAT THE M-MICROPHONE FLU
HAS CAUGHT UP WITH THIS R-REPORTER.

[00:44:57.209]
THE CDC RECOMMENDS THAT
TO KEEP FROM GETTING SICK,

[00:45:00.829]
B-B-BE SURE TO STAY AWAY
FROM SICK PEOPLE AND--

[00:45:03.829]
AND WASH YOUR HANDS OF-FTEN.

[00:45:05.399]
AND IF YOU ARE SICK, PLEASE
COVER YOUR MOUTH WHEN YOU-- OUGH.

[00:45:08.409]
I'M T-TED TUNE.

[00:45:13.549]
JACOB, I KNOW YOU
PUT A LOT OF STOCK

[00:45:15.669]
INTO YOUR HEALTH STABILIZATION
PROGRAM, BUT YOU STILL NEED

[00:45:19.049]
TO TAKE CARE OF YOURSELF.

[00:45:20.299]
WHAT CAN I DO?

[00:45:21.409]
I'M TOO TIRED TO EXERCISE, AND MY
NEXT MEAL ISN'T FOR A COUPLE HOURS.

[00:45:25.149]
TIME FOR THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:45:28.859]
OKAY, WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:45:30.389]
WE KNOW THAT THE IMMUNE
SYSTEM HELPS PROTECT THE BODY

[00:45:32.809]
FROM INFECTION.

[00:45:34.099]
RIGHT, AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CAN EITHER BE

[00:45:36.689]
STRENGTHENED OR WEAKENED
BY DIET AND SLEEP.

[00:45:38.879]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:45:40.359]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT HOW
TO STRENGTHEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.

[00:45:44.709]
SO WHERE DO WE GO?

[00:45:45.799]
TONY'S MEETING BETH SHEPHERD

[00:45:47.019]
AT THE NASA JOHNSON
SPACE CENTER IN HOUSTON.

[00:45:49.319]
I'LL EMAIL HIM AND SEND HIM A COPY

[00:45:51.119]
OF THE GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEET AND PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:45:53.189]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE

[00:45:54.979]
FOR YOUR OWN GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEET AND PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:45:56.689]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:45:59.159]
IS JACOB WEAKENING
HIS IMMUNE SYSTEM?

[00:46:02.649]
IS THE HEALTH STABILIZATION
PROGRAM WORKING?

[00:46:05.469]
WHAT ELSE CAN JACOB
DO TO STAY HEALTHY?

[00:46:07.399]
FIND OUT NEXT TIME IN THE
CONCLUSION OF THE CASE

[00:46:10.529]
OF THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE.

[00:46:12.329]
ANSWER THESE FINAL QUESTIONS,
AND HELP SOLVE THE CASE

[00:46:18.119]
OF THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE:
WHAT ARE PHYSIOLOGICAL LOSSES?

[00:46:23.069]
WHAT ARE ENDORPHINS AND
HOW DO YOU GET THEM?

[00:46:26.089]
WHAT DO ASTRONAUTS DO WHEN
THEY GET SICK IN SPACE?

[00:46:29.119]
[00:46:33.459]
HI, MRS. SHEPHERD.

[00:46:36.679]
HI, YOU MUST BE TONY.

[00:46:37.829]
I UNDERSTAND YOU HAVE
SOME QUESTIONS FOR ME.

[00:46:39.929]
YES, OUR FRIEND JACOB QUARANTINED
HIMSELF IN THE TREE HOUSE

[00:46:42.999]
TO AVOID GETTING SICK,

[00:46:44.199]
BUT WE DON'T THINK
THAT'S A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:46:46.849]
ISN'T EXERCISE IMPORTANT
FOR STAYING HEALTHY?

[00:46:48.759]
YES, EXERCISE IS VERY IMPORTANT
IN MAINTAINING A HEALTHY BODY.

[00:46:52.339]
AS THE LEAD ASTRONAUT
STRENGTH, CONDITIONING,

[00:46:54.459]
AND REHABILITATION SPECIALIST
HERE AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER,

[00:46:57.559]
MY MAIN RESPONSIBILITY IS TO
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT STRENGTH

[00:47:00.479]
AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS
FOR THE ASTRONAUT CORPS

[00:47:02.889]
SO THEY CAN REMAIN HEALTHY
HERE ON EARTH AND IN SPACE.

[00:47:06.689]
ASTRONAUTS EXERCISE IN SPACE?

[00:47:08.729]
YES, BUT IT BEGINS HERE ON EARTH.

[00:47:10.759]
THERE ARE THREE SEGMENTS TO
THE ASTRONAUT FITNESS PROGRAM.

[00:47:13.459]
FIRST, THERE IS A PREFLIGHT
TRAINING PHASE WHERE WE WORK

[00:47:16.329]
ON IMPROVING THE ASTRONAUTS'
WEAKNESSES

[00:47:18.329]
AND ENHANCING THEIR STRENGTHS.

[00:47:21.039]
WITH ONLY MICROGRAVITY IN SPACE,

[00:47:22.919]
WHY DO ASTRONAUTS
HAVE TO BE STRONG?

[00:47:24.589]
SOMETIMES ASTRONAUTS NEED

[00:47:25.659]
TO PERFORM AN EXTRAVEHICULAR
ACTIVITY, OR E.V.A. FOR SHORT.

[00:47:29.399]
THIS IS WHERE THEY GO OUTSIDE
THE SPACECRAFT AND SOMETIMES WORK

[00:47:32.219]
ON A SATELLITE OR
THE SPACE STATION.

[00:47:34.239]
AN E.V.A. IS VERY STRENUOUS WORK,
AND IT REQUIRES A LOT OF STRENGTH.

[00:47:39.489]
WHAT IS THE SECOND
SEGMENT OF TRAINING?

[00:47:40.909]
WELL, THE SECOND SEGMENT
IS IN-FLIGHT TRAINING

[00:47:43.709]
WHERE THE ASTRONAUT
FOCUSES ON MAINTAINING

[00:47:46.129]
OR INCREASING THEIR
LEVEL OF FITNESS

[00:47:48.639]
AND LIMITING THEIR
PHYSIOLOGICAL LOSSES.

[00:47:51.849]
WHAT ARE PHYSIOLOGICAL LOSSES?

[00:47:53.249]
LIVING IN A MICROGRAVITY
ENVIRONMENT CAN CAUSE BONE

[00:47:56.159]
AND MUSCLE LOSS, A REDUCTION
IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES,

[00:47:59.259]
AND A DECREASE IN THE
NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM.

[00:48:01.799]
EXERCISE CAN HELP
DECREASE THOSE LOSSES

[00:48:04.249]
AND CAN EVEN MAKE YOU
FEEL BETTER MENTALLY

[00:48:06.679]
BY INCREASING YOUR ENDORPHINS
OR YOUR HAPPY HORMONES.

[00:48:10.419]
WHY DOES YOUR BODY LOSE
BONE AND MUSCLE IN SPACE?

[00:48:13.449]
IN A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT,
EVERYTHING IS FLOATING,

[00:48:15.739]
INCLUDING YOURSELF, AND IT
MAKES LIVING PRETTY EASY

[00:48:18.249]
SINCE YOU DON'T HAVE TO LIFT,
PULL, OR PUSH VERY MUCH.

[00:48:21.209]
THEREFORE, THE BODY TELLS
ITSELF THAT IT DOESN'T NEED

[00:48:23.899]
TO KEEP THE MUSCLES STRONG OR THE
BONES DENSE, AND THE HEART FIGURES

[00:48:27.519]
OUT THAT IT DOESN'T
NEED TO WORK VERY HARD

[00:48:29.719]
SINCE THE BLOOD CAN FLOAT
WHERE IT NEEDS TO GO.

[00:48:31.879]
HOW DO ASTRONAUTS
EXERCISE IN SPACE?

[00:48:33.819]
ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION, THERE'S A CYCLE ERGOMETER,

[00:48:36.679]
A TREADMILL, AND A
WEIGHT LIFTING DEVICE.

[00:48:39.009]
ASTRONAUTS EXERCISE
ABOUT 2 1/2 HOURS A DAY.

[00:48:42.459]
WOW, THAT MUST HELP.

[00:48:43.899]
EXERCISE IS VERY IMPORTANT
IN MAINTAINING A HEALTHY BODY

[00:48:46.589]
AND A GOOD MENTAL
ATTITUDE AT ALL TIMES.

[00:48:48.849]
THANK YOU, MRS. SHEPHERD.

[00:48:49.869]
YOU'VE GIVEN US A
LOT OF INFORMATION.

[00:48:51.409]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND CALL

[00:48:52.579]
IF YOU NEED ANY HELP PUTTING
TOGETHER A FITNESS PROGRAM

[00:48:54.839]
FOR JACOB.

[00:49:00.439]
TH-THERE ISN'T ANYTHING
WRONG WITH THE QUARANTINE.

[00:49:02.899]
NOTHING AT ALL.

[00:49:04.629]
IT'S JUST THAT YOU'RE NOT DOING
YOURSELF ANY GOOD BY STAYING HERE.

[00:49:07.959]
LOSING SLEEP, SKIPPING MEALS,
IT'S JUST MAKING IT MORE DIFFICULT

[00:49:12.409]
FOR YOUR BODY TO FIGHT
OFF POSSIBLE INFECTIONS.

[00:49:14.619]
AND DON'T FORGET ABOUT WHAT
WE SAW IN THE PETRI DISH.

[00:49:17.189]
THERE'S NO TELLING HOW MUCH
BAD BACTERIA IS FLOATING

[00:49:19.439]
AROUND IN HERE.

[00:49:22.039]
RJ.

[00:49:22.099]
UH, BUT I'M SURE YOU'RE FINE.

[00:49:23.849]
ANYWAY, WE ALL THINK
THE BEST THING TO DO IS

[00:49:26.049]
TO HEAD HOME AND GET SOME SLEEP.

[00:49:27.919]
AND GET SOME DECENT
FOOD IN YOUR SYSTEM.

[00:49:30.929]
[00:49:32.369]
MAYBE YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:49:33.809]
I COULD USE SOME GOOD FOOD.

[00:49:35.799]
RIGHT.

[00:49:37.249]
AND SINCE YOUR SUIT ISN'T CONNECTED
TO AN EXTERNAL AIR SUPPLY,

[00:49:41.569]
YOU'RE ONLY PROTECTED
FOR ABOUT FIVE MINUTES.

[00:49:44.489]
[00:49:45.559]
AND I'M SURE I'LL SLEEP
BETTER IN MY OWN BED.

[00:49:47.859]
WELL, WE JUST WANT YOU TO BE
IN THE BEST POSSIBLE SHAPE

[00:49:50.249]
TO ENJOY YOUR VACATION.

[00:49:52.149]
PLUS, RESCHEDULING A
VACATION CAN COST A LOT

[00:49:54.499]
OF UNNECESSARY CASH
IN ADDITIONAL FEES.

[00:49:57.299]
OKAY, YOU GUYS, YOU WIN.

[00:49:59.689]
I'M HEADING HOME.

[00:50:01.369]
[00:50:03.909]
WAIT.

[00:50:04.789]
WHAT ABOUT YOUR PROJECT?

[00:50:05.969]
ISN'T MY LEAVING GOING
TO UPSET YOUR RESULTS?

[00:50:08.279]
I'LL BE FINE.

[00:50:09.249]
BELIEVE ME, WE'VE
GATHERED PLENTY OF DATA.

[00:50:12.659]
OH, OKAY.

[00:50:13.819]
SEE YOU GUYS LATER.

[00:50:15.079]
BYE.

[00:50:16.319]
NOW ALL WE HAVE TO
DO IS FIGURE OUT HOW

[00:50:17.619]
TO KEEP JACOB HEALTHY
DURING HIS TRIP.

[00:50:19.909]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:50:20.989]
I WAS DOING SOME RESEARCH
ON THE DRY TORTUGAS,

[00:50:23.229]
AND IT TURNS OUT THAT, BEFORE
IT WAS A NATIONAL PARK,

[00:50:25.889]
FORT JEFFERSON USED TO BE A PRISON.

[00:50:27.339]
OKAY, BUT WHAT DOES THAT HAVE
TO DO WITH JACOB'S HEALTH?

[00:50:30.339]
THEY HAD SEVERAL SERIOUS
OUTBREAKS OF YELLOW FEVER.

[00:50:33.019]
IT SAYS HERE THAT DR. SAMUEL MUDD
HELPED SAVE MANY LIVES DURING AN

[00:50:36.299]
OUTBREAK O