Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of the Mysterious Red Light

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YOUNG PEOPLE EVERYWHERE ON THIS
PLANET, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,

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THE NEXT KING OF POP, AARON CARTER.

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HI; HEY, WHAT'S UP?

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I'M AARON CARTER, AND JUST TO
LET YOU KNOW, I ALWAYS USE A LOT

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OF MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY
IN MY CONCERTS AND SHOWS.

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THAT'S WHY I WANT YOU
TO WATCH THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES.

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IT'S GREAT.

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IT MAKES MATH, SCIENCE,
AND TECHNOLOGY FUN.

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SO STAY RIGHT WHERE YOU ARE
AND CHECK OUT THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES.

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HEY, YOU.

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HEY, ME?

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YEAH, YOU.

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COME SEE OUR CLUBHOUSE IN A TREE.

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WE ARE KIDS ON A MISSION TO EDUCATE
OURSELVES ABOUT THE NASA VISION.

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COME EXPLORE MATH AND SCIENCE
'CAUSE THAT'S WHAT MAKES

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OUR ALLIANCE.

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WE ARE THE WHY?

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FILES CLUB.

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WE YEARN TO LEARN AND WANT TO
SEE EVERYTHING THAT WE CAN BE.

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SO COME JOIN US ON OUR JOURNEY.

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DON'T YOU TOUCH THAT DIAL.

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AND WELCOME TO THE NASA WHY?

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FILES.

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WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVING THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES' LATEST MYSTERY,

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YOU NEED TO ANSWER THESE KEY
QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL?

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HOW DOES THE PROBLEM BOARD
HELP THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES?

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WHAT ARE THE FOUR PARTS OF A WAVE?

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THAT'S COOL.

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THAT'S AMAZING.

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I WISH I COULD BE FRANZ ARARI.

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WHY?

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BECAUSE THEN I COULD MAKE
THAT BRIGHT RED SUN DISAPPEAR.

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IT'S SO RED, IT LOOKS
LIKE A BALL OF FIRE.

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YEAH.

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LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, I'M ABOUT
TO PERFORM THE MOST AMAZING TRICK.

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WHAT'S WITH HIM?

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I BET HE THINKS HE'S A MAGICIAN.

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WATCH CLOSELY.

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BEFORE YOUR VERY OWN EYES, I
WILL MAKE THIS COIN DISAPPEAR.

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OKAY, FRANZ; I'VE
GOT TO SEE THIS ONE.

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ABRACADABRA.

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MAKE THIS COIN DISAPPEAR.

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GONE.

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WHERE DID IT GO?

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IT WENT UP HIS SLEEVE.

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IT DID NOT.

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IT'S MAGIC.

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THEN MAKE US DISAPPEAR, BECAUSE
THAT SUNSET IS BLINDING ME.

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YEAH.

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BUT NO ONE'S HERE.

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THE MAGICIAN IS HERE.

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JACOB?

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I'M STARTING TO GET
THIS MAGIC STUFF DOWN.

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WELCOME TO KIDS' SCIENCE
NEWS NETWORK'S MORNING SHOW:

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"GET OUT BED, YOU'RE
GOING TO BE LATE."

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I'M TED TUNE.

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THIS MORNING'S TOP KSNN STORY:
"RED SKIES, WARNING OR DELIGHT?"

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WE GO NOW TO I.M.
LISSNING, WITH A LIVE REPORT.

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THANKS, TED.

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I'M HERE WITH CAPTAIN MAC ARREL OF
THE CARGO SHIP DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT.

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NOW, CAPTAIN, THE SAYING GOES, "RED
SKIES AT NIGHT, SAILORS' DELIGHT.

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RED SKIES IN MORNING,
SAILOR TAKE WARNING."

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ARE YOU DELIGHTED OR WORRIED?

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I JUST DON'T KNOW.

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IT'S SUPPOSED TO BE
ONE OR THE OTHER.

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I'M SO CONFUSED.

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WELL, TED, IT LOOKS
LIKE WE MAY NEVER KNOW.

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BACK TO YOU.

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THANKS FOR THAT ILLUMINATING
REPORT, I.M. SO FAR,

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NO ONE HAS BEEN ABLE
TO EXPLAIN THE MYSTERY

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OF THE RED SKIES OVER THE AREA.

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STAY TUNED TO KSNN
FOR MORE INFORMATION.

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LAST NIGHT, WE NOTICED THAT THE
SUNSET WAS A DEEP, DEEP RED.

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I KNOW; MAYBE THERE'S
A FIRE AROUND HERE

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AND WE'RE SEEING THE
REFLECTION IN THE SKY.

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THIS LOOKS LIKE A
CASE FOR US TO SOLVE.

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I CAN SEE THE HEADLINES NOW:

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"THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
SOLVE THE CASE

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OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED
LIGHT, WITH MAGIC."

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JACOB, GIVE IT UP.

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GIVE WHAT UP?

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HE'S UP TO HIS MAGIC TRICKS.

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YEAH, I SAW SOME OF THEM YESTERDAY.

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WHERE CAN WE START
OUR INVESTIGATION?

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WITH THE "WHY?"

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FILES INVESTIGATION LOG SHEET.

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IT'S GREAT, YOU SHOULD USE
IT IN YOUR INVESTIGATION.

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GO TO THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES WEBSITE.

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THEN CLICK ON THE TREE HOUSE.

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THEN CLICK ON THE TOOL SELECTION.

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NOW CLICK ON THE INVESTIGATION
LOG SHEET AND PRINT IT OUT.

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HEY, THERE'S DR. D. MAYBE HE
CAN GIVE US A LIST OF EXPERTS.

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THIS IS ALL PART OF
SCIENCE'S INQUIRY.

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HERE I AM.

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WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

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JUST AN EXPERIMENT THAT
DIDN'T WORK VERY WELL.

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I'LL SHOW YOU AN EXPERIMENT
THAT WILL WORK.

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WATCH THIS.

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THAT'S MAGIC.

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NO, NOT MAGIC; IT'S
JUST GOOD SCIENCE.

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IF I POKE THE SKEWER
THROUGH THIS END

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WHERE IT'S NOT STRETCHED VERY MUCH,

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AND TAKE IT OUT THROUGH THE TIP

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WHERE IT'S ALSO NOT
STRETCHED, IT WON'T BURST.

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BUT IF I POKE IT IN THE SIDE
LIKE THIS-- IT WOULD POP.

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THAT'S BECAUSE IT'S BEING
STRETCHED TOO TIGHT.

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THAT'S GREAT; DR. D., HAVE
YOU NOTICED THE RED SUNRISES

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AND SUNSETS?

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YES, I HAVE; I JUST WATCHED
A REPORT ON IT ON KSNN.

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WE DECIDED THIS IS A CASE FOR
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

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WE WANT TO KNOW WHAT'S MAKING
THE SUNRISES AND SUNSETS SO RED.

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THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
HAVE SOLVED A LOT OF PROBLEMS;

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THINK BACK, WHERE DO
YOU USUALLY BEGIN?

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IN THE TREE HOUSE?

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YES, THAT'S CORRECT, BUT
THERE'S A TOOL YOU'VE ALWAYS USED

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IN YOUR INVESTIGATIONS.

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I KNOW IT; IT'S THE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

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YES AGAIN; REMEMBER, THIS IS
A TOOL YOU CAN USE EVERY DAY.

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WE KNOW OUR PROBLEM; I WROTE IT
DOWN IN OUR INVESTIGATION LOG:

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"WHY ARE THE SUNRISES
AND SUNSETS SO RED?"

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ALL RIGHT; YOU HAVE YOUR PROBLEM.

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WHAT COMES NEXT?

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PROBABLY RESEARCH, SINCE WE DON'T
KNOW MUCH ABOUT THE PROBLEM.

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RESEARCH MEANS ASKING A LOT OF
QUESTIONS, MAKING OBSERVATIONS,

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AND TALKING TO A LOT OF EXPERTS.

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THAT'S CORRECT.

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REMEMBER, WITH THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD: YOU RESEARCH THE PROBLEM,

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FORM THE HYPOTHESIS,
AND TEST THE HYPOTHESIS.

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IT'S NOT ALWAYS EASY.

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WE KNOW THAT FOR A FACT.

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IN OUR PAST CASES, WE
TESTED OUR HYPOTHESES

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BY EXPERIMENTING AND
COLLECTING DATA.

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I THINK YOU'RE READY TO
TACKLE THE SUNSET PROBLEM NOW.

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THANKS, DR. D. I'M
SURE WE'LL BE BACK.

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LET'S SEE.

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WHAT WOULD MAKE THE SUNSET SO RED?

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RED'S A COLOR.

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AND THE SUN GIVES THE EARTH LIGHT.

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WELL, WHY WOULD THE LIGHT FROM
THE SUN BE A DEEPER RED NOW?

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I DON'T KNOW, BUT I THINK WE
NEED TO DO RESEARCH ON LIGHT.

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YEAH, BECAUSE I THINK
LIGHT HAS COLORS IN IT.

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I'M DOING AN INTERNET
SEARCH ON LIGHT.

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MAYBE WE CAN FIND A MUSEUM
THAT HAS AN EXHIBIT ON LIGHT.

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I'M TYPING THE KEYWORDS
"SCIENCE," "MUSEUM," AND "LIGHT"

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INTO THE SEARCH ENGINE.

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THERE ARE A LOT OF MUSEUMS LISTED.

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HERE'S ONE IN BOSTON.

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IT'S CALLED THE BOSTON
MUSEUM OF SCIENCE.

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IT LOOKS REALLY COOL.

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P.J. AND HIS PARENTS ARE IN BOSTON.

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I'LL SEND HIM AN E-MAIL AND TELL
HIM TO TAKE A TRIP TO THE MUSEUM.

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I HOPE HE REMEMBERS TO TAKE
THE INVESTIGATION LOG SHEET.

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IF YOU GO ON A FIELD TRIP OF YOUR
OWN, THIS IS THE GREATEST WORKSHEET

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TO TAKE WITH YOU TO RECORD
ALL OF YOUR INFORMATION.

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THAT'S WEIRD; WHEN I LOOK ON TOP
OF THE MURAL, I CAN'T SEE ANYTHING.

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THEN, WHEN I LOOK WITH THE FILTER,
I CAN SEE EVERYTHING; WHY IS THAT?

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IT'S BECAUSE OF POLARIZATION.

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WELCOME TO THE BOSTON
MUSEUM OF SCIENCE.

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MY NAME IS MICHAEL
SHEESE, AND I'M IN CHARGE

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OF THE MUSEUM'S PHYSICAL
SCIENCE PROGRAM.

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HI MR. SHEESE, I'M
P.J. WELL, YOU SEE,

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THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
SENT ME AN E-MAIL.

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THEY SAID THAT COMING HERE
WOULD BE A GREAT PLACE

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TO LEARN MORE ABOUT LIGHT.

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SO HERE I AM.

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WE'VE GOT A GREAT EXHIBIT ON LIGHT
AND OPTICS CALLED LIGHTHOUSE.

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WHAT EXACTLY WOULD YOU
LIKE TO KNOW ABOUT LIGHT?

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WELL, I THINK I SHOULD
UNDERSTAND, WHAT EXACTLY IS LIGHT?

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I'VE GOT A GREAT PLACE TO START.

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OKAY, GREAT.

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ALL LIGHT IS ENERGY.

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DO YOU KNOW WHAT THE MAIN SOURCE
OF ENERGY IS HERE ON EARTH?

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THE SUN?

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THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT: THE SUN
IS A NATURAL SOURCE OF ENERGY.

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LIGHT CAN BE EITHER
ARTIFICIAL OR NATURAL.

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WHAT MIGHT BE AN EXAMPLE
OF AN ARTIFICIAL SOURCE?

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WOULD THAT BE SOMETHING
LIKE A LIGHTBULB?

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THAT'S RIGHT; IN FACT, I
HAPPEN TO HAVE ONE RIGHT HERE.

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COOL.

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LET'S GO.

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IS LIGHT THE SAME WHETHER
IT'S ARTIFICIAL OR NATURAL?

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ALL LIGHT IS MADE UP OF PHOTONS.

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WE LEARNED ABOUT PHOTONS
IN OUR ELECTRICITY MYSTERY.

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AND DID YOU LEARN ABOUT ATOMS TOO?

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YES, WE DID; THERE ARE THREE
DIFFERENT PARTS: PROTONS,

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NEUTRONS, AND ELECTRONS.

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THAT'S RIGHT, THE ELECTRONS
THAT MAKE UP LIGHT ARE UNSTABLE,

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AND FROM TIME TO TIME,
THEY ABSORB ENERGY.

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ONE OF THE WAYS THE ATOM GETS RID
OF THIS ENERGY IS IT RELEASES IT

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IN A BUNDLE OF LIGHT
CALLED THE PHOTON.

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ARE THERE DIFFERENT
KINDS OF PHOTONS?

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YES, THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY THAT'S

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IN THE PHOTON DETERMINES
WHAT LIGHTWAVE IS PRODUCED.

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WAIT A MINUTE.

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LIGHT IS A WAVE?

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THAT'S RIGHT; IN FACT, I'VE GOT
A DEMONSTRATION OF IT RIGHT HERE.

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I'M GONNA HOLD ONTO MY END
OF THE ROPE, AND I'D LIKE YOU

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TO TAKE THE OTHER END OF THE ROPE.

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AND IF YOU COULD WIGGLE
IT BACK AND FORTH,

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WE CAN DEMONSTRATE WHAT A
LIGHTWAVE MIGHT LOOK LIKE.

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LIGHT COMING FROM THE SUN
TAKES 8 MINUTES TO REACH US,

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AND THAT'S 98 MILLION MILES AWAY.

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WHOA!

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THAT'S FAST.

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AS YOU CAN SEE HERE, LIGHT TRAVELS
IN A STRAIGHT LINE CALLED A RAY.

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YES; BUT THEN WHEN I PUT THE LIGHT
ON THE PRISM, THE LIGHT BENDS.

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THAT'S RIGHT; LIGHT WILL TRAVEL

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IN A STRAIGHT LINE UNLESS IT HITS
SOMETHING AND BECOMES OBSTRUCTED.

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OH, I THINK I UNDERSTAND.

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WHY DON'T YOU TAKE SOME
TIME AND EXPLORE SOME

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OF OUR OTHER EXHIBITS
ON LIGHT AND OPTICS?

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THANKS; I SAW SOME GREAT
EXHIBITS THAT I WANT TO GO TO.

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GREAT.

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BYE.

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SEE YA.

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WOW, THIS IS SO WEIRD.

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I CAN'T GRAB THE SPRING.

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THIS IS JUST LIKE WHAT I SAW ON
THE FRANZ ARARI'S MAGIC SHOW.

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MAN.

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AM I SEEING THINGS?

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AND FOR MY FINAL LIGHT EXHIBIT,

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I CAN CREATE MY OWN
PICTURE BY WAVING A WAND.

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WOW, THE SUNRISE THIS MORNING WAS
EVEN REDDER THAN THE ONE YESTERDAY.

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I READ P.J.'S INVESTIGATION
LOG ONLINE, AND HIS NOTES

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ON THE BOSTON SCIENCE
MUSEUM ARE GREAT.

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HEY, GUYS.

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HI.

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YOU REALLY MISSED OUT
ON A FANTASTIC TRIP.

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LOOK WHAT I BROUGHT BACK;
IT'S CALLED A PRISM.

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OOH, LET ME SEE IT.

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I LEARNED AT THE BOSTON MUSEUM
OF SCIENCE THAT LIGHT TRAVELS

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IN WAVES, AND IT'S ALSO A RAY.

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BUT WE LEARNED IN MATH CLASS
THAT A RAY IS A STRAIGHT LINE.

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HOW CAN LIGHT TRAVEL IN
WAVES AND BE A STRAIGHT LINE?

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WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THAT THERE HAVE BEEN
BRIGHT RED SUNSETS AND SUNRISES.

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WE KNOW THAT LIGHT
TRAVELS IN A WAVE.

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WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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WE NEED TO FIND OUT
HOW LIGHT CAN TRAVEL

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IN WAVES AND A STRAIGHT LINE.

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WHERE CAN WE GO?

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NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER IS
PROBABLY THE BEST PLACE TO START.

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I KNEW YOU'D SAY THAT, BU IT'S
SO TRUE; TO DO FLIGHT RESEARCH,

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YOU HAVE TO STUDY A LOT OF
DIFFERENT THINGS IN THE SKY.

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HI, MY NAME IS CLAYTON TURNER.

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I'M A RESEARCH ENGINEER HERE
AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARC CENTER.

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HI, I'M KALI.

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I'M CATHERINE.

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NICE TO MEET YOU.

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WE'RE TRYING TO SOLVE A PROBLEM,

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AND WE NEED TO KNOW HOW
LIGHT CAN TRAVEL IN A WAVE

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AND A STRAIGHT LINE
AT THE VERY SAME TIME.

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WELL, PERHAPS I CAN HELP.

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I DO A LOT OF RESEARCH WITH
LIGHT ON THIS LABORATORY.

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THAT DOESN'T LOOK
LIKE A LABORATORY;

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THAT LOOKS LIKE A PLANE.

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WELL, THIS IS NASA LANGLEY'S
757 ARIES RESEARCH AIRCRAFT.

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COME ON BOARD.

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DO YOU FLY THIS PLANE?

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NO, I DON'T FLY THE PLANE.

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WE USE THIS PLANE
TO CONDUCT RESEARCH.

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IN PARTICULAR, WE USE LIGHT
TO STUDY THE ATMOSPHERE.

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WHAT'S THAT?

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THIS IS A SPECTROMETER;
LET'S GO IN THE BACK

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AND I'LL TELL YOU A
LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT IT.

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THIS IS A SPECTROMETER; IT COLLECTS
LIGHT AND SORTS IT BY WAVELENGTH.

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CAN YOU TELL US MORE ABOUT LIGHT
AS A WAVE AND A STRAIGHT LINE?

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YES; LIGHT CAN BE THOUGHT OF
AS PARTICLES, CALLED PHOTONS,

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THAT TRAVEL IN A WAVELIKE PATTERN.

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BUT WE ALSO LEARNED THAT
LIGHT CAN TRAVEL IN A RAY,

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WHICH IS A STRAIGHT LINE.

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YES, A SIMPLE MODEL OF LIGHT IS
CALLED A RAY OR A STRAIGHT LINE.

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THE ARROW AT THE END OF THE
LINE SHOWS THE DIRECTION

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THAT THE PHOTON IS TRAVELING AT.

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BUT WHAT ABOUT A WAVE?

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LIGHT, OR ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION,

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IS A FORM OF ENERGY
CALLED RADIANT ENERGY

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THAT HAS AN ELECTRIC FIELD
AND A MAGNETIC FIELD.

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IF YOU TAKE THE SIMPLE
MODEL SHOWN ON THE SCREEN

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AND ADD AN ELECTRIC FIELD,
IT WOULD LOOK LIKE THIS.

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THAT LOOKS FUNNY.

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LOOK AT THE ENDS OF
THE ELECTRIC FIELD.

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IT LOOKS KIND OF LIKE A WAVE.

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BUT WHY ARE THE LINES
DIFFERENT HEIGHTS?

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FIRST, LET'S LOOK AT
A MODEL OF THE WAVE.

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HE KNOWS MAGIC TOO.

[00:12:11.749]
THE TOP OF THE WAVE
IS CALLED THE CREST.

[00:12:13.879]
THE BOTTOM OF THE WAVE
IS CALLED THE TROUGH.

[00:12:16.289]
THE WAVELENGTH IS MEASURED
FROM THE TOP OF ONE CREST

[00:12:18.879]
TO THE TOP OF THE NEXT CREST.

[00:12:20.579]
DO DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS
MEAN DIFFERENT THINGS?

[00:12:22.779]
YES; COLOR IS TYPICALLY DESCRIBED
BY THE WAVELENGTH, OR FREQUENCY.

[00:12:26.569]
FOR TYPICAL LIGHT, VIOLET
HAS THE SHORTEST WAVELENGTH;

[00:12:29.539]
AND RED HAS THE LONGEST.

[00:12:31.529]
SO WHAT IS FREQUENCY?

[00:12:32.989]
FREQUENCY IS THE NUMBER
OF TIMES THE CREST

[00:12:34.979]
OF THE WAVE PASSES
A STATIONARY POINT.

[00:12:37.479]
I GET IT.

[00:12:38.109]
SO THE SHORTER THE
WAVELENGTH, THE MORE WAVES

[00:12:40.109]
THAT PASS THE STATIONARY POINT --
AND THAT WOULD BE HIGH FREQUENCY.

[00:12:43.119]
SO VIOLET IS HIGH FREQUENCY,
AND RED IS LOW FREQUENCY.

[00:12:46.999]
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE WE
SHOULD KNOW ABOUT A WAVE?

[00:12:49.199]
YES, AMPLITUDE.

[00:12:50.719]
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

[00:12:52.619]
THE AMPLITUDE IS HALF THE DISTANCE
FROM THE CREST TO THE TROUGH.

[00:12:55.349]
THE HIGHER THE AMPLITUDE AND
FREQUENCY, THE HIGHER THE ENERGY.

[00:13:00.229]
THANKS FOR LETTING
US GO ON THE 757.

[00:13:02.789]
WE LEARNED A LOT.

[00:13:03.489]
I REALLY HOPE THIS INFORMATION
HELPS YOU SOLVE YOUR PROBLEM.

[00:13:06.049]
SO WHAT'S OUR HYPOTHESIS?

[00:13:08.399]
I THINK IT SHOULD BE THAT THERE
ARE LOW-FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE SKY.

[00:13:12.769]
THAT MAKES THE SKY RED.

[00:13:13.919]
I'LL WRITE THIS HYPOTHESIS
IN OUR INVESTIGATION LOG.

[00:13:16.979]
I GUESS THAT MAKES SENSE.

[00:13:19.149]
I DON'T KNOW WHAT COULD BE CAUSING
THE LOW-FREQUENCY WAVES THOUGH.

[00:13:22.499]
WE SHOULD DO A LITTLE RESEARCH.

[00:13:23.689]
REMEMBER, IN OUR PAST CASES,

[00:13:25.039]
OUR HYPOTHESIS HASN'T
ALWAYS BEEN CORRECT.

[00:13:30.619]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:31.769]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES FIND

[00:13:33.269]
OUT WHAT'S CAUSING THE
RED SUNRISES AND SUNSETS?

[00:13:36.299]
COULD THERE BE SOMETHING CAUSING
LOW-FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE SKY?

[00:13:39.819]
STAY TUNED FOR MORE OF: THE CASE
OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT.

[00:13:43.819]
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
STILL NEED YOUR HELP.

[00:13:52.819]
[00:13:56.469]
LOOK FOR ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS TO SOLVE THE MYSTERY:

[00:14:01.599]
HOW DOES LIGHT REFRACT AND REFLECT?

[00:14:05.869]
FIND EXAMPLES OF TRANSLUCENT,
TRANSPARENT, AND OPAQUE.

[00:14:12.329]
WHY IS THE SKY BLUE?

[00:14:15.119]
WHAT'S THAT SPOT ON MY
CLOTHES; WHERE'D IT GO?

[00:14:18.789]
IT DISAPPEARED.

[00:14:20.099]
THERE IT IS, ON THE WALL.

[00:14:21.729]
HOW DID IT GET OVER THERE?

[00:14:22.719]
WITH MY MIRROR.

[00:14:23.009]
WHEN LIGHT HITS THE MIRROR,
IT BOUNCES AROUND THE ROOM.

[00:14:26.779]
LIGHT CAN BOUNCE?

[00:14:28.339]
I'M CONFUSED.

[00:14:29.309]
I THOUGHT WE LEARNED FROM MR.
TURNER THAT LIGHT TRAVELS IN A RAY.

[00:14:33.739]
THIS ISN'T DOING THAT.

[00:14:35.959]
WE NEED TO FIND OUT, BECAUSE
THERE COULD BE LOW-FREQUENCY WAVES

[00:14:38.439]
BOUNCING AROUND THE SKY.

[00:14:40.189]
WHERE SHOULD WE GO?

[00:14:40.949]
MY CLASS WENT ON A FIELD
TRIP TO THE JEFFERSON LAB

[00:14:43.579]
IN NEWPORT NEWS, VIRGINIA.

[00:14:44.959]
THEY DO A LOT OF RESEARCH THERE.

[00:14:46.259]
LET'S GET UP AND GO.

[00:14:47.509]
HI.

[00:14:50.179]
[00:14:53.539]
I'M MICHELLE CHIEN.

[00:14:55.889]
WELCOME TO THE DEPARTMENT
OF ENERGY'S JEFFERSON LAB.

[00:14:58.479]
HI, DR. CHIEN.

[00:15:00.019]
THIS IS A NEAT LOOKING
PLACE; WHAT DO YOU DO HERE?

[00:15:02.119]
WELL, I'M A LASER PHYSICIST;
THAT'S A SCIENTIST WHO STUDIES

[00:15:06.339]
AND MAKES DIFFERENT KINDS
OF LASERS AND USES THEM

[00:15:08.509]
TO HIT DIFFERENT OBJECTS.

[00:15:10.129]
LASERS?

[00:15:10.929]
LIKE IN STAR WARS?

[00:15:12.089]
WELL, SORT OF LIKE THAT.

[00:15:14.169]
SO, ANYWAY, WHAT CAN
I HELP YOU WITH TODAY?

[00:15:21.319]
WE WERE USING MIRRORS
THIS MORNING AND NOTICED

[00:15:22.919]
THAT LIGHT BOUNCED AROUND THE ROOM.

[00:15:23.669]
WE WANT TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT HOW LIGHT BOUNCES.

[00:15:24.779]
WELL, I'D BE HAPPY TO
ANSWER THAT FOR YOU, BIANCA.

[00:15:26.839]
LIGHT THAT BOUNCES OFF A SURFACE
IS CALLED REFLECTIVE LIGHT.

[00:15:30.109]
THE TYPE OF SURFACE DETERMINES
THE KIND OF REFLECTION YOU GET.

[00:15:34.009]
A MIRROR IS REALLY SHINY.

[00:15:34.929]
DOES THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

[00:15:36.259]
IT MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE;
IF A SURFACE IS SHINY,

[00:15:39.489]
THEN THE IMAGE YOU SEE
LOOKS JUST LIKE THE OBJECT.

[00:15:42.849]
SO A SURFACE THAT IS NOT SHINY
AND SMOOTH WILL SCATTER LIGHT?

[00:15:46.259]
THAT'S RIGHT; YOU
CATCH ON REALLY FAST.

[00:15:48.539]
DOES LIGHT ONLY REFLECT?

[00:15:50.229]
NO, LIGHT ALSO REFRACTS.

[00:15:52.399]
WHAT DOES REFRACTED MEAN?

[00:15:54.169]
WELL, BIANCA, I THINK
IT'S EASIEST TO SHOW YOU.

[00:15:56.429]
OKAY BIANCA, WE NEED TO PUT
ON SOME GLOVES AND GOGGLES,

[00:15:59.819]
BECAUSE YOU'RE GOING TO WORK
WITH SOME LIQUID NITROGEN.

[00:16:02.249]
WE USE THESE IN SCIENCE.

[00:16:03.679]
GOOD, IT HELPS TO BE SAFE
WHEN YOU'RE DOING EXPERIMENTS.

[00:16:06.829]
WHAT'S THAT STUFF BUBBLING?

[00:16:08.319]
IT'S LIQUID NITROGEN.

[00:16:09.449]
WE'RE GOING TO USE THE VAPOR TO
EXPLORE REFLECTION AND REFRACTION.

[00:16:13.519]
SO, BIANCA, THIS IS A
LASER, AND I'M GOING

[00:16:15.229]
TO SHINE IT ON THE GELATIN.

[00:16:16.809]
BUT FIRST, I'M GOING TO
HAVE YOU DIM THE LIGHTS.

[00:16:21.219]
WHAT I'M GOING TO DO NOW
IS SHINE IT ON THE GELATIN.

[00:16:23.639]
LOOK CLOSELY AND TELL
ME WHAT YOU SEE.

[00:16:25.709]
I SEE THE LIGHT COMING
OFF INTO THE GELATIN.

[00:16:28.289]
THAT MUST BE THE REFLECTION.

[00:16:31.089]
BUT THE LIGHT IS ALSO BEING BENT.

[00:16:32.619]
WHY IS THAT?

[00:16:33.049]
WELL, WHEN LIGHT TRAVELS
FROM ONE MEDIUM, SUCH AS AIR,

[00:16:37.499]
TO ANOTHER MEDIUM, SUCH AS
GELATIN, ITS SPEED CHANGES,

[00:16:41.229]
AND WHEN THE SPEED
CHANGES, THE LIGHT BENDS,

[00:16:43.539]
AND WE CALL THAT LIGHT REFRACTION.

[00:16:46.509]
DOES THE SPEED OF
LIGHT SPEED UP OR SLOW

[00:16:48.219]
DOWN WHEN IT'S GOING
THROUGH THE GELATIN?

[00:16:50.109]
WELL, BECAUSE THE GELATIN IS
THICKER THAN AIR, IT SLOWS DOWN.

[00:16:53.329]
I WONDER IF MAGICIANS CREATE
SOME OF THEIR MAGIC WITH MIRRORS.

[00:16:56.989]
THIS IS A CONCAVE MIRROR; IT
CURVES INWARDS, AND YOU CAN SEE

[00:17:00.879]
THAT YOUR IMAGE, IF I HOLD
IT IN ONE WAY, IS UPRIGHT,

[00:17:03.899]
AND AS I GET CLOSER,
IT GETS INVERTED.

[00:17:06.079]
IT TURNS UPSIDE DOWN.

[00:17:07.289]
THAT WOULD BE AN EASY WAY
TO STAND ON YOUR HEAD.

[00:17:10.329]
IT REALLY WOULD.

[00:17:11.689]
THIS IS A CONVEX LENS.

[00:17:13.759]
YOU CAN SEE THAT THE SURFACE CURVES
OUTWARDS, AND AS YOU LOOK AT IT,

[00:17:17.899]
YOU LOOK MUCH SMALLER.

[00:17:19.639]
AND ANOTHER PLACE THAT USES
LENSES AND MIRRORS IS NASA.

[00:17:23.039]
WELL, NASA NEEDS MIRRORS AND
LENSES FOR THEIR BIG TELESCOPES,

[00:17:26.689]
SPACE TELESCOPES LIKE
THE HUBBLE TELESCOPE

[00:17:30.169]
OR THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR OR
THE GOSE WEATHER SATELLITES.

[00:17:36.019]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:17:37.139]
THANKS, DR. CHIEN.

[00:17:41.689]
BYE.

[00:17:42.069]
I WONDER IF THE ILLUSIONIST
FRANZ ARARI USES MIRRORS

[00:17:44.699]
TO MAKE THINGS DISAPPEAR.

[00:17:46.179]
MAYBE HE USES LIGHT MIRRORS.

[00:17:48.149]
LIKE HE'D EVER TELL US HIS SECRETS.

[00:17:50.479]
I'M NEVER TELLING YOU MINE.

[00:17:52.299]
MAYBE WE SHOULD GO
TO FRANZ'S WEBSITE

[00:17:53.729]
TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT HIIM.

[00:17:55.369]
OH LOOK, HE'S DOING A LIVE CHAT.

[00:17:57.259]
JUST CLICK HERE AND
WE CAN TALK TO HIM.

[00:17:59.609]
HI, FRANZ.

[00:18:00.859]
OH, HEY, THERE.

[00:18:01.559]
WHO ARE YOU?

[00:18:02.139]
WE'RE THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES, AND WE WANTED

[00:18:05.409]
TO KNOW HOW YOU MAKE
THINGS DISAPPEAR?

[00:18:07.469]
DETECTIVES?

[00:18:08.859]
YOU'RE GOING TO LOVE THIS.

[00:18:10.129]
I'M SITTING IN THE
COCKPIT OF NASA 747.

[00:18:13.459]
NOW, CHECK THIS OUT.

[00:18:14.389]
THIS IS ACTUALLY THE OFFICIAL
SHUTTLE CARRIER AIRCRAFT.

[00:18:18.139]
IT'S WHAT NASA USES TO MOVE
THE SPACE SHUTTLE FROM ONE CITY

[00:18:21.119]
TO THE OTHER WHEN
IT'S NOT IN SPACE.

[00:18:24.239]
RIGHT NOW, WE'RE PARKED AT NASA
DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER.

[00:18:27.689]
NOW I WAS HERE BECAUSE
I WAS CHECKING

[00:18:28.919]
OUT THIS AIRPLANE THEY HAVE.

[00:18:30.489]
THIS IS THE COOLEST
JET AIRCRAFT EVER,

[00:18:33.009]
AND I'M THINKING I'D LIKE
TO MAKE IT DISAPPEAR.

[00:18:35.469]
YOU CAN DO THAT?

[00:18:36.539]
WELL, I'M NOT GOING TO
GIVE YOU ALL MY SECRETS,

[00:18:39.779]
BUT IF YOU WANT, COME ON OUT.

[00:18:41.699]
CHECK IT OUT.

[00:18:43.139]
YEAH, RIGHT.

[00:18:43.579]
HOW ARE WE GOING TO
GET TO NASA DRYDEN?

[00:18:46.329]
IT'S EASIER THAN YOU THINK.

[00:18:47.779]
CHECK OUT YOUR KEYBOARD;
THERE, YOU SEE THAT.

[00:18:49.669]
THERE'S ONE BUTTON
YOU HAVEN'T USED YET.

[00:18:51.779]
RIGHT OVER THERE, TO THE
-- THIS ONE RIGHT HERE.

[00:18:55.299]
WOW, WE REALLY MADE IT.

[00:19:03.259]
I CAN'T BELIEVE HE REALLY
GOT US TO CALIFORNIA.

[00:19:07.209]
WHERE'S FRANZ?

[00:19:08.839]
HEY, KIDS.

[00:19:09.489]
WELCOME TO NASA.

[00:19:10.299]
HOW WAS YOUR TRIP?

[00:19:12.209]
WHERE IS HE?

[00:19:13.809]
LOOK, HE'S UP THERE.

[00:19:16.869]
OUR TRIP WAS PRETTY WILD,
BUT I LIKE THAT -- WHOA, I --

[00:19:24.349]
I REALLY LIKE THAT MAGIC STUFF.

[00:19:27.579]
HOW DID YOU GET DOWN HERE?

[00:19:28.719]
WELL, YOU KNOW, AT NASA,
ANYTHING'S POSSIBLE.

[00:19:31.999]
NOW, HOW CAN I HELP YOU GUYS?

[00:19:35.629]
WE'RE -- WE'RE INVESTIGATING
A PROBLEM THAT DEALS

[00:19:38.799]
WITH THE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT.

[00:19:39.789]
I'M A BIG FAN OF YOURS,
AND I THINK YOU USE LIGHT

[00:19:43.259]
TO HELP THINGS DISAPPEAR.

[00:19:45.439]
WELL, TO BE HONEST, IN MY
BUSINESS, LIGHT IS EVERYTHING.

[00:19:49.449]
NOW, I'M NOT GOING TO GIVE YOU
ALL MY SECRETS, BUT COME ON.

[00:19:52.459]
I'LL SHOW YOU SOMETHING COOL.

[00:19:53.529]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:19:54.809]
I'M SORT OF ALL SET UP TO DO A
LITTLE DEMONSTRATION HERE FOR YOU.

[00:20:00.969]
NOW, HERE'S A MODEL
OF AN SR-71 BLACKBIRD.

[00:20:03.799]
THIS IS MY FAVORITE PLANE.

[00:20:05.549]
IT'S SO COOL.

[00:20:06.179]
THIS PLANE, THE REAL PLANE,
CAN ACTUALLY GO FROM NEW YORK

[00:20:09.559]
TO LOS ANGELES IN AN HOUR.

[00:20:10.889]
IT'S AMAZING.

[00:20:11.359]
NOW, YOU SEE THIS MODEL, AND THE
REASON THAT YOU SEE THIS MODEL IS

[00:20:15.299]
BECAUSE LIGHT IS HITTING THE
MODEL AND THEN BOUNCING BACK

[00:20:18.859]
AND HITTING YOUR EYES.

[00:20:20.199]
AND YOUR EYES ARE
TELLING YOUR BRAIN

[00:20:22.019]
THAT THIS AIRPLANE
IS ACTUALLY THERE.

[00:20:24.699]
IMAGINE THIS.

[00:20:26.109]
IMAGINE THAT WE PUT JUST A
REFLECTION OF MY HAND IN THERE.

[00:20:28.969]
WELL, WE'VE SEEN THAT
A BUNCH OF TIMES.

[00:20:30.719]
BUT NOW, YOU ADD ANOTHER HAND,
AND NOW YOU GO INTO A KIND

[00:20:35.039]
OF A SYMETRICAL WORLD.

[00:20:36.079]
AND WATCH THIS.

[00:20:38.569]
YOUR BRAIN ALMOST TELLS
YOU THE REFLECTION

[00:20:41.479]
OF THE HAND IS THE REAL HAND.

[00:20:43.759]
SEE THAT?

[00:20:44.549]
PRETTY COOL, HUH?

[00:20:45.489]
THAT'S WHERE IT GETS
REALLY MAGICAL.

[00:20:47.719]
NOW, I WAS TELLING
YOU ABOUT MY LITTLE --

[00:20:49.699]
MY LITTLE MODEL HERE, THE SR-71?

[00:20:52.739]
LET'S SEE IF WE CAN'T DO
SOME REAL MAGIC WITH IT.

[00:20:56.249]
I NEED SOME MAGIC WORDS.

[00:20:57.149]
YOU GOT ANY MAGIC WORDS?

[00:20:58.029]
ABRACADABRA.

[00:20:59.549]
"ABRACADABRA"?

[00:21:00.309]
THAT'LL WORK PERFECT.

[00:21:01.559]
WATCH.

[00:21:03.609]
THE REFLECTION BECOMES REALITY.

[00:21:05.939]
WOW.

[00:21:06.149]
AND THERE'S ONE FOR
YOU, AND ONE FOR YOU.

[00:21:11.899]
LET'S TRY THIS TRICK ONE MORE TIME.

[00:21:13.699]
AND THIS TIME, YOU FIGURE

[00:21:14.889]
OUT IF YOU CAN SEE HOW
LIGHT MADE IT ALL WORK.

[00:21:17.739]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:21:18.259]
COME WITH ME.

[00:21:18.749]
I COULDN'T HELP BUT NOTICE:

[00:21:21.429]
YOU GUYS BOTH HAVE PLANES,
BUT I DON'T HAVE ONE.

[00:21:24.499]
BUT I HAVE AN IDEA;
HOW WOULD YOU FEEL

[00:21:26.359]
IF I BORROWED YOUR LITTLE
MODEL FOR JUST A MOMENT?

[00:21:29.439]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:21:29.879]
COOL WITH THAT?

[00:21:30.209]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:21:30.689]
TELL YOU WHAT; YOU
GUYS STAND OVER THERE,

[00:21:32.749]
DON'T TAKE YOUR EYES OFF WHAT'S
ABOUT TO HAPPEN OVER HERE,

[00:21:35.419]
BECAUSE THAT'S WHERE THE
REAL MAGIC'S ABOUT TO BEGIN.

[00:21:37.249]
ALL RIGHT?

[00:21:38.559]
[00:21:39.899]
WE WILL HOLD ONTO THIS SHOT UNTIL
AFTER THAT SR-71 HAS DISAPPEARED.

[00:21:46.509]
GENTLEMEN, RAISE THE TARP.

[00:21:50.529]
ALL RIGHT, CHECK IT OUT.

[00:21:51.409]
NOW!

[00:21:51.469]
[CHEERING.]

[00:21:52.409]
THAT'S IT!

[00:21:54.509]
[00:21:56.789]
HOW'D HE DO THAT?

[00:22:03.809]
THAT WAS AMAZING.

[00:22:05.299]
HOW DID YOU DO IT?

[00:22:05.839]
HOW DID I DO IT?

[00:22:07.889]
IT'S ALL ABOUT LIGHT.

[00:22:09.189]
I NEED TO MAKE A PHONE CALL.

[00:22:10.849]
OH, SURE, GO FOR IT.

[00:22:11.999]
HI, DR. D. HI, GUYS.

[00:22:15.869]
WHAT'S ALL THAT?

[00:22:16.649]
I THOUGHT I MIGHT BE ABLE TO HELP
YOU WITH YOUR LIGHT EXPERIMENT.

[00:22:19.149]
WHERE ARE JACOB AND BIANCA?

[00:22:20.169]
I DON'T KNOW.

[00:22:21.069]
THEY WERE SUPPOSED TO MEET US HERE.

[00:22:24.969]
HELLO?

[00:22:25.459]
HI, DR. D., IT'S BIANCA.

[00:22:28.009]
WE'RE OVER AT NASA DRYDEN.

[00:22:29.599]
WE'RE RUNNING A LITTLE
LATE; WE'LL BE THERE SOON.

[00:22:32.369]
WHERE ARE YOU?

[00:22:33.959]
I'LL BE RIGHT THERE.

[00:22:36.159]
WELL, YOU'RE DEFINITELY
GREAT AT WHAT YOU DO,

[00:22:38.199]
BUT WE GOT TO GET BACK HOME.

[00:22:40.619]
OH, UM, WELL, I HAVE AN IDEA.

[00:22:43.269]
GO AHEAD AND ASSUME THE POSITION.

[00:22:44.869]
WHAT?

[00:22:45.559]
ASSUME THE POSITION.

[00:22:46.609]
YEAH, THERE YOU GO.

[00:22:47.699]
READY?

[00:22:48.609]
WE'RE SENDING YOU HOME,
AND WHEN I SAY "GO," BLINK.

[00:22:52.289]
YOU READY?

[00:22:52.469]
GO.

[00:22:52.639]
WE MADE IT.

[00:22:53.079]
WHERE'S JACOB?

[00:22:53.359]
I DON'T KNOW, FRANZ MUST HAVE
SENT HIM BACK TO HIS HOUSE.

[00:23:02.359]
[00:23:05.459]
HOW DID YOU GET HERE SO FAST?

[00:23:07.319]
JUST MAGIC, OR IS THIS AN ILLUSION?

[00:23:09.349]
THAT WAS QUITE A TRICK.

[00:23:10.799]
WE'RE LEARNING ALL
ABOUT LIGHT TO TRY

[00:23:12.789]
TO SOLVE THIS RED SUNSET PROBLEM.

[00:23:14.929]
YEAH, I WENT TO THE BOSTON SCIENCE
MUSEUM; I LEARNED HOW LIGHT TRAVELS

[00:23:18.149]
IN WAVES AND IN A STRAIGHT LINE.

[00:23:20.609]
AND WE ALSO LEARNED
ABOUT MIRRORS AND LENSES,

[00:23:22.589]
AND ABOUT REFLECTION
AND REFRACTION.

[00:23:24.639]
AND A LITTLE BIT OF MAGIC TOO.

[00:23:26.639]
HAVE YOU LEARNED THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSPARENT,

[00:23:28.939]
OPAQUE, AND TRANSLUCENT YET?

[00:23:30.989]
TRANS -- WHAT?

[00:23:32.369]
LET ME EXPLAIN.

[00:23:33.339]
LIGHT CAN PASS THROUGH
A TRANSPARENT OBJECT

[00:23:35.759]
AND MAKE AN OBJECT ON THE
OTHER SIDE CLEARLY VISIBLE.

[00:23:37.929]
YOU MEAN, LIKE A WINDOW?

[00:23:39.659]
YUP; TAKE A LOOK AT THIS LIGHTBULB.

[00:23:41.889]
IF I TURN THE CRANK, CAN YOU
SEE THE FILAMENT CLEARLY?

[00:23:45.549]
YES, LOOK AT THAT.

[00:23:46.219]
WHAT ELSE IS TRANSPARENT?

[00:23:48.699]
A CAR'S WINDSHIELD?

[00:23:50.059]
EXACTLY; UNTIL IT
GETS ALL FOGGED UP,

[00:23:52.019]
AND THEN IT'S CALLED TRANSLUCENT.

[00:23:53.349]
OH, SO TRANSLUCENT MEANS THE LIGHT
CAN GET THROUGH, BUT NOT VERY MUCH.

[00:23:57.529]
YOU'RE GETTING GOOD AT THIS.

[00:23:58.799]
WHEN AN OBJECT IS
TRANSLUCENT, LIGHT IS DIFFUSED;

[00:24:01.149]
YOU CAN'T SEE THE
OBJECT VERY CLEARLY.

[00:24:02.649]
AND THAT WOULD MAKE
IT HARD TO DRIVE.

[00:24:05.209]
AND WHAT DOES OPAQUE MEAN?

[00:24:06.109]
DO YOU KNOW WHAT THAT IS?

[00:24:07.169]
I THINK IT MEANS THAT NO
LIGHT CAN GET THROUGH.

[00:24:09.439]
WHEN THERE ARE SOLID OBJECTS LIKE
ROCK OR CONCRETE, THAT'S OPAQUE.

[00:24:14.439]
THAT'S CORRECT, BUT IT'S MUCH
MORE INTERESTING THAN THAT.

[00:24:16.879]
LOOK OVER THERE, PLEASE.

[00:24:18.119]
LOOK AT THIS EXAMPLE.

[00:24:21.019]
HERE I HAVE TWO SHEETS OF
LIGHT-POLARIZING MATERIAL.

[00:24:23.639]
CAN YOU SEE ME CLEARLY?

[00:24:24.449]
YES, IT IS A LITTLE
DARK, BUT IT'S CLEAR.

[00:24:27.029]
SO IT'S TRANSPARENT.

[00:24:27.859]
WATCH WHAT HAPPENS WHEN I
ROTATE ONE OF THE TWO SHEETS.

[00:24:31.659]
WOW, YOU DISAPPEARED,
JUST LIKE MAGIC.

[00:24:34.249]
IT BECAME OPAQUE AND WENT BLACK.

[00:24:36.499]
I THINK I UNDERSTAND TRANSLUCENT,
TRANSPARENT, AND OPAQUE NOW.

[00:24:40.879]
THE SKY IS TRANSPARENT
MOST OF THE TIME.

[00:24:43.419]
CLOUDS CAN MAKE THE SKY OPAQUE.

[00:24:44.889]
I WONDER IF CLOUDS ARE
CAUSING THE PROBLEM.

[00:24:47.429]
I DON'T THINK IT'S CLOUDS.

[00:24:49.349]
LET'S GO BACK TO THE TREE HOUSE
AND ORGANIZE ALL THIS INFORMATION.

[00:24:51.959]
BYE, DR. D. BYE, DR. D. SEE YOU.

[00:24:53.579]
BYE.

[00:24:54.019]
THIS ONE IS DEFINITELY TRANSPARENT.

[00:25:00.179]
THAT ONE'S TRANSLUCENT; ONLY A
LITTLE LIGHT CAN SHINE THROUGH.

[00:25:02.699]
AND THAT ONE HAS TO BE OPAQUE.

[00:25:05.499]
THERE ISN'T ANY LIGHT
GETTING THROUGH.

[00:25:07.699]
DR. D. WOULD GIVE US AN "A."

[00:25:09.229]
ON A CLEAR NIGHT, THE
SKY LOOKS TRANSPARENT.

[00:25:12.349]
BUT WHY DOES IT LOOK
TRANSLUCENT DURING THE DAY?

[00:25:14.609]
YES, I WONDER WHY THE SKY
IS BLUE DURING THE DAY,

[00:25:17.189]
BUT RED AT SUNRISES AND SUNSETS?

[00:25:19.799]
THIS IS ALL SO CONFUSING; LET'S
GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD AND TRY

[00:25:22.749]
TO FIGURE OUT WHAT WE
NEED TO LEARN NEXT.

[00:25:25.009]
WE KNOW THE SKY IS
STILL A BRIGHT RED.

[00:25:27.129]
AND WE KNOW THAT LIGHT
TRAVELS IN WAVES AND IS A RAY.

[00:25:29.439]
AND NOW WE KNOW THAT LIGHT CAN
BE REFRACTED AND REFLECTED.

[00:25:33.319]
MAYBE IF WE KNEW WHAT
CAUSES THE COLOR OF THE SKY

[00:25:35.369]
TO BE BLUE DURING THE DAY,
IT WOULD HELP US TO FIND

[00:25:37.689]
OUT WHY THE SKY IS RED
AT SUNRISE AND SUNSET.

[00:25:40.239]
I THINK THE NIGHT
SKY IS TRANSPARENT,

[00:25:42.959]
AND THE DAY SKY IS TRANSLUCENT.

[00:25:44.689]
THAT'S TRUE; WHAT MAKES
THE SKY DIFFERENT?

[00:25:47.369]
ONE VARIABLE BETWEEN THE NIGHT SKY

[00:25:49.059]
AND THE SKY DURING
THE DAY IS THE SUN.

[00:25:50.959]
I THINK WE NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT THE SUN.

[00:25:52.409]
I JUST DID AN INTERNET SEARCH
AND FOUND OUR NEXT EXPERT.

[00:25:55.909]
BUT IT TOOK ME AWHILE.

[00:25:57.489]
LET'S CALL NASA AMES, IN
MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIFORNIA.

[00:25:59.719]
THEY HAVE AN EXPERT ON THE SUN.

[00:26:03.079]
HI KIDS, I'M PETER PALUSKI
AT NASA AMES RESEARCH CENTER.

[00:26:07.049]
I STUDY LIGHT IN THE
EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.

[00:26:09.019]
WHAT CAN I DO FOR YOU TODAY?

[00:26:09.829]
WE'RE TRYING TO FIGURE
OUT A PROBLEM.

[00:26:11.819]
WE NEED TO KNOW WHY THE SKIES
ARE BLUE DURING THE DAY.

[00:26:14.869]
GOOD QUESTION; LET ME FIRST
TALK TO YOU ABOUT THE SUN.

[00:26:19.359]
IT'S A WHITE LIGHT, WHICH MEANS
IT'S REALLY A MIXTURE OF ALL COLORS

[00:26:22.769]
OF THE SPECTRUM, FROM BLUE TO RED.

[00:26:24.879]
IF THE SUNLIGHT IS WHITE,
THEN WHY IS THE SKY BLUE?

[00:26:27.039]
WE LEARNED ABOUT REFLECTION
AT THE JEFFERSON LAB.

[00:26:30.369]
COULD THE SKY BE BLUE BECAUSE IT'S
REFLECTING BLUE OFF THE OCEAN?

[00:26:33.909]
NO, THAT'S A COMMON MISCONCEPTION.

[00:26:36.099]
THE EARTH HAS AN ATMOSPHERE,
WHICH IS MADE UP OF MOLECULES

[00:26:39.409]
SUCH AS OXYGEN AND NITROGEN.

[00:26:41.429]
IT'S ALSO MADE UP OF TINY
LITTLE MICROSCOPIC PARTICLES.

[00:26:44.519]
AND THESE TINY LITTLE
MICROSCOPIC PARTICLES

[00:26:46.419]
IN THE ATMOSPHERE
ARE CALLED AEROSOLS.

[00:26:48.169]
I DON'T SEE ANYTHING IN THE AIR.

[00:26:50.599]
WELL, LET ME ASK YOU FIRST;
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT LIGHT?

[00:26:52.899]
WE LEARNED AT THE BOSTON MUSEUM
OF SCIENCE THAT LIGHT IS A WAVE

[00:26:56.259]
AND THAT IT IS MADE UP OF PHOTONS.

[00:26:58.499]
OCCASIONALLY, THE PHOTONS WILL
ACTUALY BOUNCE OFF MOLECULES

[00:27:01.179]
AND PARTICLES AND GO OFF
INTO DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS.

[00:27:03.439]
THAT'S SOMETHING THAT
WE CALL SCATTERING.

[00:27:05.699]
LET ME SHOW YOU AN
EXPERIMENT I HAVE SET UP HERE.

[00:27:08.069]
THIS FANCY INSTRUMENT IS
SOMETHING WE CALL A SUN SIMULATOR;

[00:27:12.939]
BUT REALLY, IT'S JUST
A LAMP WHICH SORT

[00:27:14.589]
OF MIMICS THE OUTPUT OF THE SUN.

[00:27:18.379]
FIRST OF ALL, YOU CAN SEE THE
BEAKER HERE HAS VERY LITTLE LIGHT

[00:27:21.769]
SCATTERING OUT OF THE SIDES OF IT.

[00:27:24.519]
WATCH WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
I ADD MILK TO THE BEAKER.

[00:27:27.509]
WHAT DOES THE MILK REPRESENT?

[00:27:28.949]
THE MOLECULES AND
PARTICLES IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:27:31.949]
NOW WE'VE GOT PLENTY OF LIGHT
SCATTERED OUT THE SIDES.

[00:27:34.019]
AND NOTICE, IT'S VERY BLUISH.

[00:27:36.059]
WHEN WE LOOK AT THE SUNBEAM
THAT'S BEEN TRANSMITTED

[00:27:38.579]
THROUGH THE BEAKER, HOWEVER,
THAT'S BECOME REDDENED.

[00:27:40.999]
THAT'S BECAUSE THE BLUE LIGHT'S
BEEN REMOVED FROM THE BEAM

[00:27:43.019]
AND SCATTERED OUT THE SIDES.

[00:27:44.699]
JUST LIKE THE SKY LOOKS BLUE
-- BUT I DON'T UNDERSTAND.

[00:27:47.909]
REMEMBER WHEN WE SAID THAT SUNLIGHT
IS A MIXTURE OF ALL COLORS.

[00:27:50.749]
NOW, THE BLUE PHOTONS
WILL ACTUALLY SCATTER OFF

[00:27:53.109]
OF THE PARTICLES MUCH MORE
FREQUENTLY THAN THE RED ONES.

[00:27:56.659]
THAT MEANS WE GET BLUE
LIGHT SCATTERED OUT,

[00:27:58.919]
AND THE RED LIGHT GETS
TRANSMITTED THROUGH.

[00:28:01.509]
SO WHY DO WE SEE RED SKIES
AT NIGHT AND IN THE MORNING?

[00:28:05.039]
WELL, WHEN THE SUN'S NEAR THE
HORIZON, THE SUN BEAM IS TRAVELING

[00:28:08.039]
THROUGH A VERY THICK
PORTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:28:10.229]
THAT'S ALSO WHERE THE
PARTICLES ARE CONCENTRATED,

[00:28:12.729]
BECAUSE GRAVITY KEEPS THE
PARTICLES NEAR THE GROUND.

[00:28:16.029]
THAT MAKES SENSE.

[00:28:17.309]
ANY EVENT THAT PUTS MORE PARTICLES
NEAR THE HORIZON CAN MAKE THE

[00:28:20.209]
SUNSET AND SUNRISE EVEN
MORE RED THAN IT IS USUALLY.

[00:28:23.529]
NOW, ONE OF THOSE EVENTS
IS A POLLUTION EVENT.

[00:28:26.099]
I'M NOT AN EXPERT IN POLLUTION, BUT
I KNOW ONE, AND HIS NAME IS MARK,

[00:28:29.749]
AND HE WORKS AT THE
LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER.

[00:28:32.189]
SO WHY DON'T WE GIVE HIM A CALL?

[00:28:34.619]
THIS IS SO COOL.

[00:28:37.069]
WOW, IT LOOKS LIKE WE
FOUND THE RIGHT PLACE.

[00:28:38.909]
HELLO, MR. VAGHN.

[00:28:39.899]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:28:41.429]
WELL, WE NEED TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT WHAT CAUSES AIR POLLUTION.

[00:28:44.269]
MOSTLY WHEN WE THINK
ABOUT AIR POLLUTION,

[00:28:46.169]
WE THINK ABOUT THE THINGS THAT
HUMAN BEINGS PUT IN THE AIR.

[00:28:49.279]
WE THINK ABOUT THE EMISSIONS
FROM FACTORY SMOKESTACKS.

[00:28:52.389]
THEY'RE THINKING ABOUT THE
EXHAUST FROM AUTOMOBILES.

[00:28:54.969]
BUT WHEN WE ACTUALLY GET DOWN
TO MEASURING THE AEROSOL CONTENT

[00:28:58.739]
OF THE AIR, WE FIND OUT THAT HUMAN
BEINGS ACCOUNT FOR ONLY 10% OF IT.

[00:29:03.229]
THE OTHER 90% COMES FROM
MOTHER NATURE HERSELF.

[00:29:06.419]
MOTHER NATURE?

[00:29:07.739]
BUT I ALWAYS THOUGHT THAT
NATURE WAS CLEAN AND NATURAL.

[00:29:10.119]
THINK ABOUT A VOLCANO GOING OFF --

[00:29:11.399]
IT'S NOT JUST LAVA THAT
COMES OUT OF THAT THING.

[00:29:13.899]
IT ALSO SPITS BLISTERING
HOT GASES WAY, WAY, WAY UP,

[00:29:17.359]
AND THOSE GASES REACT
WITH WATER VAPOR

[00:29:20.019]
TO FORM LITTLE TINY SULPHURIC
ACID DROPLETS THAT CAN HANG

[00:29:23.529]
AROUND IN THE STRATOSPHERE
FOR YEARS.

[00:29:25.909]
OR THINK ABOUT BIG DUST STORMS
COMING ACROSS THE DESERT.

[00:29:28.549]
HOW DO YOU KNOW HOW
MUCH DIRT IS IN THE AIR?

[00:29:31.959]
MATTHEW, YOU BE A CLOUD WITH THIS
SQUIRT BOTTLE; P.J., YOU ARE GOING

[00:29:37.499]
TO BE A LIDAR WITH THE LASER;
AND I'M GOING TO STAND HERE

[00:29:40.199]
WITH MY FLOUR AND BE A DUST STORM.

[00:29:45.099]
WOW, THEY LOOK LIKE SPARKLES.

[00:29:46.459]
YOU BET THEY DO.

[00:29:47.869]
WE USE A VERY SIMILAR TECHNIQUE

[00:29:49.899]
WHEN WE MEASURE REAL
AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:29:51.919]
ONLY THERE, WE USE A
MACHINE CALLED A LIDAR.

[00:29:54.829]
COME ON, I'VE GOT ONE RIGHT
OVER HERE I CAN SHOW YOU.

[00:30:02.389]
WOW, THIS IS A BIG MACHINE.

[00:30:03.969]
WHAT DOES IT DO?

[00:30:04.529]
WHAT WE DO IS FIRE PULSES OF
LASER LIGHT OUT OF THE LASER,

[00:30:08.239]
RIGHT INTO THIS TURNING MIRROR.

[00:30:09.819]
FROM THERE, IT SHOOTS STRAIGHT
UP INTO THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:30:13.019]
SHOOT THAT BEAM OUT, AND JUST LIKE
WE SAW THE SPARKLES OFF OF AEROSOLS

[00:30:17.019]
IN OUR EXPERIMENT, WE
USE OUR TELESCOPE TO LOOK

[00:30:20.599]
AT THE SPARKLES OFF OF REAL
AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:30:23.709]
COULD THE AEROSOLS FROM
POLLUTION CAUSE THE SKY

[00:30:26.819]
TO TURN RED DURING
SUNRISES AND SUNSETS?

[00:30:29.619]
SURE, SURE THEY CAN, IF
CIRCUMSTANCES ARE RIGHT.

[00:30:33.679]
WE LEARNED THAT AEROSOLS
SCATTER MORE BLUE PHOTONS

[00:30:36.229]
AND LEAVE THE RED
ONES FOR US TO SEE.

[00:30:38.529]
ABSOLUTELY; IF YOU INCREASE THE
NUMBER OF SMALL PARTICLES UP THERE,

[00:30:41.889]
THEY WILL SCATTER AWAY MORE BLUE
LIGHT, AND YOU WILL SEE MORE RED.

[00:30:46.059]
THANK YOU; WE'VE LEARNED A LOT.

[00:30:48.239]
GOOD.

[00:30:48.599]
THANKS.

[00:30:48.979]
GOOD LUCK ON YOUR PROJECT.

[00:30:49.959]
BYE.

[00:30:50.309]
BYE.

[00:30:52.459]
WELL, I THINK WE NEED
NEED A NEW HYPOTHESIS.

[00:30:54.849]
ESPECIALLY SINCE WE JUST LEARNED
HOW POLLUTION CAN TURN THE SKY RED.

[00:30:57.929]
I MEAN, OUR HYPOTHESIS WASN'T
WRONG, BUT IT DIDN'T EXPLAIN

[00:31:00.699]
WHERE THE LOW-FREQUENCY
WAVES CAME FROM.

[00:31:02.549]
A STRONGER HYPOTHESIS WOULD BE, "IF
THE SKY IS RED, THEN THERE'S GOT

[00:31:05.319]
TO BE POLLUTION IN IT."

[00:31:06.709]
YES, BUT THE HARD PART
IS GOING TO BE TO FIGURE

[00:31:08.479]
OUT WHERE THE POLLUTION
IS COMING FROM.

[00:31:10.949]
I KNOW WE'LL FIGURE IT OUT.

[00:31:13.149]
WHAT'S UP?

[00:31:14.129]
IS LIGHT BEING REFLECTED
OR REFRACTED?

[00:31:16.939]
CAN AIR POLLUTION BE
CAUSING THE PROBLEM?

[00:31:18.539]
ARE THERE ANY OTHER
VARIABLES THAT HAVE CHANGED

[00:31:21.209]
TO MAKE THE SUNSETS
AND SUNRISES SO RED?

[00:31:24.339]
IF SO, WHAT COULD THEY BE?

[00:31:25.989]
STAY WITH US NEXT TIME FOR
THE NEXT CHAPTER OF THE CASE

[00:31:28.899]
OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT.

[00:31:36.789]
YOU'RE GETTING VERY CLOSE
TO SOLVING THE MYSTERY.

[00:31:41.049]
STAY SHARP, AND LOOK FOR
ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS:

[00:31:45.629]
WHAT DOES THE ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM CONTAIN?

[00:31:49.949]
HOW ARE VOLCANOES
DIFFERENT FROM ONE ANOTHER?

[00:31:53.999]
WHAT IS THE RING OF FIRE?

[00:31:57.159]
[00:31:59.899]
THAT WAS SO NEAT.

[00:32:00.899]
I LOVE ALL THE COLORS
IN THE RAINBOW.

[00:32:02.149]
HOW MANY COLORS ARE
THERE IN A RAINBOW?

[00:32:04.789]
I DON'T KNOW, LET'S ASK DR. D.
HOW MANY COLORS DO YOU THINK ARE

[00:32:07.749]
IN A RAINBOW?

[00:32:08.399]
ROY G. BIV.

[00:32:09.369]
WHO?

[00:32:10.139]
IT'S A GUY'S NAME.

[00:32:10.929]
TO KNOW THE COLORS IN A RAINBOW,

[00:32:12.239]
ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS KNOW
THE GUY'S NAME: ROY G. BIV.

[00:32:15.579]
THAT WOULD BE SEVEN COLORS.

[00:32:17.219]
LET'S USE P.J.'S PRESENT FROM
THE BOSTON SCIENCE MUSEUM TO LOOK

[00:32:19.859]
AT THE THE COLORS OF THE RAINBOW.

[00:32:21.999]
LET'S COUNT THEM.

[00:32:26.139]
I SEE RED AND ORANGE.

[00:32:27.389]
AND THERE'S YELLOW AND GREEN.

[00:32:28.609]
BLUE IS REALLY CLEAR, BUT THE
COLORS ON THE END ARE BLENDED.

[00:32:32.189]
THAT'S PURPLE.

[00:32:33.019]
BUT WHAT'S THAT COLOR NEXT TO IT?

[00:32:34.729]
SOME PEOPLE THINK IT'S INDIGO,
BUT IT'S REALLY JUST DEEP BLUE.

[00:32:38.019]
SCIENTISTS USING ADVANCED
INSTRUMENTS HAVE DISCOVERED INDIGO

[00:32:40.719]
IS NOT REALLY A COLOR
OF THE SPECTRUM.

[00:32:42.609]
WAIT A MINUTE; SO
NOW IT'S ROY G. BV?

[00:32:45.059]
AFRAID SO; BUT IT STILL HELPS YOU

[00:32:46.729]
TO REMEMBER THE COLORS
IN THEIR ORDER.

[00:32:48.609]
UH, I'M CONFUSED.

[00:32:50.689]
PURPLE, IT DOESN'T
START WITH A "V."

[00:32:52.249]
SO IS IT STILL PURPLE?

[00:32:53.269]
WELL, IT'S ACTUALLY FOR VIOLET,
WHICH IS ANOTHER NAME FOR PURPLE.

[00:32:56.319]
THERE'S ANOTHER WAY
TO MAKE A SPECTRUM.

[00:32:59.259]
THIS IS CALLED A DIFFRACTION
GRATING.

[00:33:01.999]
"GRATING"?

[00:33:02.899]
IS THAT LIKE GRATING CHEESE?

[00:33:05.069]
BECAUSE THAT HURTS MY KNUCKLES.

[00:33:06.789]
NOTHING LIKE THAT.

[00:33:08.299]
PUT ON THESE GLASSES WITH
DIFFRACTION GRATINGS.

[00:33:11.099]
LOOK AT THAT BRIGHT LIGHT SOURCE.

[00:33:12.319]
TELL ME WHAT YOU SEE.

[00:33:14.109]
WOW.

[00:33:14.819]
IT'S THE SAME RAINBOW OF
COLOR AS WE SAW BEFORE,

[00:33:18.239]
BUT THE RAINBOWS ARE EVERYWHERE.

[00:33:21.069]
NOW LET'S TRY SOMETHING DIFFERENT.

[00:33:22.599]
THIS IS CALLED A SPECTRUM TUBE,
IT'S FILLED WITH HELIUM GAS.

[00:33:25.819]
WHAT DO YOU SEE?

[00:33:27.839]
IT'S REALLY DIFFERENT; ALL
THE COLORS AREN'T THERE,

[00:33:30.339]
ONLY SOME OF THEM.

[00:33:31.549]
WELL, THE DIFFRACTION GRATING
SEPARATES THE COLORS JUST LIKE THE

[00:33:33.879]
PRISM DOES, BUT THE GASES

[00:33:35.599]
IN THE TUBE DON'T PRODUCE A
COMPLETE RAINBOW OF COLORS.

[00:33:38.659]
WHAT PROPERTY OF LIGHT ALLOWS THE
DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND THE PRISMS

[00:33:41.989]
TO SEPARATE THE COLORS?

[00:33:43.019]
I DON'T KNOW.

[00:33:43.789]
I THINK IT'S WAVELENGTH.

[00:33:46.139]
MR. TURNER AT NASA TOLD US THAT
DIFFERENT COLORS, LIKE BLUE

[00:33:49.679]
AND RED, HAVE DIFFERENT
WAVELENGTHS.

[00:33:51.839]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:33:52.649]
THEY ARE TWO OF THE COLORS
OF THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

[00:33:54.859]
YOU MIGHT WANT TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

[00:33:57.279]
I KNOW A NASA LANGLEY
RESEARCHER, DOREEN NEIL.

[00:33:59.709]
SHE'S GOING TO BE OVER AT THE
VIRGINIA CHILDREN'S MUSEUM.

[00:34:01.929]
THAT SOUNDS LIKE OUR NEXT STOP.

[00:34:08.369]
LOOK, SHE'S BLOWING BUBBLES.

[00:34:10.219]
THAT'S SO NEAT.

[00:34:11.509]
ARE YOU MRS. NEIL?

[00:34:12.749]
YES, I AM, AND YOU MUST BE
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:34:15.739]
YES, WE ARE.

[00:34:16.449]
WOW, LOOK AT THE BUBBLES.

[00:34:18.369]
IT LOOKS LIKE A RAINBOW.

[00:34:19.709]
WE WERE JUST TALKING ABOUT
COLORS IN THE RAINBOW.

[00:34:22.279]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:34:23.569]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT
THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

[00:34:25.469]
TELL ME WHAT YOU'VE LEARNED SO FAR.

[00:34:27.729]
WAVES HAVE DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES.

[00:34:30.189]
AND DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES
MEAN DIFFERENT COLORS.

[00:34:32.429]
THE ORDER OF THE WAVES

[00:34:33.539]
IN THE FREQUENCIES IS CALLED
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM.

[00:34:36.609]
THE PART THAT OUR EYES CAN
SEE IS ONLY A VERY SMALL PART

[00:34:39.919]
OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM,

[00:34:41.889]
AND THAT'S THE PART WE
CALL THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

[00:34:44.359]
THAT MAKES SENSE.

[00:34:45.189]
DO THE OTHER PARTS OF
THE SPECTRUM DO ANYTHING?

[00:34:49.219]
OH, YES.

[00:34:49.959]
TELEVISIONS AND RADIOS AND
MICROWAVES AND CELL PHONES ALL WORK

[00:34:55.879]
ON THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM.

[00:34:56.859]
SO TELL US MORE ABOUT
THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

[00:34:59.279]
THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM CONSISTS OF
ALL THE COLORS OUR EYES CAN SEE.

[00:35:03.329]
LIKE ORANGE, RED, YELLOW.

[00:35:05.299]
AND GREEN, BLUE, AND VIOLET.

[00:35:07.609]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:35:08.119]
TAKE A LOOK AT THIS COLOR WHEEL.

[00:35:10.519]
WE CAN MIX THOSE COLORS TO MAKE
ALL THE COLORS OUR EYES CAN SEE.

[00:35:13.859]
IF WE MIX ALL THE COLORS WITH
WHITE, WE GET WHITE LIGHT.

[00:35:17.079]
HOW CAN WE SEE THE
COLORS IN WHITE LIGHT?

[00:35:19.689]
WE USE A SPECTROMETER TO PICK
OUT THE DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES.

[00:35:24.159]
MR. TURNER SHOWED US ONE.

[00:35:25.639]
LET ME SHOW YOU SOMETHING.

[00:35:27.189]
WHEN YOU MIX THE THREE PRIMARY
COLORS OF PIGMENT, YOU GET BLACK

[00:35:34.069]
BECAUSE PIGMENT ABSORBS
ALL THE LIGHT THAT HITS IT.

[00:35:37.359]
THAT'S WHAT PIGMENT DOES; BUT
WITH LIGHT, IS IT DIFFERENT?

[00:35:40.479]
YES, IT IS.

[00:35:41.159]
THE PRIMARY COLORS OF LIGHT
ARE RED, GREEN, AND BLUE.

[00:35:44.609]
AND WHEN YOU MIX THOSE
THREE, YOU GET WHITE LIGHT.

[00:35:47.279]
I HOPE YOU LEARNED A LOT ABOUT THE
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM TODAY.

[00:35:51.259]
THE MUSEUM HAS A ROOM FULL OF LIGHT
AND COLOR THAT TRACKS YOUR MOTIONS.

[00:35:54.909]
I THINK YOU MIGHT
WANT TO CHECK IT OUT.

[00:35:56.379]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:35:56.629]
LET'S GO.

[00:35:57.809]
THANKS, MRS. NEIL.

[00:35:59.039]
BYE.

[00:36:00.809]
[00:36:04.509]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:36:05.689]
I'M DOING AN EXPERIMENT
WITH COLORED LIGHTS.

[00:36:08.079]
I'VE WRAPPED EACH LIGHT
WITH COLORED PAPER AND FOIL.

[00:36:10.039]
OKAY.

[00:36:11.599]
THERE'S RED, GREEN, AND BLUE.

[00:36:13.629]
WHY DO YOU USE THE FOIL?

[00:36:15.039]
THE FOIL MAKES THE LIGHT
SHINE IN ONE DIRECTION.

[00:36:17.329]
WHAT DO YOU THINK WOULD HAPPEN

[00:36:18.179]
IF I PLACED ALL THE
COLORS OF LIGHT TOGETHER?

[00:36:20.019]
I GUESS YOU'D HAVE A
BUNCH OF MIXED-UP COLORS.

[00:36:22.559]
WATCH.

[00:36:23.319]
HERE, HOLD THAT.

[00:36:24.569]
YOU HOLD THAT.

[00:36:25.009]
NOW WE'RE GOING TO SHINE
THIS LIGHT ON THIS BOARD.

[00:36:27.259]
WATCH WHAT HAPPENS; IT
MAKES A WHITE LIGHT.

[00:36:30.759]
THAT'S RIGHT, WHITE LIGHT DOES
MAKE ALL THE COLORS OF THE RAINBOW.

[00:36:35.619]
I'M TED TUNE WITH THIS
KSNN SPECIAL REPORT.

[00:36:39.109]
MOUNT LUMINOUS, THE ACTIVE VOLCANO
ON THE WESTERN PACIFIC ISLAND

[00:36:42.709]
OF FOOGOO POOCKOO HAS ERUPTED
YET AGAIN JUST THIS MORNING.

[00:36:47.059]
WE FLEW OUR REPORTER I.M.
LISSNING TO THE SCENE,

[00:36:49.589]
AND SHE BRINGS US THIS LIVE REPORT.

[00:36:52.289]
I.M.?

[00:36:53.509]
THANKS, TED.

[00:36:54.999]
MOUNT LUMINOUS IS
REALLY BLOWING ITS TOP.

[00:36:57.979]
I.M., CAN YOU TELL IF THERE ARE
RIVERS OF GUSHING RED-HOT LAVA?

[00:37:02.289]
OR GIANT FLAMING BOULDERS
CRASHING DOWN FROM OUT OF THE SKY?

[00:37:07.499]
I CAN'T SEE A DARNED THING.

[00:37:09.469]
WE'RE OUT OF HERE.

[00:37:12.719]
[COUGHING.]

[00:37:12.719]
WELL, THERE YOU HAVE IT.

[00:37:15.039]
I'M TED TUNE SAYING, THAT'S
ALL THERE IS FOR TODAY.

[00:37:18.139]
JOIN US TOMORROW, WHEN WE'LL
BE SENDING I.M. LISSNING

[00:37:20.359]
OUT TO FIND A REALLY
GOOD VOLCANO WITH LAVA

[00:37:22.779]
AND FLAMING BOULDERS AND STUFF.

[00:37:25.979]
I GOT IT; VOLCANOES ERUPT LAVA.

[00:37:28.259]
WHAT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT?

[00:37:31.089]
KSNN WAS ON THE SCENE
OF AN ACTIVE VOLCANO.

[00:37:33.249]
AND LAVA'S RED.

[00:37:35.039]
SO MAYBE THE RED LAVA'S
REFLECTING INTO THE SKY.

[00:37:37.279]
OH YEAH, WE LEARNED ABOUT
REFLECTION FROM THE JEFFERSON LAB.

[00:37:40.579]
MAYBE WE HAVE A NEW HYPOTHESIS.

[00:37:42.109]
IF THE VOLCANO ERUPTS RED LAVA,

[00:37:44.449]
THEN THE SKY MAY BE
RED DUE TO REFLECTION.

[00:37:46.389]
I THINK WE NEED TO
LEARN ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:37:48.259]
I HAVE TO GO STUDY FOR A TEST.

[00:37:50.479]
SEE YOU LATER.

[00:37:51.029]
ALL RIGHT, BYE, P.J.
GOOD LUCK, MAN.

[00:37:52.789]
BYE.

[00:37:52.969]
THANKS.

[00:37:53.439]
I HAVE THIS BOOK ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:37:55.369]
LET'S LOOK UP MOUNT LUMINOUS.

[00:37:57.569]
[00:38:01.529]
HERE'S MOUNT LUMINOUS.

[00:38:02.859]
IT SAYS IT'S LOCATED IN THE
PACIFIC OCEAN, NEAR JAPAN.

[00:38:06.109]
THAT BOOK SAYS SOMETHING ABOUT
IT BEING IN THE RING OF FIRE.

[00:38:08.159]
I HAVE THAT BOOK.

[00:38:10.999]
"THE RING OF FIRE"?

[00:38:12.089]
IF THERE'S A RING OF
FIRE IN THE OCEAN,

[00:38:14.129]
THAT COULD BE WHY THE SKY IS RED.

[00:38:15.989]
LET'S LOOK AT THE GLOBE.

[00:38:17.729]
HERE WE ARE, AND HERE'S
THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

[00:38:20.539]
HOW FAR IS IT FROM US?

[00:38:21.689]
WELL, MY SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER
SAID THAT ALL GLOBES HAVE A SCALE.

[00:38:25.239]
HERE IT IS.

[00:38:27.369]
IT SAYS ONE CENTIMETER IS
EQUAL TO 418 KILOMETERS.

[00:38:31.369]
SO WE NEED TO MEASURE HOW FAR
VIRGINIA IS FROM MOUNT LUMINOUS?

[00:38:34.189]
OKAY, LET'S SEE.

[00:38:36.159]
THAT WOULD BE 27 CENTIMETERS.

[00:38:41.899]
I'LL DO THE MATH.

[00:38:44.589]
1 CENTIMETER EQUALS 418 KILOMETERS.

[00:38:51.399]
MULTIPLY THAT BY 27 CENTIMETERS.

[00:38:53.439]
THAT'S ABOUT...

[00:39:02.439]
[00:39:10.539]
11,286 KILOMETERS, AND THERE'S
ABOUT 1.6 KILOMETERS IN A MILE.

[00:39:15.769]
SO THAT'S ABOUT 7,000 MILES.

[00:39:17.379]
BUT I DON'T THINK A REFLECTION

[00:39:18.599]
OF RED LAVA COULD BE
SEEN 7,000 MILES AWAY.

[00:39:21.239]
AS SCIENTISTS, WE NEED
TO DO MORE RESEARCH

[00:39:23.859]
AND EXPERIMENTATION BEFORE
WE JUMP TO ANY CONCLUSIONS.

[00:39:27.209]
DR. PILUSKI SAID THAT
VOLCANOES CAN PUT OUT A LOT

[00:39:29.399]
OF POLLUTION IN THE AIR.

[00:39:30.619]
MAYBE POLLUTION IS
CAUSING THE SUNRISES

[00:39:32.339]
AND THE SUNSETS TO BE SO RED.

[00:39:34.089]
I DON'T THINK SO.

[00:39:35.049]
7,000 MILES IS A LONG WAY TO
TRAVEL, EVEN FOR POLLUTION.

[00:39:39.249]
BUT YOU NEVER KNOW; DIFFERENT TYPES

[00:39:40.839]
OF VOLCANOES COULD CAUSE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLLUTION.

[00:39:43.539]
SO WHAT DO WE DO NEXT?

[00:39:45.169]
I THINK WE SHOULD SEE IF
ANYONE IN THE NASA WHY?

[00:39:46.949]
FILES KIDS CLUB HAS DONE
ANY RESEARCH ON VOLCANOES.

[00:39:50.709]
HI, KALI.

[00:39:51.629]
HI.

[00:39:52.279]
I KNEW I COULD HELP YOU GUYS
OUT; I'LL SEND THE QUESTION

[00:39:56.909]
TO ALL OUR CLUB MEMBERS.

[00:39:58.789]
GOOD, BECAUSE I HAVE TO RUN.

[00:39:59.949]
BYE.

[00:40:00.169]
I WONDER WHAT MAKES
VOLCANOES ERUPT.

[00:40:01.919]
IS IT LIKE AN EARTHQUAKE?

[00:40:03.319]
I DON'T KNOW, BUT I DON'T
WANT TO BE AROUND FOR EITHER.

[00:40:06.169]
HEY LOOK, I'M GETTING A
RESPONSE FROM MR. THOMAS' CLASS

[00:40:09.679]
AT BURBANK ELEMENTARY,
IN HAMPTON, VIRGINIA.

[00:40:11.769]
THEY'VE BEEN STUDYING VOLCANOES
AND HAVE EVEN MADE SOME MODELS.

[00:40:15.779]
LET'S DIAL THEM UP TO SEE IF WE
CAN DO A TELECONFERENCE TO FIND

[00:40:18.779]
OUT HOW MUCH THEY
KNOW ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:40:20.519]
HI, MY NAME IS ROBERT BRYAN,

[00:40:25.349]
A FIFTH GRADE STUDENT
IN MR. THOMAS' CLASS.

[00:40:27.159]
WHAT IS YOUR PROJECT?

[00:40:29.519]
WELL, WE HAVE BEEN STUDYING
VOLCANOES, AND WE HAVE FOUND

[00:40:31.729]
OUT THAT THERE ARE THREE
BASIC TYPES OF VOLCANOES.

[00:40:34.129]
WHAT ARE THEY?

[00:40:35.089]
LET ME SHOW YOU SOME OF
THE MODELS THAT WE'VE MADE.

[00:40:37.929]
THIS ONE IS A MODEL OF
A COMPOSITE VOLCANO.

[00:40:40.799]
ITS ERUPTIONS VARY BETWEEN
QUIET AND VIOLENT ONES.

[00:40:44.019]
WHEN THE VOLCANO HAS A VIOLENT
ONE, IT THROWS OUT ASH AND DUST,

[00:40:47.779]
CREATING A TEPHRAL LAYER.

[00:40:49.359]
WOW, THAT'S COOL.

[00:40:50.149]
WHAT ARE THE QUIET ERUPTIONS LIKE?

[00:40:52.139]
THAT IS WHEN THE VOLCANO
ERUPTS LAVA, LIKE THIS.

[00:40:55.179]
WOW, THAT'S COOL.

[00:40:57.079]
WHAT ARE THE OTHER TWO TYPES?

[00:40:58.119]
ANOTHER VOLCANO IS A
CINDER CONE VOLCANO.

[00:41:02.369]
THIS VOLCANO ONLY ERUPTS
ASH AND DUST, LIKE THIS.

[00:41:05.579]
AND THERE IS A SHIELD VOLCANO.

[00:41:11.609]
"SHIELD"?

[00:41:12.249]
YOU MEAN LIKE WHAT KNIGHTS
USED TO DEFEND THEMSELVES?

[00:41:14.719]
WELL, SORT OF.

[00:41:16.669]
TAKE A LOOK AT OUR MODEL.

[00:41:18.009]
AS YOU CAN SEE, THE
LAVA FLOWS DIFFERENTLY.

[00:41:21.209]
IT FORMS VERY FLAT LAYERS, AND
THESE LAYERS HAVE VERY BROAD

[00:41:24.539]
AND GENTLY SLOPING SIDES.

[00:41:26.129]
THAT'S INTERESTING.

[00:41:28.829]
WE LEARNED A LOT.

[00:41:29.819]
THANKS FOR YOUR HELP.

[00:41:31.479]
BYE FROM THE NASA "WHY?"

[00:41:32.749]
FILES KIDS CLUB IN
HAMPTON, VIRGINIA.

[00:41:35.349]
SEE YOU LATER.

[00:41:37.809]
WE SHOULD BUILD A VOLCANO.

[00:41:39.139]
THAT LOOKS LIKE FUN.

[00:41:40.579]
LET'S DO A LITTLE RESEARCH.

[00:41:41.919]
LET'S SEE WHAT DR. TEXTBOOK
HAS TO SAY ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:41:46.159]
AND NOW, THE HISTORY OF
VOLCANOES, WITH DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:41:50.719]
HELLO.

[00:41:51.599]
DID YOU KNOW THAT THE
WORD "VOLCANO" COMES

[00:41:55.379]
FROM THE ROMAN GOD OF FIRE, VULCAN?

[00:41:57.389]
AND THAT THE EARLY
HAWAIIANS TOLD LEGENDS

[00:42:00.589]
OF THEIR GODDESS OF FIRE, PELEE?

[00:42:03.229]
IN THE YEAR 79 A.D., THE
ROMANS WERE THE FIRST ONES

[00:42:06.729]
TO WRITE AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT
OF AN ACTUAL VOLCANIC ERUPTION.

[00:42:10.509]
FALLING ASH SPEWED OUT OF
MOUNT VESUVIUS, AND THE ASH

[00:42:14.179]
AND THE MUD FLOWS COMBINED TO
BURY THE NEARBY CITY OF POMPEII,

[00:42:18.069]
THUS KILLING ABOUT 2,000 PEOPLE.

[00:42:20.059]
2,000 YEARS LATER, ARCHAEOLOGISTS
ACTUALLY UNEARTHED THIS ANCIENT

[00:42:23.879]
CITY OF POMPEII.

[00:42:25.619]
IN APRIL 1902, MOUNT PELEE -- NOT
RELATED TO THE HAWAIIAN GODDESS

[00:42:29.529]
OF FIRE -- IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA
EXPLODED, KILLING 28,000 RESIDENTS

[00:42:33.719]
IN JUST SECONDS, IN THE
LITTLE TOWN OF ST. PIERRE.

[00:42:37.199]
CLOSER TO HOME, IN 1980,

[00:42:39.849]
THE SLEEPING GIANT
MOUNT ST. HELENS ERUPTED

[00:42:42.579]
TO BECOME THE MOST DESTRUCTIVE
VOLCANO IN U.S. HISTORY.

[00:42:46.379]
THE ERUPTION HAD THE FORCE OF
10 MILLION TONS OF DYNAMITE

[00:42:50.799]
AND SHOOK THE CASCADE
MOUNTAIN RANGE IN OREGON

[00:42:53.489]
AND THE STATE OF WASHINGTON.

[00:42:55.619]
SO IN HONOR OF ALL THE GODS OF
FIRE, I WILL ATTEMPT TO FIND

[00:42:59.729]
OUT WHAT REALLY MAKES
A VOLCANO COME ALIVE.

[00:43:03.129]
[00:43:09.989]
NOT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:43:14.519]
SEE YOU, DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:43:16.179]
HE'S SO FUNNY.

[00:43:18.139]
LET'S RESEARCH MOUNT LUMINOUS.

[00:43:19.769]
I SAW AN ARTICLE ABOUT MOUNT
LUMINOUS IN THE PAPER TODAY.

[00:43:21.799]
MAYBE IT'LL HAVE SOME
INFORMATION FOR US.

[00:43:23.659]
IT SAID THAT MOUNT
LUMINOUS WAS A CINDER CONE

[00:43:27.069]
AND THAT ITS FIRST
ERUPTION WAS A MONTH AGO.

[00:43:29.249]
THEN MOUNT LUMINOUS
CAN'T BE THE PROBLEM.

[00:43:31.399]
BECAUSE WHY WOULD THE SKY
ALL OF A SUDDEN BE A DEEP RED

[00:43:33.579]
IF IT ERUPTED A MONTH AGO?

[00:43:35.379]
I DON'T KNOW, BUT I THINK WE NEED
TO KNOW MORE ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:43:38.489]
SOLVING PROBLEMS IS HARD WORK.

[00:43:39.969]
MY MOM HAS TO GO TO
CALIFORNIA ON BUSINESS,

[00:43:43.099]
TO THE NASA DRYDEN RESEARCH CENTER
AND THE JET PROPULSION LABORATORY.

[00:43:46.279]
MAYBE WE SHOULD GO WITH HER.

[00:43:47.699]
OKAY, LET'S SEE IF WE CAN GO.

[00:43:50.779]
HI, YOU MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:43:52.659]
AND YOU ARE DR. PIRI?

[00:43:54.229]
YEAH, I'M AFRAID SO.

[00:43:56.089]
WHAT'S THAT PLANE BEHIND YOU?

[00:43:57.849]
I'VE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING
LIKE THAT BEFORE.

[00:44:00.119]
IT'S AN ER-2.

[00:44:00.989]
IT'S A NASA RESEARCH AIRCRAFT
USED AT HIGH ALTITUDE.

[00:44:04.019]
WHAT KIND OF RESEARCH DOES
NASA DO WITH THIS PLANE?

[00:44:06.449]
THIS PLANE HAS HIGH-POWERED
CAMERAS.

[00:44:08.639]
THEY CAN SEE A WIDE VARIETY OF
PHENOMENA, INCLUDING HURRICANES,

[00:44:12.019]
VOLCANOES, EARTHQUAKES, AND
YOU CAN ALSO MONITOR OZONE.

[00:44:16.259]
YOU MEAN YOU ACTUALLY FLY INTO
A VOLCANO WHEN IT'S ERUPTING?

[00:44:20.199]
OH NO, IT WOULD DO A LOT OF
DAMAGE TO AN AIRPLANE LIKE THIS.

[00:44:23.399]
BUT HOW CAN THIS CAUSE DAMAGE?

[00:44:25.269]
WELL, THIS ISN'T SO MUCH THE
PROBLEM; THIS LAVA ROCK GETS GROUND

[00:44:27.859]
UP INTO FINE PARTICULATE
MATERIAL LIKE THIS.

[00:44:30.679]
THIS IS VOLCANIC ASH.

[00:44:31.429]
THIS IS THE PROBLEM.

[00:44:33.059]
THAT'S REALLY LIGHT.

[00:44:34.449]
WHERE ARE MOST OF THE
VOLCANOES LOCATED?

[00:44:36.829]
THERE ARE ACTIVE VOLCANOES
IN EVERY OCEAN BASIN

[00:44:38.909]
IN ALMOST EVERY CONTINENT
IN THE WORLD.

[00:44:41.559]
MOST VOLCANOES ARE UNDERWATER
AND FORM ALONG RIDGES

[00:44:44.289]
AS OCEAN BASINS SPREAD
AWAY FROM THEM.

[00:44:46.429]
SOMETIMES VOLCANOES FORM
IN THE MIDDLE OF CONTINENTS

[00:44:48.639]
AND OCEAN BASINS AS HOT
SPOTS HEAT UP PLATES.

[00:44:52.159]
"PLATES"?

[00:44:53.559]
THE EARTH'S CRUST
IS ACTUALLY BROKEN

[00:44:54.959]
UP INTO PIECES WE CALL PLATES.

[00:44:56.529]
IN FACT, ANOTHER PLACE
WHERE VOLCANOES FORM IS

[00:44:58.339]
WHERE ONE PLATE GOES
UNDERNEATH ANOTHER PLATE.

[00:45:00.619]
AND THAT HAPPENS IN
THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

[00:45:03.139]
ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT
THE RING OF FIRE?

[00:45:04.899]
THE RING OF FIRE IS
A RING OF VOLCANOES

[00:45:06.349]
THAT SURROUND THE PACIFIC OCEAN,

[00:45:07.709]
WHERE THE CONTINENTS
MEET THE OCEAN BASIN.

[00:45:10.209]
WE LEARNED THAT MOUNT
LUMINOUS IS A CINDER CONE.

[00:45:12.589]
COULD YOU TELL US MORE
ABOUT CINDER CONES?

[00:45:14.529]
SURE.

[00:45:15.439]
FOR INSTANCE, WHEN CINDER CONES
FORM, THE MAGMA'S SO STICKY

[00:45:18.739]
THAT THE GAS STAYS TRAPPED INSIDE
IT UNTIL THE PRESSURE BUILDS

[00:45:21.419]
SO MUCH THAT IT LITERALLY EXPLODES.

[00:45:24.149]
WHEN IT EXPLODES, IT FORMS
LOTS OF PYROPLASTIC MATERIAL,

[00:45:28.259]
WHICH IS REALLY SHARP.

[00:45:29.989]
MAYBE WE'RE GETTING
A LITTLE CLOSER.

[00:45:31.299]
THANKS, DR. PIRI.

[00:45:32.419]
WE LEARNED SO MUCH ABOUT VOLCANOES.

[00:45:35.529]
I HOPE THIS INFORMATION
GIVES YOU YOUR ANSWER.

[00:45:37.809]
THANK YOU SO MUCH.

[00:45:39.089]
GOOD LUCK.

[00:45:39.899]
BYE.

[00:45:40.589]
BYE-BYE.

[00:45:43.579]
WE KNOW MOUNT LUMINOUS
IS A CINDER CONE.

[00:45:45.519]
AND THAT MEANS IT
DOESN'T EVEN HAVE LAVA.

[00:45:47.479]
THAT MEANS OUR HYPOTHESIS IS WRONG.

[00:45:49.739]
WELL, I DON'T THINK WE
HAVE ENOUGH INFORMATION

[00:45:51.429]
YET TO CHANGE IT OUR HYPOTHESIS.

[00:45:53.019]
LET'S GO DO SOME MORE
RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTATION.

[00:45:54.959]
LET'S GET BACK TO THE TREE HOUSE.

[00:45:57.449]
WHAT'S UP?

[00:45:57.889]
COULD THE VOLCANO BE
CAUSING THE RED SKY?

[00:46:01.089]
COULD IT BE THAT ALL COLORS OTHER

[00:46:02.669]
THAN RED ARE BEING
ABSORBED BY SOMETHING?

[00:46:04.949]
DON'T MISS THE EXCITING
CONCLUSION OF THE CASE

[00:46:07.499]
OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT.

[00:46:09.939]
[00:46:18.029]
YOU'RE VERY CLOSE NOW.

[00:46:19.769]
ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS, AND
YOU WILL SOLVE THE TREE HOUSE

[00:46:22.829]
DETECTIVES' LATEST MYSTERY: WHAT
DO RESEARCHERS DO AT THE NASA CAVE?

[00:46:29.769]
WHAT ARE TWO THINGS THAT AFFECT
HOW FAR WIND CAN CARRY PARTICLES?

[00:46:34.249]
HOW DOES THE JET STREAM HELP
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES SOLVE

[00:46:38.749]
THEIR PROBLEM?

[00:46:40.289]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:46:43.459]
MAGIC?

[00:46:44.249]
NO, THIS IS ACTUALLY
A SCIENCE EXPERIMENT.

[00:46:46.649]
I PUNCHED A HOLE IN THIS
CUP AND POURED WATER IN.

[00:46:48.849]
WHAT HAPPENS?

[00:46:49.819]
TURN THE LIGHTS DOWN,
AND WATCH THIS.

[00:46:51.689]
WOW, THAT LOOKS LIKE
A STREAM OF LIGHT.

[00:46:54.439]
THE LIGHT IS BENDING, JUST LIKE
THE EXPERIMENT DR. CHIEN TOLD US

[00:46:59.499]
AT THE JEFFERSON LAB.

[00:47:01.259]
IT'S NEAT, BUT WE STILL NEED
TO FIGURE OUT WHY THE SUNRISES

[00:47:03.959]
AND SUNSETS ARE SO RED.

[00:47:05.679]
I THINK POLLUTION
COULD BE THE CAUSE.

[00:47:07.119]
BUT WHAT'S MAKING THE POLLUTION?

[00:47:08.479]
I DON'T THINK IT'S VOLCANOES,
BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO FAR AWAY.

[00:47:11.609]
MAYBE WIND'S BLOWING IT OUR WAY.

[00:47:13.219]
YEAH, RIGHT.

[00:47:13.799]
I DON'T THINK THE WIND
CAN BLOW THINGS THIS FAR.

[00:47:15.829]
NOT UNLESS IT HAD A LOT OF HOT
AIR, UNLIKE SOMEONE WE KNOW.

[00:47:18.759]
I KNOW YOU'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT ME.

[00:47:20.699]
I'LL GO OVER TO THE PROBLEM
BOARD, AND TRY TO FIGURE

[00:47:23.409]
OUT WHAT WE NEED TO DO NEXT.

[00:47:25.329]
WE KNOW THE SKY IS STILL RED.

[00:47:27.649]
WE KNOW THAT LIGHT TRAVELS IN
WAVES -- AND THAT IT'S ALSO A RAY.

[00:47:31.579]
THE LIGHT WE SEE IS ONLY A
SMALL PART OF THE SPECTRUM.

[00:47:34.619]
AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT LIGHT
REFLECTS AND REFRACTS.

[00:47:38.049]
POLLUTION CAN CAUSE RED SKIES.

[00:47:39.979]
VOLCANOES CAUSE SOME AIR
POLLUTION WHEN THEY ERUPT DUST ASH.

[00:47:43.739]
WE NEED TO KNOW HOW FAR ASH
CAN TRAVEL THROUGH THE AIR,

[00:47:46.139]
AND IF IT CAN TRAVEL
LONG DISTANCES?

[00:47:48.229]
BUT HOW DO WE FIND OUT?

[00:47:49.689]
WE NEED SOMEONE WHO
KNOWS A LOT ABOUT WIND.

[00:47:51.729]
WIND HAS TO DO WITH WEATHER.

[00:47:53.029]
I'M SURE NASA HAS A WEATHER EXPERT.

[00:47:54.759]
LET'S GO TO THE NASA
LANGLEY WEBSITE.

[00:47:57.029]
[00:48:00.099]
WOW, LOOK.

[00:48:01.089]
NASA HAS A REALLY COOL
PLACE CALLED THE CAVE.

[00:48:03.649]
IT'S A COMPUTER SYSTEM THAT WE
CAN USE TO LOOK AT WEATHER IN 3D.

[00:48:06.359]
I'LL GO OVER THERE.

[00:48:09.979]
THIS MUST BE THE CAVE.

[00:48:11.549]
HI, I'M DR. JENNIFER OLSEN.

[00:48:13.199]
I'M ONE OF THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:48:15.079]
WE'RE TRYING TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT WIND.

[00:48:16.519]
WE WANT TO KNOW IF VOLCANIC
ASH CAN BLOW ALL THE WAY

[00:48:18.769]
FROM THE PACIFIC OCEAN TO VIRGINIA.

[00:48:20.759]
I'M LOOKING AT SOME DATA
IN THE CAVE RIGHT NOW.

[00:48:23.289]
WOULD YOU LIKE TO STEP IN
WITH ME AND TAKE A LOOK?

[00:48:25.419]
I'VE HEARD OF THE
CAVE; SURE, LET'S GO.

[00:48:27.579]
FIRST, YOU'LL NEED TO TAKE OFF
YOUR SHOES AND PUT ON THE GLASSES.

[00:48:30.879]
[00:48:33.169]
WOW, THIS IS NEAT.

[00:48:34.859]
WE'RE LOOKING AT WIND
VECTORS OVER THE PACIFIC OCEAN

[00:48:37.499]
AND THE U.S. WHAT'S A WIND VECTOR?

[00:48:40.729]
DO YOU SEE THE YELLOW ARROWS?

[00:48:43.389]
YEAH, LOTS OF THEM.

[00:48:44.559]
THOSE ARE WIND VECTORS; THEY SHOW

[00:48:46.339]
WHICH DIRECTION THE
WIND IS BLOWING.

[00:48:48.289]
THEIR SIZE TELLS YOU HOW
FAST THE WIND IS BLOWING.

[00:48:51.019]
THE LONGER THE ARROW IS, THE
FASTER THE WIND SPEED IS.

[00:48:54.989]
WHAT ABOUT THE WIND
VECTORS WAY UP THERE?

[00:48:57.499]
THESE VECTORS ARE UP AT 12
MILES OVER THE EARTH'S SURFACE,

[00:49:01.399]
THAT'S WELL ABOVE THE WEATHER.

[00:49:03.999]
IT LOOKS LIKE ALL THOSE ARROWS ARE
POINTING IN THE SAME DIRECTION.

[00:49:06.839]
IS THAT NORMAL FOR HIGH ALTITUDES?

[00:49:08.929]
YES, IT IS; NOTICE THAT THESE
ARROWS ARE MOSTLY POINTING

[00:49:11.729]
FROM THE WEST TOWARD THE EAST.

[00:49:13.509]
THAT'S A ZONAL DIRECTION
IN THE GLOBAL WIND PATTERN.

[00:49:16.799]
HOW FAST ARE THEY BLOWING?

[00:49:18.479]
AT 12 MILES UP, MOST WIND
SPEEDS ARE BETWEEN 40

[00:49:21.559]
AND 50 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:49:23.259]
AT THESE ALTITUDES,
THERE'S ALSO SOMETHING

[00:49:25.029]
THAT WE CALL A JET STREAM.

[00:49:26.769]
OH, YOU MEAN THE WHITE STUFF THAT
COMES OUT THE BACK OF A JET WE SEE.

[00:49:30.209]
GOOD GUESS; BUT THE JET STREAM IS
A RIVER OF VERY FAST-FLOWING AIR

[00:49:34.529]
WHERE SPEEDS CAN REACH
SEVERAL HUNDRED MILES PER HOUR.

[00:49:37.379]
THAT'S AS FAST AS A MAJOR TORNADO.

[00:49:39.919]
LET'S STEP