Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of the Phenomenal Weather

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HI, I'M TONY PERKINS, WEATHERMAN
FOR ABC'S GOOD MORNING AMERICA.

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EVERY DAY, I TRY VERY HARD
TO GIVE YOU AN ACCURATE,

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UP-TO-DATE FORECAST, BUT WEATHER
FORECASTING IS NOT ALWAYS EASY.

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THAT'S WHY I RELY ON MATH,
SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

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TO DETERMINE WHAT THE WEATHER
WILL BE LIKE AROUND THE NATION

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AND IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD.

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SO TUNE IN TO THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES, LEARN ABOUT METEOROLOGY,
AND WATCH THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES

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AS THEY SOLVE THE MYSTERY OF THE
CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL WEATHER.

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HEY, YOU.

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WHO, ME?

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YEAH, YOU.

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COME SEE OUR CLUBHOUSE IN A TREE.

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WE ARE KIDS ON A MISSION TO EDUCATE
OURSELVES ABOUT THE NASA VISION.

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COME EXPLORE MATH AND SCIENCE
'CAUSE THAT'S WHAT MAKES

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OUR ALLIANCE.

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WE ARE THE "WHY?"

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FILES CLUB.

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WE YEARN TO LEARN AND WANT TO
SEE EVERYTHING THAT WE CAN BE.

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SO COME JOIN US ON OUR JOURNEY.

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DON'T YOU TOUCH THAT DIAL.

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AND WELCOME TO THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES.

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IN THE CASE OF THE
PHENOMENAL WEATHER,

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JOIN THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES

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AS THEY ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS: HOW DO CLOUDS FORM?

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WHAT ARE THE THREE
MAIN TYPES OF CLOUDS?

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WHAT IS AIR PRESSURE?

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AND REMEMBER, WHEN YOU
SEE THIS NASA "WHY?"

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FILES LOGO, IT'S A SIGN
THAT THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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OKAY, DONE.

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WHAT ARE YOU BUILDING?

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OH, I'M BUILDING A ROLLER COASTER

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SO WE'LL ALL BE PREPARED
FOR THE PHYSICS FAIR.

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THAT'S RIGHT-- THE PHYSICS FAIR
AT BUSCH GARDENS, WILLIAMSBURG.

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CAN YOU BELIEVE WE GET TO SPEND THE
ENTIRE DAY RIDING ROLLER COASTERS

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AND FIGURING OUT THE
PHYSICS BEHIND IT?

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HERE, USE THIS TOOL.

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THANKS.

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I JUST HAPPEN TO HAVE MY
"R" ENCYCLOPEDIA WITH ME.

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IS HE JOKING?

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I DON'T THINK SO.

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DID YOU KNOW THAT ON
THE APOLLO'S CHARIOT,

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IT DROPS 210 FEET
ON THE FIRST HILL?

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AND IT REACHES TOP SPEEDS
OF 73 MILES PER HOUR.

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AND YOU EXPERIENCE 26
SECONDS OF WEIGHTLESSNESS.

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WOW, THAT'S 26 SECONDS OF
FEELING LIKE A NASA ASTRONAUT.

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ARE YOU OKAY?

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YEAH, I JUST CAN'T WAIT TO GO
TO THE PHYSICS FAIR NEXT WEEK.

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WE'RE NOT GETTING
RAINED OUT THIS TIME.

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NO WAY.

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FROM THE WEATHER CHANNEL, I'M LISA
MOZER, THE FORECAST CALLS FOR LOTS

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OF SUNSHINE WARM TEMPERATURES,
AND NO RAIN, SO GET OUT THERE

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AND ENJOY THE NICE WEATHER.

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HOWEVER, DOWN SOUTH, THERE IS
SOME ACTIVITY IN THE TROPICS.

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A TROPICAL WAVE LOCATED SEVERAL
HUNDRED MILES OFF THE COAST

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OF AFRICA IS MOVING
NORTHWEST CURRENTLY.

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THIS MASS OF THUNDERSTORMS
IS VERY UNORGANIZED,

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SO FURTHER DEVELOPMENT IS
NOT LIKELY AT THIS TIME.

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OUR WEATHER TEAM WILL
CLOSELY MONITOR THE PROGRESS

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OF THIS SYSTEM.

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AT LEAST SHE DIDN'T SAY RAIN.

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I THINK WE NEED TO TRY AND FIGURE
OUT THE LONG-RANGE FORECAST.

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WE MIGHT GET TO GO TO FLORIDA IF
WE WIN THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEST.

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BUT THAT TROPICAL DEPRESSION
MIGHT HEAD TO FLORIDA.

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HAVE YOU HEARD YET
IF WE'RE THE WINNERS?

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NOT YET, BUT THEY'LL
BE ANNOUNCING IT SOON.

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THIS IS LOOKING BETTER.

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WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF
IT RAINING NEXT WEEK?

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WEATHER ISN'T ALWAYS PREDICTABLE.

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THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT THINGS
THAT COULD CHANGE A FORECAST.

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I THINK WE NEED TO PLAY IT SAFE.

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LET'S ORGANIZE WHAT WE KNOW.

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LET'S GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THE PROBLEM.

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A TROPICAL WAVE IS
NOW LOCATED HUNDREDS

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OF MILES OFF THE COAST OF AFRICA.

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I HEARD THAT ON A WEATHER REPORT.

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AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE TROPICAL
WAVE IS NOT A THREAT TO US.

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I'LL LOOK OUTSIDE.

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NO CLOUDS IN THE SKY.

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THAT'S A GOOD SIGN.

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SOMETIMES THERE ARE A LOT OF
CLOUDS, BUT IT DOESN'T RAIN.

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THAT'S TRUE.

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I NEVER THOUGHT OF THAT.

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MAYBE WE NEED TO KNOW
MORE ABOUT CLOUDS.

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I'M LOOKING AT THE
NASA LANGLEY WEBSITE.

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THERE'S A PROGRAM
LISTED CALLED S'COOL.

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MY SCHOOL PARTICIPATES IN THAT
PROGRAM, AND IT'S REALLY COOL.

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WE MAKE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS AND
DESCRIBE THE TYPES OF CLOUDS.

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WHAT ARE WE SITTING AROUND FOR?

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LET'S PRINT OFF A GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEET FROM THE NASA "WHY?"

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FILES WEBSITE.

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WE'RE SUPPOSED TO MEET DR.
LYNN CHAMBERS THERE SHE IS.

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HELLO, DR. CHAMBERS.

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TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES?

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I'VE BEEN EXPECTING YOU.

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THANKS FOR SEEING US.

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WE WANTED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
CLOUDS AND WHAT THEY MEAN.

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DO YOU KNOW HOW A CLOUD IS FORMED?

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NOT REALLY.

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I ALWAYS THOUGHT IT'S WHEN THE
SUN SUCKS UP A LOT OF WATER,

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AND THEN THE CLOUDS ARE FORMED.

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GOOD GUESS, BUT MAYBE I CAN
EXPLAIN IT TO YOU A LITTLE BETTER

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IF I MAKE A CLOUD FOR YOU.

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YOU CAN MAKE A CLOUD?

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DO WE GET TO GO UP IN AN AIRPLANE?

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NO, WE CAN DO IT RIGHT HERE.

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FIRST WE'LL FILL THIS
JAR WITH WATER.

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WE NEED ABOUT 2 CENTIMETERS
OF WATER.

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DID YOU KNOW THAT 2.5
CENTIMETERS IS EQUAL TO 1 INCH?

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THEN WE PLACE SOME ICE
CUBES IN THIS METAL TRAY

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AND PLACE IT ON TOP OF THE JAR.

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THE AIR INSIDE THE JAR WILL
COOL, AND THE WATER VAPOR

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IN THE AIR WILL CONDENSE.

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WHAT DOES CONDENSED MEAN?

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HAVE YOU EVER BEEN OUTSIDE
ON A REALLY COLD DAY?

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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU BREATHE?

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MY BREATH LOOKS LIKE SMOKE.

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THAT'S CONDENSATION.

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YOUR BREATH CONTAINS
WATER VAPOR JUST LIKE AIR.

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THAT REMINDS ME.

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WE FORGOT TO ADD PARTICLES.

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DO YOU SEE A CLOUD YET?

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I SEE WATER DROPS FORMING.

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THE WATER CONDENSATION ON
THE JAR IS NOT A CLOUD.

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WE NEED TO ADD SOMETHING FOR
THE WATER TO CONDENSE ON.

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ANY IDEAS?

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UM, HOW ABOUT SOME DUST FROM MY
ROOM OR HOW ABOUT CHALK DUST?

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THEY MIGHT WORK.

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WE COULD USE A NUMBER OF THINGS.

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IN THE REAL WORLD, IT WOULD BE
SEA SALT, DUST, VOLCANIC AEROSOLS,

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OR MAN-MADE POLLUTION.

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SINCE WE DON'T HAVE ANY OF THOSE
HERE, I'M GONNA USE A MATCH.

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THIS IS THE PART WHERE
YOU NEED AN ADULT.

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SO WHAT WILL HAPPEN?

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LET'S GIVE IT A TRY.

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I CAN SEE A CLOUD FORMING.

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HOW DO WE KNOW THAT'S
NOT SMOKE FROM THE MATCH?

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WE CAN SHUT OFF THE CONDENSATION
AND MAKE THE CLOUD DISAPPEAR

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BY SIMPLY TAKING THE ICE AWAY.

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DO YOU WANT TO TRY IT?

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SURE.

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IT VANISHED.

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THE CLOUD WE MADE LOOKED
VERY WISPY, BUT IN THE SKY,

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WE SEE ALL DIFFERENT
KINDS OF CLOUDS.

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ARE THERE DIFFERENT TYPES?

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YES, THERE ARE THREE
MAIN CLOUD TYPES:

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CIRRUS, CUMULUS, AND STRATUS.

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CIRRUS CLOUDS ARE HIGH CLOUDS
THAT FORM ABOVE 6,000 METERS.

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WHAT ARE THOSE ROUND, PUFFY CLOUDS
THAT LOOK LIKE COTTON CANDY?

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THOSE ARE CUMULUS CLOUDS.

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THEY'RE FOUND AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS.

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THEY'RE OFTEN SEEN
ON DRY, SUNNY DAYS.

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WHAT DO YOU CALL LOW
CLOUDS THAT COVER THE SKY?

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THOSE ARE STRATUS CLOUDS.

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THEIR BASE IS USUALLY FOUND AT
LOW LEVELS BELOW 500 METERS,

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AND THEY FORM A LAYER
OR SHEET ACROSS THE SKY.

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DO DIFFERENT TYPES OF CLOUDS
INDICATE DIFFERENT TYPES

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OF WEATHER?

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SOME INDICATE DIFFERENT
TYPES OF WEATHER.

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ONE OF OUR TREE HOUSE DETECTIVE'S
CLASS BELONGS TO YOUR CLOUD CLUB?

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YEAH, IT'S CALLED S'COOL, FOR
STUDENTS' CLOUD OBSERVATION ONLINE.

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WE HAVE 1,000 SCHOOLS
AROUND THE WORLD

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WITH STUDENTS OBSERVING CLOUDS.

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THEY SEND THEIR DATA
TO A NASA COMPUTER,

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AND THEIR OBSERVATIONS
ARE COMPARED TO THOSE

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FROM CERES INSTRUMENTS
FLOWN ON SATELLITES.

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SO KIDS ACTUALLY HELP NASA?

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YES, WE USE THE STUDENTS' DATA
TO HELP US IDENTIFY CLOUDS

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THAT THE SATELLITE
HAS TROUBLE SEEING.

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THAT IS WAY TOO COOL.

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JUST THINK: KIDS ARE
ACTUALLY HELPING NASA.

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THANKS, DR. CHAMBERS.

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WOW, WE LEARNED A LOT
FROM DR. CHAMBERS.

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I WROTE THIS FROM OUR TRIP.

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DON'T FORGET TO ADD WATER
VAPOR AND CONDENSATION.

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I KNOW THAT'S A CLUE,
BECAUSE IT'S HOW RAIN IS MADE.

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HI.

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WHERE'S DR. "D"?

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IS HE HERE TODAY?

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WE HAVEN'T SEEN HIM YET.

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HI, GUYS.

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I'M HERE.

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YOU HAVE THAT LOOK LIKE
YOU'RE WORKING ON SOMETHING.

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WE'RE CONCERNED ABOUT OUR
PHYSICS FAIR BECAUSE OF THE STORM.

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WE DON'T WANT TO MISS
RIDING ROLLER COASTERS.

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CAN YOU GIVE US SOME CLUES ON
HOW TO UNDERSTAND THE WEATHER?

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SURE, SOMETHING YOU DEFINITELY
NEED TO UNDERSTAND IS ENERGY.

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THERE'S AN ELECTRIC MOTOR
THAT PROVIDES THE ENERGY

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TO RAISE A ROLLER COASTER CAR
TO THE TOP OF THE FIRST HILL,

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AND THEN GRAVITY TAKES OVER.

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WHAT ENERGY SOURCE MAKES
THE WEATHER HAPPEN?

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DO YOU MEAN WHAT MAKES
THE WINDS BLOW?

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OR WHAT RAISES THE RAIN INTO
THE CLOUDS JUST LIKE THE ROLLER

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COASTER WAS LIFTED?

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EXACTLY.

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I DON'T KNOW.

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I THINK YOU DO.

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IT'S THE SAME ENERGY SOURCE
THAT MAKES THE PLANTS GROW.

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OH, THE SUN.

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I KNEW THAT.

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WHEN THE SUN HEATS THE EARTH,

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CERTAIN AREAS BECOME
HOTTER THAN OTHERS.

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THIS UNEVEN HEATING
PRODUCES THE WINDS.

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WIND-- IT CAN MAKE WIND?

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AIR ALWAYS MOVES FROM A
REGION OF HIGHER PRESSURE

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TO A REGION OF LOWER PRESSURE.

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WAIT, DR. "D", WE HAVEN'T
LEARNED ABOUT PRESSURE YET.

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WHAT'S THAT?

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I GUESS I BETTER SLOW
DOWN A LITTLE BIT.

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AIR IS MADE UP OF MOLECULES
LIKE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN.

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THEY'RE CONSTANTLY IN MOTION,
TRAVELING IN STRAIGHT LINES

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UNTIL THEY BOUNCE OFF OF SOMETHING.

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SO YOU MEAN RIGHT NOW, WE'RE
BEING BOMBARDED WITH MOLECULES?

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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WHEN MOLECULES BOUNCE
OFF OF SOMETHING,

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THEY APPLY A FORCE TO THAT OBJECT.

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THIS FORCE CREATES WHAT
WE CALL AIR PRESSURE.

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LET ME SHOW YOU AN EXAMPLE.

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THESE HEMISPHERES HAVE MOLECULES
BOUNCING OFF THE OUTSIDE.

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I'VE TAKEN MOST OF THE
AIR OUT OF THE MIDDLE,

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SO THERE ARE VERY FEW MOLECULES
ON THE INSIDE PUSHING OUT.

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HERE, TRY TO PULL IT APART.

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WOW, THIS IS REALLY HARD.

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THAT FORCE YOU TALKED
ABOUT IS VERY REAL.

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NOW IF I LET THE AIR
BACK INTO THE MIDDLE,

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WE'LL HAVE MOLECULES BOTH
PUSHING OUT AND PUSHING IN.

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IF THE PRESSURE ON THE OUTSIDE
IS THE SAME AS THE PRESSURE

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ON THE INSIDE, IT
SHOULDN'T BE A PROBLEM.

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IT'S MUCH EASIER NOW.

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LET'S TRY SOMETHING ELSE.

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PUT ON YOUR GOGGLES
AND SAFETY GLASSES.

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I'M GONNA HEAT THE
AIR INSIDE THIS CAN.

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IT HAS A LITTLE BIT OF WATER IN IT.

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I'M GONNA TURN THE CAN UPSIDE
DOWN INTO THE PAN OF WATER,

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AND THE PRESSURE IN THE CAN IS
GONNA DROP VERY, VERY QUICKLY,

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AND THE HIGHER-PRESSURE AIR ON THE
OUTSIDE IS GONNA CRUSH THE CAN.

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WATCH THIS.

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THAT'S AMAZING.

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NOW, WHEN I BLOW UP THIS BALLOON,

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I'LL BE INCREASING THE
DENSITY OF THE AIR INSIDE.

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THAT MEANS THE MOLECULES
WILL BE MORE TIGHTLY PACKED.

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THIS MAKES THE PRESSURE
ON THE INSIDE GREATER

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THAN THE PRESSURE ON THE OUTSIDE.

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I KNEW THAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN.

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SO THAT'S WHAT YOU MEANT WHEN YOU
SAID THE AIR WENT FROM A REGION

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OF HIGHER PRESSURE,
LIKE THE BALLOON,

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TO A REGION OF LOWER
PRESSURE, LIKE THIS ROOM.

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VERY GOOD.

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SUPPOSE YOU'RE AT THE
BEACH IN THE SUMMER.

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THE SAND IS HOT, AND IT
WARMS THE AIR ABOVE IT.

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WARM AIR HAS A LOWER PRESSURE THAN
COOLER AIR 'CAUSE IT'S LESS DENSE.

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NOW, THE AIR ABOVE
THE OCEAN IS COOLER,

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THEREFORE IT HAS A HIGHER PRESSURE
THAN THE AIR ABOVE THE SAND.

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WHAT HAPPENS?

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I WOULD THINK, JUST LIKE THE
BALLOON, THAT THE WIND WOULD BLOW

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FROM THE HIGHER-PRESSURE AIR

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ACROSS THE OCEAN TOWARD THE
LOWER-PRESSURE AIR ON THE BEACH.

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VERY GOOD.

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THAT'S WHAT'S CALLED A SEA BREEZE.

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HERE'S AN UPDATE...

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HEY, LOOK, THERE'S AN UPDATE
FROM THE WEATHER CHANNEL.

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...HAS SLIGHTLY STRENGTHENED
AND BECOME MORE ORGANIZED,

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WITH MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WIND
NOW AT 30 MILES PER HOUR.

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THIS SYSTEM HAS BEEN UPGRADED
TO A TROPICAL DEPRESSION.

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IT IS CURRENTLY LOCATED AT 15
DEGREES NORTH AND 40 DEGREES WEST,

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AND IT IS MOVING NORTHWEST
AT 20 MILES PER HOUR.

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HERE'S A GLOBE.

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LOOK, HERE ARE THE
ANTILLES ISLANDS.

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I THINK WE SHOULD START
TRACKING THE STORM, DON'T YOU?

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OH, I DON'T THINK SO.

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IT'S FAR AWAY.

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WE DON'T NEED TO WORRY ABOUT IT.

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YES, WE DO.

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THE STORM HAS TURNED INTO
A TROPICAL DEPRESSION,

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I DON'T WANT TO MISS THE PHYSICS
FAIR OR OUR TRIP TO FLORIDA.

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OKAY, WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

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WHY DON'T YOU VISIT
MY FRIEND DR. LYONS?

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HE'S A METEOROLOGIST
AT THE WEATHER CHANNEL.

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DR. LYONS-- I'VE SEEN
HIM ON TV BEFORE.

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HE'S A HURRICANE EXPERT.

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WE INTERRUPT THIS BROADCAST TO
BRING YOU THIS BREAKING NEWS.

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WE GO NOW TO THE E.P.A.
BEACH CLEANUP AWARDS

[00:12:00.723]
AND OUR REPORTER I.M. LISSNING.

[00:12:02.933]
TED, WE'RE ABOUT TO
HEAR THE WINNERS

[00:12:04.613]
OF THE BEACH CLEANUP CONTEST.

[00:12:06.623]
LET'S LISTEN IN.

[00:12:07.253]
UM, WE'LL BE BACK WITH THE
ANNOUNCEMENT RIGHT AFTER THIS.

[00:12:16.253]
[00:12:17.233]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:12:18.793]
WILL THE TOPICAL DEPRESSION
BECOME A HURRICANE?

[00:12:21.313]
WILL THE CLOUDS HELP THE DETECTIVES
PREDICT NEXT WEEK'S WEATHER?

[00:12:24.373]
IS WATER VAPOR AND
CONDENSATION A CLUE?

[00:12:26.983]
STAY TUNED FOR THE NEXT EPISODE OF:
THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL WEATHER.

[00:12:34.633]
[00:00:01.702]
IT'S GETTING STORMY
IN THE TREE HOUSE.

[00:00:04.312]
STICK AROUND AND HELP THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES ANSWER THE

[00:00:07.592]
FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: WHERE IS
THE EYE OF THE HURRICANE LOCATED?

[00:00:12.882]
WHAT IS THE CORIOLLIS EFFECT?

[00:00:15.832]
HOW DOES LIDAR TELL THE AMOUNT
OF WATER VAPOR IN THE AIR?

[00:00:21.962]
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, WE'VE JUST
RECEIVED WORD THAT THE AWARD IS

[00:00:24.592]
ABOUT TO BE -- UM, AWARDED.

[00:00:27.412]
WE'RE SENDING YOU BACK LIVE TO
THE E.P.A. BEACH CLEANUP AWARDS.

[00:00:31.772]
AND NOW THE AWARD FOR
THE BEST BEACH CLEANUP.

[00:00:35.902]
WITH A RECORD 16 TONS OF TRASH,
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:00:44.902]
[00:00:54.282]
THERE YOU HAVE IT, TED.

[00:00:55.662]
OUR OWN TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
ARE GOING TO SEA WORLD.

[00:00:59.272]
GREAT JOB, KIDS.

[00:01:01.582]
I CAN'T BELIEVE WE WON.

[00:01:03.052]
AND GET TO GOT TO SEA
WORLD IN SUNNY FLORIDA.

[00:01:06.712]
NOW I'M REALLY WORRIED ABOUT
THE TROPICAL DEPRESSION.

[00:01:09.662]
MY GRANDPARENTS LIVE IN FLORIDA,
AND THEY GET A LOT OF HURRICANES.

[00:01:12.672]
THAT'S NOT GOOD.

[00:01:13.992]
I DON'T WANT TO MISS OUT ON THE
PHYSICS FAIR OR THE SEA WORLD TRIP.

[00:01:17.362]
WE BETTER DO A LOT MORE
RESEARCH ON WEATHER.

[00:01:19.492]
YEAH, ESPECIALLY HURRICANES.

[00:01:21.622]
DURING THE PAST SIX HOURS,

[00:01:23.072]
THE TROPICAL DEPRESSION HAS BECOME
CONSIDERABLY BETTER ORGANIZED

[00:01:27.112]
AND HAS STRENGTHENED INTO
A TROPICAL STORM, ICHABOD.

[00:01:30.662]
THE CENTER OF THE STORM IS LOCATED
NEAR A LATITUDE OF 13.3 NORTH

[00:01:35.752]
AND A LONGITUDE OF 38.5 WEST.

[00:01:39.042]
NOW, ICHABOD IS MOVING TOWARD THE
NORTHWEST AT 20 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:01:43.402]
IT HAS MAXIMUM SUSTAINED
WIND AT 45 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:01:47.532]
NOW, SOME STRENGTHENING IS
EXPECTED DURING THE NEXT 24 HOURS,

[00:01:51.342]
AND ICHABOD COULD BECOME A
HURRICANE IN A DAY OR TWO.

[00:01:54.372]
WE WILL CONTINUE TO
CLOSELY WATCH THIS STORM.

[00:01:57.382]
FROM THE WEATHER CHANNEL,
I'M METEOROLOGIST LISA MOZER.

[00:02:00.602]
WHAT?

[00:02:01.322]
DID SHE SAY HURRICANE?

[00:02:03.222]
WE'RE OVER HERE.

[00:02:05.162]
WE HAD BETTER START PLOTTING THE
TRACK OF TROPICAL STORM ICHABOD.

[00:02:07.972]
THIS IS GETTING SERIOUS.

[00:02:09.152]
LET'S LOOK AT THE MAP.

[00:02:11.212]
REMEMBER, LATITUDE LINES RUN
FROM EAST TO WEST AND ARE DIVIDED

[00:02:14.132]
AT THE EQUATOR INTO
NORTH AND SOUTH.

[00:02:16.632]
SO THE STORM IS LOCATED
AT 13.4 DEGREES NORTH.

[00:02:20.452]
THAT'S ABOVE THE EQUATOR.

[00:02:21.842]
AND LONGITUDE LINES RUN FROM
NORTH TO SOUTH AND ARE DIVIDED

[00:02:24.392]
BY THE PRIME MERIDIAN
INTO EAST AND WEST.

[00:02:26.992]
38.5 DEGREES WEST IS...

[00:02:32.402]
RIGHT THERE.

[00:02:33.312]
THE STORM IS LOCATED WHERE
THE TWO LINES INTERSECT.

[00:02:35.762]
SEA WORLD IS LOCATED
IN ORLANDO, FLORIDA.

[00:02:36.902]
DO YOU REALLY THINK WE
NEED TO WORRY ABOUT THAT?

[00:02:38.332]
YES, I DO, BUT I'VE GOT TO GO.

[00:02:44.662]
LATER.

[00:02:44.832]
THE VARIABLES IN OUR
PROBLEM ARE CHANGING,

[00:02:46.342]
AND IT COULD BECOME A HURRICANE.

[00:02:48.272]
ONE VARIABLE THAT'S CHANGING
IS THE STORM'S WIND SPEEDS.

[00:02:51.472]
I WONDER WHAT MAKES
THE WIND SPEEDS CHANGE.

[00:02:53.902]
IT CAN'T BE THE SUN, BECAUSE STORMS
HAVE A LOT OF CLOUDS AND RAIN.

[00:02:57.842]
I DON'T KNOW.

[00:02:58.472]
REMEMBER WHAT DR. "D"
SAID ABOUT AIR PRESSURE

[00:03:01.272]
AND HOW WIND IS CREATED?

[00:03:02.462]
I THINK WE NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT HURRICANES.

[00:03:04.622]
WE SAW ON THE UPDATE THAT THE STORM

[00:03:09.352]
IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN IS
NOW A TROPICAL DEPRESSION.

[00:03:12.092]
WE'RE AFRAID THAT IT'S GONNA
AFFECT OUR TRIP TO TAMPA,

[00:03:15.222]
SO WE NEED TO KNOW HOW DOES A
STORM GROW AND BECOME A HURRICANE?

[00:03:19.342]
FIRST YOU NEED TO KNOW A LITTLE
BIT ABOUT PRESSURE SYSTEMS

[00:03:21.912]
AND HOW THEY FORM ON EARTH.

[00:03:23.382]
WE LEARNED ABOUT AIR
PRESSURE FROM DR. "D."

[00:03:25.092]
IS THIS THE SAME THING?

[00:03:27.582]
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF AIR
PRESSURE SYSTEMS: HIGH AND LOW.

[00:03:31.032]
THE UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION

[00:03:32.232]
OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE
CAUSES THEM TO FORM.

[00:03:34.612]
SO YOU MEAN THAT'S WHY
IT'S HOTTER AT THE EQUATOR

[00:03:36.582]
THAN AT THE NORTH AND SOUTH POLES?

[00:03:38.672]
EXACTLY, AND WE ALSO HAVE LOCAL
TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS DEPENDING

[00:03:42.082]
ON THE LAND SURFACE TYPE.

[00:03:43.262]
AND THESE LOCAL TEMPERATURE
VARIATIONS CAUSE AIR TO RISE

[00:03:46.222]
IN SOME AREAS AND TO
SINK IN OTHER AREAS.

[00:03:48.752]
THIS RISING AND SINKING
MOTION CAUSES HIGH-

[00:03:50.742]
AND LOW-PRESSURE AREAS
IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:03:52.672]
WHAT DO HIGH- AND
LOW-PRESSURE SYSTEMS HAVE TO DO

[00:03:54.892]
WITH THE TROPICAL STORM?

[00:03:56.812]
WE HAVE REGIONS IN THE
TROPICS THAT ARE WARMER

[00:03:59.292]
AND COOLER THAN OTHER REGIONS.

[00:04:01.122]
LOW PRESSURE FORMS IN THE WARM
REGIONS, AND ONCE THEY FORM,

[00:04:03.862]
THEY MOVE FROM EAST TO WEST.

[00:04:05.552]
I REMEMBER WE LEARNED IN THE
CASE OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT

[00:04:08.682]
THAT WINDS IN THE TROPICS
ARE CALLED TRADE WINDS.

[00:04:11.022]
THESE WINDS MOVE FROM
THE EAST TO THE WEST.

[00:04:13.302]
IS THAT WHY THE MOVE IN
A WESTERLY DIRECTION?

[00:04:15.902]
YES, AND AS LOW-PRESSURE AREAS
MOVE OVER THE WARM TROPICAL OCEANS,

[00:04:19.662]
THEY GATHER HEAT AND MOISTURE FROM
THE OCEAN AND CAUSE THUNDERSTORMS.

[00:04:23.492]
THE RAIN AND THE THUNDERSTORMS
WARMS THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR COLUMN.

[00:04:27.192]
THAT CAUSES THE SURFACE
PRESSURE TO LOWER,

[00:04:29.472]
THUS STRENGTHENING
THE LOW-PRESSURE AREA.

[00:04:31.872]
AS WARM AIR RISES, PRESSURE
IN THE SYSTEM GETS COOLER?

[00:04:35.412]
SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

[00:04:36.422]
THE MIDDLE AND UPPER
ATMOSPHERIC WINDS TAKE AWAY AIR

[00:04:39.482]
FROM THE LOW-PRESSURE
AREAS AND DEPOSIT THEM

[00:04:41.842]
IN THE HIGH-PRESSURE AREAS.

[00:04:43.572]
AND WE END UP WITH VERY SMALL
BUT INTENSE LOW-PRESSURE AREAS

[00:04:46.662]
AND VERY WEAK BUT LARGE
HIGH-PRESSURE AREAS.

[00:04:49.202]
AND WHAT'S THE THIRD WAY?

[00:04:50.242]
THAT HAPPENS WHEN A
HURRICANE FORMS AN EYE.

[00:04:54.522]
AN EYE?

[00:04:55.212]
I KNOW HE DOESN'T MEAN A REAL EYE.

[00:04:58.332]
NO, NO.

[00:04:59.842]
IT'S THE CENTER OF THE HURRICANE
WHERE THERE IS NO CLOUD.

[00:05:03.622]
AIR IS SINKING NEAR THE
CENTER OF THE HURRICANE.

[00:05:05.392]
AND AS IT SINKS, IT
WARMS UP DRAMATICALLY.

[00:05:08.132]
WARMING CAUSES A HURRICANE
TO INTENSIFY DRAMATICALLY.

[00:05:11.662]
DR. "D" TOLD US THAT WIND IS
FORMED WHEN AIR MOVES FROM AN AREA

[00:05:14.652]
OF HIGH PRESSURE TO AN
AREA OF LOW PRESSURE.

[00:05:17.032]
DO THE WINDS OF A HURRICANE
INCREASE AS THE PRESSURE DROPS?

[00:05:20.072]
YES, AND THE WINDS
TYPICALLY INCREASE

[00:05:21.782]
AS YOU MOVE TOWARD THE EYE, OR
THE CENTER, OF THE HURRICANE.

[00:05:24.742]
IN STRONG HURRICANES, THE WINDS
CAN VARY RATHER DRAMATICALLY

[00:05:27.892]
FROM ABOUT 20 MILES PER HOUR ON
THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE HURRICANE

[00:05:30.832]
TO MORE THAN 150 MILES
PER HOUR NEAR THE CENTER

[00:05:33.892]
IN THE EYE WALL OF A HURRICANE.

[00:05:35.812]
IS THE WIND THE FASTEST IN THE EYE?

[00:05:38.572]
ACTUALLY, THAT'S A
COMMON MISCONCEPTION.

[00:05:40.432]
IT ISN'T.

[00:05:41.372]
THE WINDS ARE STRONGEST
JUST OUTSIDE THE EYE

[00:05:43.342]
AND DECREASE DRAMATICALLY
TOWARD THE CIRCULATION CENTER,

[00:05:46.372]
WHERE THEY'RE OFTEN
LIGHT AND VARIABLE.

[00:05:48.702]
SOUNDS LIKE THE PLACE
TO BE IN A HURRICANE.

[00:05:50.722]
IS THERE A PARTICULAR TIME OF YEAR
HURRICANES ARE MORE LIKELY TO FORM?

[00:05:54.842]
THAT'S A GREAT QUESTION.

[00:05:56.352]
AND IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE,
IT'S JUNE THROUGH NOVEMBER,

[00:05:59.212]
WHEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES
ARE WARMEST

[00:06:01.442]
AND THE LAND AREAS ARE HOTTEST.

[00:06:03.272]
IT'S IDEAL FOR HURRICANE FORMATION.

[00:06:05.202]
YOU'VE GIVEN US A
LOT TO THINK ABOUT.

[00:06:08.012]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:06:08.502]
I'M GLAD I COULD HELP.

[00:06:09.762]
BE SURE TO WATCH THE WEATHER
CHANNEL FOR TROPICAL STORM

[00:06:12.172]
AND HURRICANE ADVISORIES
AND UPDATES.

[00:06:14.242]
YOU ALSO MIGHT WANT TO
VISIT THE NASA "WHY?"

[00:06:16.732]
FILES WEBSITE'S RESEARCH
RACK AND CHECK OUT THE LINK

[00:06:19.892]
TO THE WEATHER CHANNEL.

[00:06:22.532]
WE WILL; THANKS, GOOD-BYE.

[00:06:27.142]
DR. "D" SAID HE WAS GOING
TO MEET US HERE AT M.O.S.I.

[00:06:30.382]
[00:06:31.502]
LOOK, THERE HE IS RIDING
A BICYCLE ON A TIGHTROPE.

[00:06:34.562]
HOW IS HE DOING THAT?

[00:06:36.642]
HEY, DR. "D", HOW DO
YOU KEEP FROM FALLING?

[00:06:40.392]
THE LAWS OF PHYSICS MAKE IT
IMPOSSIBLE FOR ME TO FALL.

[00:06:43.872]
A HUGE COUNTERWEIGHT BELOW
MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE.

[00:06:47.282]
ARE YOU SURE YOU CAN TRUST
THOSE LAWS ALL THE TIME?

[00:06:49.982]
DON'T WORRY ABOUT ME.

[00:06:51.512]
I'LL MEET YOU IN THE HURRICANE ROOM
AS SOON AS I GET OFF THE BICYCLE.

[00:06:55.322]
[00:07:04.942]
I'VE NEVER BEEN IN
A HURRICANE BEFORE.

[00:07:06.712]
ARE YOU SURE THIS IS SAFE?

[00:07:08.242]
OF COURSE IT'S SAFE.

[00:07:10.052]
IN HERE, WE'LL FEEL ONE OF THE
MOST TREMENDOUS FORCES OF NATURE.

[00:07:12.662]
IT WILL ONLY BE A
MINIMAL HURRICANE.

[00:07:14.662]
BUT AT 74 MILES PER HOUR, IT'LL
STILL BE QUITE AN EXPERIENCE.

[00:07:18.082]
HERE WE GO.

[00:07:19.532]
[00:07:33.612]
WOW, THAT WAS REALLY AMAZING.

[00:07:36.352]
ARE YOU SURE THAT WAS
JUST A MINIMAL HURRICANE?

[00:07:38.512]
YOU BET.

[00:07:39.442]
NOW, IT'S ESTIMATED THAT
A REALLY MAJOR HURRICANE

[00:07:42.332]
WITH 148-MILE-AN-HOUR WINDS, OR
TWICE WHAT YOU JUST EXPERIENCED,

[00:07:46.622]
CAN PRODUCE 250 TIMES THE PROPERTY
DAMAGE OF A MINIMAL HURRICANE.

[00:07:50.352]
WOW, THAT'S A LOT OF ENERGY.

[00:07:52.562]
DR. LYONS TOLD US THE
SUN EVAPORATES WATER

[00:07:54.932]
AND PROVIDES ENERGY
FOR THE HURRICANE.

[00:07:57.242]
YES, AND THE ENERGY IS
GIVEN TO THE HURRICANE

[00:07:59.192]
WHEN THE EVAPORATED WATER
CONDENSES INTO RAINDROPS.

[00:08:01.852]
IT TURNS OUT IF YOU CONDENSE
JUST ONE LITER OF WATER,

[00:08:05.442]
IT WILL GIVE UP ENOUGH ENERGY

[00:08:06.672]
TO POWER A 60-WATT
LIGHT BULB FOR 11 HOURS.

[00:08:10.222]
BUT AN AVERAGE HURRICANE WILL
CONDENSE 20 TRILLION LITERS

[00:08:13.802]
OF WATER IN A DAY, SO 20
FOLLOWED BY 12 ZEROES.

[00:08:18.272]
WOW, THAT'S WAY TOO BIG A
NUMBER FOR ME TO COMPREHEND.

[00:08:21.322]
THAT'S AS MUCH ENERGY AS THE ALL
THE WORLD'S ELECTRICAL GENERATING

[00:08:24.402]
PLANTS PRODUCE IN 200 DAYS.

[00:08:27.322]
WOW, NOW I'M REALLY IMPRESSED.

[00:08:28.852]
HURRICANES HAVE A LOT OF ENERGY.

[00:08:31.292]
LET ME SHOW YOU SOMETHING
ELSE ABOUT HURRICANES.

[00:08:33.122]
IT'S PRETTY INTERESTING.

[00:08:35.642]
HURRICANES IN THE
NORTHERN HEMISPHERE HAVE A

[00:08:37.562]
COUNTERCLOCKWISE ROTATION.

[00:08:39.142]
ALL OF THEM?

[00:08:40.732]
RIGHT, BECAUSE THE HURRICANE
IS A LOW-PRESSURE REGION.

[00:08:43.652]
WHEN AIR IN THE HIGHER-PRESSURE
REGION AROUND IT RUSHES IN,

[00:08:46.372]
IT GETS BENT TO THE RIGHT BECAUSE
OF THE ROTATION OF THE EARTH.

[00:08:49.442]
THIS CAUSES THE COUNTERCLOCKWISE
ROTATION OF THE HURRICANE.

[00:08:52.472]
I DON'T GET IT.

[00:08:53.592]
HOW WOULD THE ROTATION OF THE
EARTH MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE?

[00:08:56.212]
WE JUST HAPPEN TO HAVE A VERY
INTERESTING DEVICE THAT'LL HELP US

[00:08:59.142]
UNDERSTAND HOW IT WORKS.

[00:09:00.622]
EACH OF YOU SIT AT
OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE BOARD,

[00:09:02.702]
AND I'LL GIVE YOU A SPIN.

[00:09:04.762]
HOPE YOU DON'T GET TOO DIZZY.

[00:09:07.142]
[00:09:10.992]
NOW, BIANCA, TOSS THE
BALL OVER TO CATHERINE.

[00:09:14.002]
[00:09:15.982]
IT DIDN'T EVEN COME CLOSE.

[00:09:18.542]
TRY IT AGAIN.

[00:09:20.312]
IT CURVED TO THE RIGHT
AFTER I THREW IT.

[00:09:25.592]
THE BALL APPEARED TO CURVE FOR THE
SAME REASONS THE WINDS ARE BENT

[00:09:28.692]
TO THE RIGHT WHEN THEY RUSH IN
TOWARD THE CENTER OF A HURRICANE.

[00:09:31.192]
IT'S CALLED CORIOLLIS EFFECT, AND
IT EXISTS IN ANY ROTATING SYSTEM.

[00:09:34.722]
I SEE THE BALL TRAVELING
IN A STRAIGHT LINE.

[00:09:37.052]
BUT AS YOU SEE IT ON THE ROTATING
BOARD, IT REALLY IS CURVING.

[00:09:40.112]
WOW, THIS IS SO MUCH FUN.

[00:09:41.472]
I COULD SIT ON THIS ALL DAY.

[00:09:43.422]
NOT ME; I'M GETTING DIZZY.

[00:09:45.792]
I NEED TO GET OFF THIS THING.

[00:09:47.662]
IF YOU LIKE CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS,
YOU NEED TO CHECK OUT DR.

[00:09:50.362]
"D'S" LAB ON THE NASA "WHY?"

[00:09:51.642]
FILES WEBSITE.

[00:09:52.312]
AND THAT WAS SO AMAZING.

[00:09:54.832]
I CAN'T BELIEVE I WAS ACTUALLY
IN HURRICANE-FORCE WINDS.

[00:09:58.342]
SOUNDS LIKE IT WAS REALLY A BLAST.

[00:09:59.922]
IT WAS A BLAST, A BLAST OF
WIND AT 74 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:10:03.242]
BUT THE GOOD THING IS, IT ENDED.

[00:10:04.202]
I WOULD NEVER WANT TO
BE IN A REAL HURRICANE.

[00:10:07.282]
ME EITHER.

[00:10:08.292]
I'M LISA MOZER FOR
THE WEATHER CHANNEL

[00:10:10.182]
WITH AN IMPORTANT
UPDATE ON ICHABOD.

[00:10:12.682]
IN THE LAST 24 HOURS, THE STORM
HAS STRENGTHENED AND IS NOW

[00:10:16.742]
AT MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WIND
OF 79 MILES PER HOUR,

[00:10:20.972]
MAKING IT A CATEGORY ONE HURRICANE.

[00:10:23.682]
BASED ON SATELLITE
INFORMATION, IT IS CONTINUING

[00:10:26.942]
IN A NORTHWEST DIRECTION
AT 20 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:10:30.942]
THE CENTER OF THE STORM IS LOCATED
NEAR A LATITUDE OF 15.3 NORTH

[00:10:35.732]
AND A LONGITUDE OF 43.9 WEST.

[00:10:39.472]
IN A FEW HOURS, THE U.S. AIR
FORCE IS EXPECTED TO SEND

[00:10:43.102]
IN A RECONNAISSANCE AIRCRAFT
TO GET AN UPDATE ON ICHABOD.

[00:10:47.182]
MEANWHILE, THE NATIONAL HURRICANE
CENTER HAS ISSUED A HURRICANE WATCH

[00:10:51.682]
FOR THE ISLANDS OF
THE LESSER ANTILLES.

[00:10:54.282]
STAY TUNED FOR UPDATES AS WE
CONTINUE TO FOLLOW THIS STORM.

[00:10:58.272]
OH, NO, IT'S NOW A HURRICANE.

[00:11:00.312]
WE'D BETTER GET BUSY AND
FIGURE THIS PROBLEM OUT.

[00:11:03.172]
I WONDER WHAT CATEGORY ONE MEANS.

[00:11:05.332]
DO YOU KNOW WHAT IT IS?

[00:11:05.912]
I'VE GOT IT ON THE MAP.

[00:11:08.242]
IT SAYS LATITUDE 15.3 NORTH
AND LONGITUDE 43.9 WEST.

[00:11:13.572]
I THINK WE NEED TO GO
TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:11:18.712]
WE KNOW THAT THE TROPICAL
DEPRESSION IS NOW A HURRICANE.

[00:11:21.642]
AND WE KNOW ABOUT CLOUDS AND THAT
STORMS ARE LOW-PRESSURE SYSTEMS.

[00:11:25.562]
AND WE KNOW THAT HURRICANES
USUALLY MOVE FROM EAST TO WEST

[00:11:28.992]
AND THEY GET BIGGER
WITH HIGHER WINDS

[00:11:30.462]
WHEN THEY MOVE OVER WARM WATERS.

[00:11:32.372]
AND WE KNOW THAT WATER
VAPOR FEEDS THE STORM.

[00:11:35.752]
DO YOU THINK WE NEED A HYPOTHESIS?

[00:11:37.262]
I THINK WE NEED TO
FORM A HYPOTHESIS.

[00:11:40.422]
WITH WHAT WE KNOW, I THINK
OUR HYPOTHESIS SHOULD BE,

[00:11:42.992]
"IF THE STORM CONTINUES
TO INCREASE IN STRENGTH,

[00:11:45.212]
THEN IT WILL HIT FLORIDA."

[00:11:46.792]
IT SOUNDS LIKE WE NEED TO KNOW

[00:11:47.732]
IF THE STORM IS GOING
TO GET ANY STRONGER.

[00:11:49.562]
I READ ABOUT DR. BROWELL.

[00:11:51.272]
HE'S WITH NASA LANGLEY
RESEARCH CENTER.

[00:11:52.892]
HE USES A LIDAR TO FIND HOW MUCH
WATER VAPOR IS IN A HURRICANE.

[00:11:56.682]
THAT'S A GOOD IDEA, SINCE WE KNOW
THAT WATER VAPOR FEEDS A STORM.

[00:12:00.192]
WAIT, I FOUND HURRICANE
HUNTERS ON THE INTERNET.

[00:12:03.332]
THEY ACTUALLY GO INTO THE
HURRICANE TO GATHER DATA.

[00:12:06.592]
LOOKS LIKE WE FOUND OUR
NEXT TWO PLACES TO GO.

[00:12:08.822]
LET'S BREAK INTO SMALL GROUPS
AND DO SOME INVESTIGATING.

[00:12:11.532]
DON'T FORGET YOUR
GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET.

[00:12:13.202]
YOU COULD WRITE DOWN
EVERYTHING AND THEN SHARE IT.

[00:12:16.532]
HELLO, DR. BROWELL?

[00:12:19.452]
OH, HELLO, YOU MUST BE ONE
OF THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:12:22.232]
I JUST SPOKE WITH
DR. "D" ON THE PHONE,

[00:12:23.952]
AND HE SAID YOU WERE COMING OVER.

[00:12:25.382]
WE'RE TRYING TO FIGURE OUT
HOW SCIENTISTS CAN PREDICT

[00:12:27.812]
IF A TROPICAL STORM WILL
GET BIGGER OR SMALLER.

[00:12:30.682]
I DEFINITELY CAN HELP
YOU WITH THAT.

[00:12:32.642]
WE LEARNED ABOUT LIDAR BEFORE,
BUT WE COULD USE A REVIEW.

[00:12:35.992]
CAN YOU HELP US?

[00:12:37.212]
CERTAINLY; LIDAR IS
AN ACRONYM THAT STANDS

[00:12:39.842]
FOR LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING.

[00:12:41.972]
IT'S A PULSATING INSTRUMENT
USED TO PROBE THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:12:45.032]
LET'S TAKE A LOOK NOW AT HOW LASER
LIGHT SCATTERS IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:12:48.732]
YOU'VE SEEN A LASER POINTER BEFORE.

[00:12:51.032]
IF YOU WOULD PASS THE BEAM FROM
THE POINTER THROUGH THIS PLUME

[00:12:54.292]
FROM THE VAPORIZER,
YOU'LL SEE THE SCATTERING

[00:12:56.582]
FROM THE SMALL PARTICLES JUST LIKE
A LIDAR SEES IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:13:00.912]
WOW, THIS IS NEAT.

[00:13:02.212]
AND IF YOU WOULD IMAGINE
USING A PULSED LASER,

[00:13:05.022]
WE COULD SEE WHERE THE SCATTERING
IS AND HOW MUCH IS THERE,

[00:13:08.442]
MUCH LIKE A LASER RADAR.

[00:13:10.222]
BUT HOW DO YOU MEASURE
WATER VAPOR WITH A LIDAR?

[00:13:12.052]
WELL, COME ON; LET ME SHOW YOU.

[00:13:14.872]
TAKE A LOOK AT THESE
TWO LASER BEAMS.

[00:13:19.962]
NOW, YOU CAN SLIDE THE
CONTAINER OF COLORED WATER

[00:13:22.292]
INTO THE TUBE BEAMS
AND SEE WHAT HAPPENS.

[00:13:25.282]
[00:13:27.672]
THE GREEN LASER LIGHT
ALMOST DISAPPEARS.

[00:13:30.062]
EXACTLY.

[00:13:31.332]
AND BY COMPARING THE INTENSITY
AND HOW MUCH CHANGE IS

[00:13:34.412]
IN THE GREEN LIGHT,

[00:13:35.472]
WE CAN CALCULATE HOW
MUCH DYE IS IN THE CELL.

[00:13:38.552]
SO YOU MEAN YOU CAN DETECT
THE AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR

[00:13:41.662]
BY COMPARING HOW TWO LASER LIGHTS
CHANGE WHEN WATER VAPOR IS PRESENT?

[00:13:45.422]
EXACTLY.

[00:13:46.392]
LET'S GO SEE A LIDAR THAT'S
FLOWN AROUND A HURRICANE.

[00:13:49.802]
[00:13:52.822]
THIS LIDAR SYSTEM IS CALLED
L.A.S.E. L.A.S.E. STANDS

[00:13:56.392]
FOR LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING
EXPERIMENT, AND IT WAS DESIGNED

[00:14:00.502]
TO GO INTO A VERY
HIGH-ALTITUDE AIRPLANE.

[00:14:03.502]
WHEN L.A.S.E. IS FLOWN ON AN
AIRPLANE AROUND A HURRICANE,

[00:14:06.202]
WE CAN MAKE MEASUREMENTS

[00:14:07.242]
OF HOW MUCH WATER VAPOR IS
FLOWING INTO THE HURRICANE.

[00:14:10.482]
WE LEARNED WATER VAPOR
FEEDS A STORM.

[00:14:12.762]
YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:14:13.482]
WATER VAPOR IS THE PRIMARY ENERGY
SOURCE THAT DRIVES THE HURRICANE.

[00:14:17.652]
WHY WOULD NASA WANT TO
FLY AROUND HURRICANES?

[00:14:20.082]
THE INFORMATION WE GATHER WITH
OUR EXPERIMENTS SHOULD HELP US

[00:14:23.102]
TO BETTER PREDICT
HURRICANE BEHAVIOR.

[00:14:25.762]
AND WE HOPE TO DEVELOP VERY
SMALL LIDAR SYSTEMS THAT CAN GO

[00:14:29.102]
ON UNMANNED AERIAL
VEHICLES, OR U.A.V.S,

[00:14:32.182]
WHICH ARE SMALL MODEL AIRCRAFT.

[00:14:34.122]
WHY WOULD YOU WANT TO PUT
LIDAR ON SUCH SMALL PLANES?

[00:14:37.462]
WELL, A U.A.V. CAN FLY AROUND
A HURRICANE FOR SEVERAL DAYS

[00:14:41.292]
AND GET THE INFORMATION WE NEED

[00:14:43.112]
TO HELP BETTER PREDICT
WHAT THE HURRICANE WILL DO.

[00:14:46.302]
IN THE FUTURE, WE HOPE TO
DEVELOP A LIDAR SYSTEM TO GO

[00:14:48.882]
INTO SPACE TO DO THE SAME THING.

[00:14:50.952]
WOW, THAT WOULD BE REALLY AWESOME.

[00:14:53.322]
THANKS, DR. BROWELL,
YOU'VE BEEN A BIG HELP.

[00:14:57.192]
THIS IS A PLANE THAT HURRICANE
HUNTERS USE TO CHASE STORMS.

[00:15:00.422]
LET'S CHECK IT OUT.

[00:15:02.452]
HI, YOU MUST BE ONE OF
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:15:04.352]
YES, I'M R.J. WE'RE GOING
ON A MISSION RIGHT NOW.

[00:15:07.222]
YOU WANT TO GO?

[00:15:07.922]
YOU BET.

[00:15:08.512]
I'LL GET YOU IN A FLIGHT
SUIT, AND I'LL LET YOU TALK

[00:15:10.742]
TO OUR PILOT, CAPTAIN FORD.

[00:15:12.472]
LET'S GO.

[00:15:14.122]
[00:15:16.642]
HELLO, R.J. HOW'S OUR NEWEST
HURRICANE HUNTER TODAY?

[00:15:19.242]
I'M FINE, BUT WHY ARE YOU GUYS
CALLED THE HURRICANE HUNTERS?

[00:15:22.382]
OUR MISSION IS WEATHER
RECONNAISSANCE,

[00:15:24.142]
BUT OUR MOST FAMOUS TYPE OF
MISSION IS TO FLY INTO HURRICANES.

[00:15:27.162]
WHY DO YOU NEED TO
FLY INTO A HURRICANE?

[00:15:29.392]
WE FLY INTO HURRICANES
TO GATHER DATA

[00:15:31.122]
WHICH WILL HELP DETERMINE
THE LOCATION

[00:15:32.582]
AND INTENSITY OF THE HURRICANE.

[00:15:34.462]
IF THE STORM IS WELL-DEVELOPED,
WE CAN LOCATE THE CENTER

[00:15:37.222]
AND THE RAIN BANDS
USING SATELLITES.

[00:15:39.412]
IF THE HURRICANE IS LESS
DEVELOPED, THEN IT'S HARDER

[00:15:41.612]
TO LOCATE THE CENTER OF THE STORM
AND IT BECOMES MORE OF A HUNT.

[00:15:44.442]
ARE WE GOING TO FLY
THROUGH A HURRICANE?

[00:15:46.702]
NOT THIS TIME, BUT YOU'D
BETTER GET STRAPPED IN.

[00:15:49.162]
WE'RE ALMOST READY TO GO.

[00:15:51.092]
[00:15:54.882]
CAPTAIN GIBSON, WHAT'S
YOUR JOB ON THIS MISSION?

[00:16:00.262]
I'M THE METEOROLOGIST, OR
WHAT THEY WOULD CALL AN AERIAL

[00:16:01.742]
RECONNAISSANCE WEATHER OFFICER.

[00:16:02.712]
WHAT WE DO IS COLLECT ALL
THE DATA ABOUT THE STORM,

[00:16:05.312]
SUCH AS WHERE IT'S
LOCATED, HOW STRONG IT IS.

[00:16:08.792]
WE'LL TAKE ALL THE INFORMATION.

[00:16:10.332]
WE'LL SEND IT VIA SATELLITE
TO THE HURRICANE CENTER,

[00:16:19.332]
[00:16:25.182]
WHERE THEY CAN START
WORKING ON THEIR FORECASTS.

[00:16:26.352]
HOW DOES THE DATA
HELP METEOROLOGISTS?

[00:16:27.372]
THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER
SENDS OUT TOGETHER THE DATA.

[00:16:28.812]
YOU SEE, R.J., WHEN WE
FLY INTO A STORM SYSTEM,

[00:16:30.102]
NOT ONLY DO WE HAVE WEATHER
SENSORS DOTTING THE AIRCRAFT ALL

[00:16:31.632]
THE WAY AROUND.

[00:16:31.962]
WE ALSO RELEASE SENSORS
CALLED DROP SLOTS.

[00:16:33.512]
WHAT'S HAPPENING?

[00:16:38.652]
IT LOOKS LIKE WE FOUND
OUR TROPICAL DISTURBANCE.

[00:16:41.682]
NOT QUITE A TROPICAL STORM YET, BUT
WE'LL HAVE TO KEEP OUR EYE ON IT

[00:16:43.482]
SO IT DOESN'T INCREASE IN INTENSITY

[00:16:44.472]
AND PERHAPS BECOME A HURRICANE
A LITTLE LATER ON THIS WEEK.

[00:16:45.972]
THAT'S SO COOL.

[00:16:46.332]
WHAT OTHER TYPES OF
STORMS ARE THERE?

[00:16:47.502]
RJ, THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF STORMS.

[00:16:49.552]
FIRST YOU START OUT
WITH A TROPICAL WAVE.

[00:16:51.602]
THAT'S JUST AN AREA
OF LOW PRESSURE.

[00:16:53.002]
IT TYPICALLY JUST
CAUSES A LOT OF RAINFALL.

[00:16:55.732]
IT DOESN'T HAVE HIGH WIND SPEEDS.

[00:16:58.662]
BUT AS THE STORM INTENSIFIES, IT
BECOMES A TROPICAL DEPRESSION.

[00:17:01.982]
THOSE HAVE WIND SPEEDS
UP TO 38 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:10.982]
[00:17:11.072]
IT DOESN'T QUITE HAVE A
CLOSED CIRCULATION OF WINDS.

[00:17:12.482]
ONCE IT REACHES 39 MILES
PER HOUR ALL THE WAY

[00:17:13.742]
UP TO 73 MILES PER HOUR, IT
BECOMES A TROPICAL STORM.

[00:17:15.392]
IT DOES HAVE A CLOSED
CIRCULATION OF AIR.

[00:17:16.472]
WHEN DOES A TROPICAL
STORM BECOME A HURRICANE?

[00:17:17.812]
A HURRICANE BEGINS WHEN THE
WINDS REACH 74 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:21.432]
THERE'S FIVE DIFFERENT
CATEGORIES OF HURRICANES.

[00:17:23.632]
CATEGORY ONE STARTS AT 74 AND
GOES UP TO 95 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:30.422]
THEN YOU HAVE CATEGORY TWO.

[00:17:31.112]
IT GOES FROM 96 MILES PER
HOUR TO 110 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:33.082]
THEN CATEGORY THREE: 111
TO 130 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:37.372]
WOW, THAT'S A POWERFUL STORM.

[00:17:40.172]
HAVE YOU HAD VERY MANY
CATEGORY THREE HURRICANES?

[00:17:46.242]
YES, WE'VE HAD SEVERAL THAT
REACHED CATEGORY FOUR HURRICANES.

[00:17:47.782]
AND THAT'S WHEN THE WINDS GET
FROM 131 TO 155 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:17:50.352]
HAS THERE EVER BEEN A
CATEGORY FIVE HURRICANE?

[00:17:57.392]
YES, BUT ONLY TWO HAVE EVER MADE
LANDFALL IN THE LAST CENTURY.

[00:18:06.392]
[00:18:10.702]
IT REQUIRES THE WINDS TO BE
ABOVE 155 MILES PER HOUR,

[00:18:12.562]
AND THE CONDITIONS HAVE TO BE
JUST RIGHT FOR THAT TO HAPPEN.

[00:18:14.152]
WELL, I'M GLAD THERE AREN'T
MANY CATEGORY FIVE HURRICANES.

[00:18:15.592]
ME TOO.

[00:18:15.772]
DO YOU GUYS HAVE A
BATHROOM ON THE PLANE?

[00:18:16.792]
YES, WE DO, BUT IT'S IN THE BACK.

[00:18:17.862]
R.J., DID YOU FIND IT YET?

[00:18:20.082]
I THINK I'LL WAIT.

[00:18:23.002]
THANKS A LOT.

[00:18:24.152]
THIS WAS AWESOME.

[00:18:24.822]
ANYTHING FOR THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:18:26.632]
WOW, I ACTUALLY FLEW WITH THE AIR
FORCE RESERVE'S HURRICANE HUNTERS.

[00:18:33.052]
WAIT TILL THE GUYS READ MY
GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET ON THIS ONE.

[00:18:38.192]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:18:39.312]
WILL HURRICANE ICHABOD
CONTINUE TO RECEIVE WATER VAPOR?

[00:18:42.372]
WILL IT BECOME A CATEGORY
TWO HURRICANE?

[00:18:44.952]
HOW WILL ITS STRENGTHENING AFFECT
THE PEOPLE LIVING ALONG THE COAST?

[00:18:48.192]
DON'T MISS THE NEXT CHAPTER OF:
THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL WEATHER.

[00:18:51.212]
[00:00:02.062]
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
ARE GETTING WARMER.

[00:00:05.432]
KEEP YOUR EYES OPEN AND ANSWER
THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:10.092]
WHAT IS PROBABILITY?

[00:00:12.602]
WHAT FORCE HOLDS SATELLITES
IN ORBIT AROUND THE EARTH?

[00:00:17.082]
HOW WILL G.I.F.T.S. HELP
METEOROLOGISTS PREDICT

[00:00:19.752]
STORMS EARLIER?

[00:00:22.832]
THE CENTER OF THE STORM IS
LOCATED NEAR A LATITUDE OF 18 NORTH

[00:00:27.412]
AND A LONGITUDE OF 53 WEST.

[00:00:29.812]
IT NOW HAS A MAXIMUM SUSTAINED
WIND AT 108 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:00:34.392]
ICHABOD IS NOW A STRONG
CATEGORY TWO HURRICANE.

[00:00:38.152]
THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER HAS
ISSUED A HURRICANE WARNING NOW

[00:00:42.282]
FOR THE NORTHERNMOST ISLANDS
OF THE LESSER ANTILLES

[00:00:45.022]
AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS
AND A HURRICANE WATCH

[00:00:47.852]
FOR THE ISLANDS OF THE BAHAMAS.

[00:00:50.032]
WOW, THE HURRICANE IS
MOVING CLOSER TO FLORIDA.

[00:00:52.632]
I THINK OUR HYPOTHESIS IS CORRECT.

[00:00:54.412]
IT'S GETTING STRONGER AND CLOSER.

[00:00:55.972]
I JUST PUT THE COORDINATES
ON THE MAP.

[00:00:58.002]
GUYS, THE HURRICANE IS
STILL A LONG WAY AWAY.

[00:01:00.262]
I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD
JUMP TO ANY CONCLUSIONS.

[00:01:03.242]
AND WE LEARNED FROM
THE HURRICANE HUNTERS

[00:01:04.602]
THAT A CATEGORY TWO STORM
CAN DO SOME MAJOR DAMAGE.

[00:01:07.442]
I WONDER IF ANYONE
IN THE NASA "WHY?"

[00:01:09.182]
FILES KIDS CLUB HAS
EXPERIENCED A HURRICANE.

[00:01:11.172]
I DON'T KNOW, BUT I
THINK IT WOULD BE GOOD

[00:01:13.462]
IF WE COULD SPEAK
TO SOMEONE WHO HAS.

[00:01:15.192]
I'VE ALREADY ASKED SOME
OF OUR CLUB MEMBERS.

[00:01:17.702]
IN THIS HURRICANE BOOK, IT SAYS
THAT WIND ISN'T THE ONLY THING

[00:01:20.782]
THAT CAUSES DAMAGE
DURING A HURRICANE.

[00:01:22.842]
THE STORM SURGE AND RAIN
CAN ALSO CAUSE FLOODING.

[00:01:25.632]
STORM SURGE?

[00:01:27.122]
WHAT'S THAT?

[00:01:28.402]
WHEN THE WIND PUSHES
SEAWATER TOWARDS THE SHORE,

[00:01:30.852]
THE WATER PILES UP,
CREATING A WALL OF WATER

[00:01:32.852]
THAT CAN BE UP TO 24 FEET HIGH.

[00:01:35.002]
IT ALSO SAYS THAT TORNADOES CAN
EVEN OCCUR DURING A HURRICANE.

[00:01:37.952]
TORNADOES?

[00:01:39.852]
LIKE IN THE WIZARD OF OZ?

[00:01:41.382]
WE'RE NOT IN KANSAS.

[00:01:42.892]
AND I'M NOT DOROTHY.

[00:01:44.422]
YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE IN
KANSAS TO HAVE TORNADOES,

[00:01:47.252]
EVEN THOUGH KANSAS
IS IN TORNADO ALLEY.

[00:01:49.322]
HEY, LOOK, GUYS, I'M
GETTING AN E-MAIL BACK

[00:01:52.072]
FROM JONATHAN JUAREZ IN MIAMI.

[00:01:53.942]
HIS HOME WAS DESTROYED
BY HURRICANE ANDREW.

[00:01:56.492]
I'M SURE HE HAS A
LOT OF INFORMATION.

[00:01:57.882]
LET'S CONTACT HIM.

[00:02:00.112]
HI, MY NAME IS JONATHAN JUAREZ,

[00:02:05.472]
AND I'M HERE WITH MY
COUSIN, XIMENEA VALDEZ.

[00:02:07.532]
AND WE ARE BOTH HURRICANE
ANDREW SURVIVORS.

[00:02:09.572]
HI, JONATHAN.

[00:02:10.992]
WILL YOU TELL US WHAT IT WAS LIKE
TO GO THROUGH HURRICANE ANDREW?

[00:02:14.262]
YES, I WAS FIVE YEARS
OLD AT THE TIME.

[00:02:16.222]
I WAS GETTING READY FOR MY
FIRST DAY OF KINDERGARTEN

[00:02:18.602]
WHEN HURRICANE ANDREW HIT MY
NEIGHBORHOOD OUTSIDE MIAMI.

[00:02:21.232]
I CAN'T BELIEVE YOU
SURVIVED A HURRICANE.

[00:02:23.802]
DID YOU HIDE IN YOUR HOUSE OR RUN?

[00:02:26.162]
OUR FAMILY STAYED
INSIDE THE BATHROOM,

[00:02:27.792]
SINCE IT WAS THE ONLY ROOM IN
THE HOUSE WITHOUT ANY WINDOWS.

[00:02:30.832]
IT SEEMED LIKE A GOOD IDEA, BUT
WE DIDN'T TAKE ANY SHOES WITH US.

[00:02:34.232]
SO AFTER THE STORM, WE WENT OVER
TO JONATHAN'S HOUSE BAREFOOT,

[00:02:38.322]
BECAUSE ALL OUR SHOES HAD BEEN
BLOWN AWAY DURING THE HURRICANE.

[00:02:42.052]
I DON'T REMEMBER THAT MUCH ABOUT
WHAT HAPPENED DURING THE STORM,

[00:02:45.502]
BECAUSE-- IT'S PRETTY
AMAZING, BUT I FELL ASLEEP

[00:02:49.082]
FOR MOST OF THE STORM.

[00:02:50.532]
AND WHEN I WOKE UP, IT WAS OVER.

[00:02:53.222]
YOU FELL ASLEEP?

[00:02:55.392]
YEAH, BUT WHEN I WOKE UP, I
NOTICED THAT THE WHOLE TOP FLOOR

[00:02:58.872]
OF MY HOUSE WAS RIPPED OFF.

[00:03:00.772]
DO YOU STILL LIVE IN
THE SAME NEIGHBORHOOD?

[00:03:02.572]
NO, BUT THE NEIGHBORHOOD
LOOKS PRETTY NORMAL NOW.

[00:03:04.902]
IT DOESN'T LOOK ANYTHING
LIKE IT DID TEN YEARS AGO.

[00:03:07.662]
AND THERE'S NO WAY TO
DESCRIBE THE DAMAGE.

[00:03:10.182]
MY ADVICE WOULD BE TO STAY IN
THE SAFEST PLACE OF YOUR HOUSE,

[00:03:13.262]
PREFERABLY AWAY FROM WINDOWS,
AND TO PUT UP PLYWOOD SHUTTERS

[00:03:17.322]
IF YOU DON'T HAVE THE STEEL ONES.

[00:03:18.862]
ALSO REMEMBER TO BRING A CHANGE OF
CLOTHES AND AN EXTRA PAIR OF SHOES.

[00:03:23.412]
WOW, YOU WOULD NEVER THINK A
HURRICANE COULD DESTROY YOUR

[00:03:26.362]
ENTIRE HOUSE.

[00:03:27.792]
YEAH, YOUR HOUSE AND
EVERYTHING IN IT.

[00:03:30.442]
THAT'D BE JUST MY
LUCK, TO GO TO FLORIDA

[00:03:32.142]
AND GET STUCK IN A HURRICANE.

[00:03:33.892]
I JUST FINISHED ENTERING IN OUR
NOTES THAT WE TOOK AT M.O.S.I.

[00:03:36.142]
FROM OUR PROBLEM LOG.

[00:03:37.872]
YOU CAN DOWNLOAD YOUR OWN
PROBLEM LOG FROM THE NASA "WHY?"

[00:03:39.822]
FILES WEBSITE.

[00:03:40.452]
WE HAVE A LOT OF NEW INFORMATION.

[00:03:43.172]
I THINK WE NEED TO GO
TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:03:45.552]
WE KNOW THE TROPICAL
DEPRESSION IS NOW A HURRICANE.

[00:03:47.782]
WE KNOW THAT HURRICANES GENERALLY
MOVE FROM THE EAST TO THE WEST.

[00:03:52.252]
AND WE KNOW THAT WATER VAPOR
IS THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF ENERGY

[00:03:54.682]
THAT DRIVES A HURRICANE.

[00:03:56.212]
WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW IS
MORE ABOUT THE PROBABILITY

[00:03:58.712]
THAT THE HURRICANE WILL
ACTUALLY HIT FLORIDA.

[00:04:00.902]
WHERE SHOULD WE GO?

[00:04:02.402]
LET'S GO TALK TO DR. "D".

[00:04:03.642]
I'M SURE HE CAN HELP US OUT.

[00:04:07.402]
HI, DR. "D".

[00:04:09.692]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:04:11.062]
WORKING ON A TORNADO BOX.

[00:04:12.342]
WORK ON HURRICANES INSPIRED
ME TO START THIS PROJECT.

[00:04:15.072]
ARE TORNADOES JUST MINI
HURRICANES ON LAND?

[00:04:18.102]
HEY, GUYS, HAVE WE MISSED ANYTHING?

[00:04:20.282]
I'M JUST SHOWING THEM
MY TORNADO BOX.

[00:04:22.012]
OH, COOL.

[00:04:23.052]
TORNADOES AND HURRICANES ARE
DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER,

[00:04:26.012]
BUT IT TURNS OUT THEY'RE
VERY SIMILAR

[00:04:27.402]
IN THAT THEY'RE BOTH
LOW-PRESSURE REGIONS;

[00:04:29.272]
THEY HAVE COUNTERCLOCKWISE
WIND PATTERNS;

[00:04:31.752]
THEY BOTH HAVE TREMENDOUS ENERGY.

[00:04:33.702]
I'M CONCERNED IF THE HURRICANE
IS GOING TO RUIN ALL OUR FUN.

[00:04:36.312]
HOW CAN WE PREDICT
WHERE IT'LL HIT LAND?

[00:04:38.682]
YOU'VE ASKED ONE OF THE BIGGEST
QUESTIONS THE METEOROLOGISTS ASK.

[00:04:41.132]
TO FIND AN ANSWER TO THIS
QUESTION, THEY ASK SUCH QUESTIONS

[00:04:43.962]
AS WHERE HAS THE HURRICANE BEEN?

[00:04:46.112]
ARE THERE HIGH- AND LOW-PRESSURE
SYSTEMS THAT AFFECT THE HURRICANE?

[00:04:49.342]
AND WHAT ARE THE SPEED AND
DIRECTIONS OF THE STEERING WINDS?

[00:04:52.092]
STEERING WINDS?

[00:04:53.402]
YES, THOSE ARE THE WINDS THAT
PUSH THE HURRICANE ALONG.

[00:04:55.572]
THAT'S A LOT OF VARIABLES.

[00:04:57.432]
REMEMBER, WITH THE
SCIENTIFIC PROCESS,

[00:04:59.392]
WE HAVE TO KEEP TRACK
OF ALL THE VARIABLES.

[00:05:01.632]
WE'RE PRETTY GOOD AT
MAKING PREDICTIONS.

[00:05:03.762]
WELL, LET'S SEE.

[00:05:04.892]
WE HAVE A NUMBER OF OBJECTS.

[00:05:06.142]
I WANT YOU TO PICK THEM UP ONE
AT A TIME AND SEE IF YOU CAN TELL

[00:05:08.472]
WHICH ONES WILL FLOAT.

[00:05:10.022]
THAT'S EASY.

[00:05:10.922]
I THINK THIS APPLE
WILL DEFINITELY FLOAT.

[00:05:13.322]
I'VE PLAYED BOBBING
FOR APPLES BEFORE,

[00:05:14.642]
AND I REMEMBER SEEING THE
APPLES FLOAT IN THE BUCKET.

[00:05:19.482]
YUP, I WAS RIGHT.

[00:05:21.182]
YOU USED YOUR PREVIOUS
EXPERIENCE TO MAKE YOUR PREDICTION.

[00:05:23.912]
HURRICANE FORECASTERS ALSO RELY
ON THEIR PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES.

[00:05:27.462]
THEY LOOK UPON WHAT
PREVIOUS HURRICANES DID

[00:05:29.412]
IN SIMILAR SITUATIONS.

[00:05:31.262]
OKAY, LET'S TRY THIS GOLF BALL.

[00:05:33.912]
I THINK IT WILL FLOAT.

[00:05:36.002]
OOPS, IT SANK.

[00:05:37.682]
WELL, TRY THIS BOWLING BALL.

[00:05:39.472]
I THINK YOU MADE THIS ONE TOO EASY.

[00:05:41.412]
IT WILL DEFINITELY SINK,
'CAUSE IT'S TOO HEAVY.

[00:05:43.942]
ALL RIGHT, LET'S SEE.

[00:05:46.142]
[00:05:47.602]
WOW, TWO IN A ROW WRONG.

[00:05:49.082]
I GUESS YOU CAN'T TELL JUST IF
SOMETHING WILL SINK OR FLOAT.

[00:05:52.982]
WHAT ARE SOME OTHER
WAYS WE CAN TELL

[00:05:54.472]
IF SOMETHING WILL SINK OR FLOAT?

[00:05:55.942]
YOU NEED TO KNOW BOTH THE MASS
AND THE VOLUME OF EACH OBJECT.

[00:05:58.962]
IF THE MASS OF THE OBJECT
EXPRESSED IN GRAMS IS GREATER

[00:06:02.032]
THAN THE VOLUME EXPRESSED IN
MILLILITERS, IT WILL SINK,

[00:06:05.302]
BECAUSE IT'S DENSER THAN WATER.

[00:06:06.912]
THE PROBLEM WITH HURRICANES IS,
THERE ARE SO MANY VARIABLES.

[00:06:09.332]
IT'S A VERY COMPLEX PROBLEM.

[00:06:11.192]
AND EVEN IF WE KNEW ALL
THE VARIABLES PRECISELY,

[00:06:13.462]
WE'RE NOT QUITE SURE HOW
THEY ALL FIT TOGETHER.

[00:06:16.082]
SO WHAT DO THEY DO?

[00:06:18.182]
INSTEAD OF BEING ABLE TO
MAKE AN EXACT PREDICTION,

[00:06:20.192]
ALL WEATHER FORECASTERS CAN DO
IS TO TALK ABOUT PROBABILITIES.

[00:06:23.532]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT PROBABILITIES.

[00:06:25.982]
LET'S LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE.

[00:06:30.262]
WHEN WE FLIP THIS COIN, WILL
IT COME UP HEADS OR TAILS?

[00:06:33.712]
WE DON'T KNOW.

[00:06:34.922]
THAT'S RIGHT, 'CAUSE
IT'S A RANDOM EVENT.

[00:06:36.492]
WHAT'S THE LIKELIHOOD
IT WILL COME UP HEADS?

[00:06:38.982]
I GUESS IT'D COME UP
HEADS ABOUT HALF THE TIME.

[00:06:41.122]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND PROBABILITY
SAYS IT WILL COME UP HEADS

[00:06:43.692]
ABOUT 50% OF THE TIME.

[00:06:45.252]
LET'S TRY IT.

[00:06:47.672]
[00:06:48.852]
I GET HEADS...

[00:06:50.972]
TAILS...

[00:06:52.972]
TAILS...

[00:06:54.112]
AND ANOTHER TAILS.

[00:06:56.112]
WAIT; IT DIDN'T COME
UP HEADS HALF THE TIME.

[00:06:58.592]
WELL, THAT'S ALL RIGHT.

[00:06:59.232]
AS PROBABILITY SAYS IF
WE DO A LOT OF TRIALS,

[00:07:02.342]
IT'LL AVERAGE OUT TO BE 50%.

[00:07:03.812]
LET'S KEEP TRYING.

[00:07:04.802]
I GOT A HEADS...

[00:07:07.402]
ANOTHER HEADS...

[00:07:09.782]
A TAILS...

[00:07:10.932]
AND A HEADS.

[00:07:11.902]
YES, IT'S LOOKING BETTER.

[00:07:13.582]
I THINK I REMEMBER THE
WEATHERMAN SAYING LAST WEEK

[00:07:16.642]
THAT THERE WAS A 60%
PROBABILITY OF RAIN.

[00:07:18.592]
DOES THAT MEAN IT'S GOING
TO RAIN 60% OF THE DAY?

[00:07:22.142]
NO, I THINK THAT MEANS THAT
IF THERE ARE TEN SIMILAR DAYS,

[00:07:24.772]
IT WOULD RAIN ON SIX OF THEM.

[00:07:26.402]
I THINK YOU'RE CATCHING ON.

[00:07:27.712]
HURRICANE FORECASTS WILL GIVE
THE MOST PROBABLE LANDFALL TIME

[00:07:30.942]
AND LOCATION.

[00:07:32.262]
THEY ALSO GOTTA PREDICT THE
STRENGTH OF THE HURRICANE.

[00:07:34.842]
THE MORE CONFIDENT THEY ARE,

[00:07:36.132]
THE HIGHER THE PERCENTAGE
OF THE PROBABILITY.

[00:07:38.432]
BUT CAN'T SOME OF
THE VARIABLES CHANGE

[00:07:40.142]
AFTER THEY MAKE A PREDICTION?

[00:07:41.892]
YOU BET; THAT'S THE PROBLEM.

[00:07:43.412]
FOR EXAMPLE, IF A HURRICANE'S
STEERING WINDS SLOW DOWN

[00:07:46.152]
AND THE HURRICANE STALLS
OVER VERY WARM WATER,

[00:07:48.332]
IT MIGHT NOT ONLY
CHANGE THE LANDFALL TIME,

[00:07:50.742]
BUT IT MIGHT ALSO HELP THE
HURRICANE TO GAIN IN STRENGTH.

[00:07:53.762]
SO HOW DO THEY GET THE
EXACT MEASUREMENTS?

[00:07:55.472]
AND HOW MANY VARIABLES
DO THEY HAVE TO MEASURE?

[00:07:57.632]
WELL, HOLD ON, NOW.

[00:07:59.042]
WEATHER SATELLITES ARE A GREAT
TOOL FOR MAKING PREDICTIONS

[00:08:01.542]
AND TRACKING HURRICANES.

[00:08:02.742]
WHY DON'T YOU TALK TO ANITA RAPP
AT NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER?

[00:08:05.452]
SHE'S AT THE AIR AND SPACE
CENTER IN HAMPTON, VIRGINIA.

[00:08:09.112]
I DON'T LIVE TOO FAR FROM THERE.

[00:08:10.612]
I'LL ASK MY MOM TO TAKE ME.

[00:08:12.072]
HI, MS. RAPP, THANKS
FOR MEETING US.

[00:08:15.362]
SURE; WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?

[00:08:16.742]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
COLLECTING WEATHER DATA.

[00:08:19.242]
YEAH, WE'RE WORRIED ABOUT HURRICANE
ICHABOD IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN,

[00:08:22.722]
AND WE WANTED TO MAKE SURE IT
DOESN'T RUIN OUR TRIP TO FLORIDA.

[00:08:25.622]
THAT WOULDN'T BE GOOD.

[00:08:26.902]
WEATHER DATA IS COLLECTED
IN MANY WAYS, BUT ONE WAY IS

[00:08:29.462]
BY A WEATHER SATELLITE.

[00:08:30.882]
WHAT IS A WEATHER SATELLITE?

[00:08:32.312]
A WEATHER SATELLITE IS A MAN-MADE
OBJECT THAT'S PUT INTO ORBIT

[00:08:35.102]
AROUND A PLANET TO HELP GATHER
DATA ALL AROUND THE GLOBE.

[00:08:38.252]
IT HELPS IMPROVE WEATHER
FORECASTING.

[00:08:40.552]
THAT'S JUST WHAT WE NEED.

[00:08:42.072]
HOW DO SATELLITES GET INTO SPACE?

[00:08:44.082]
THEY'RE LAUNCHED INTO
ORBIT BY ROCKETS.

[00:08:46.032]
SOMETIMES EVEN THE
SHUTTLE TAKES THEM UP.

[00:08:48.212]
OKAY, BUT HOW DO THEY
STAY UP THERE?

[00:08:50.602]
WHY DON'T THEY FALL
BACK DOWN TO EARTH?

[00:08:52.212]
SATELLITES ARE HELD IN ORBIT
BY A FORCE CALLED GRAVITY.

[00:08:55.062]
HERE, LET'S DO AN EXPERIMENT.

[00:08:56.732]
BUT FIRST, I NEED A BALL.

[00:08:59.042]
THANKS.

[00:09:00.552]
NOW, PRETEND THAT YOU'RE THE
EARTH AND THE BALL IS A SATELLITE,

[00:09:04.142]
AND SWING IT AROUND YOUR HEAD.

[00:09:06.262]
[00:09:08.932]
THIS IS COOL, BUT SATELLITES
DON'T HAVE STRINGS ATTACHED

[00:09:11.822]
TO THEM, DO THEY?

[00:09:12.882]
NO, GRAVITY IS THE STRING THAT
HOLDS A SATELLITE IN ORBIT.

[00:09:16.782]
BY SWINGING THE BALL, YOU
ARE GIVING IT FORWARD MOTION,

[00:09:19.532]
OR MOMENTUM, JUST LIKE THE
ROCKETS DO FOR THE SATELLITES.

[00:09:22.872]
IF THE STRING WEREN'T
ATTACHED TO IT,

[00:09:24.482]
IT WOULD FLY OFF IN ONE DIRECTION.

[00:09:26.122]
OH, I GET IT.

[00:09:27.132]
SO IF WE DIDN'T HAVE GRAVITY,

[00:09:28.782]
THE SATELLITES WOULD
FLY OFF INTO SPACE.

[00:09:30.722]
VERY GOOD.

[00:09:31.122]
AND WHEN THE MOMENTUM AND
THE GRAVITY ARE EQUAL,

[00:09:34.582]
THE SATELLITE STAYS IN ITS ORBIT.

[00:09:35.982]
I SAW ON THE NASA LANGLEY WEBSITE

[00:09:38.332]
THAT THEY USE GEOSTATIONARY
SATELLITES.

[00:09:40.772]
BUT WHAT DOES GEOSTATIONARY MEAN?

[00:09:43.042]
WELL, IF YOU BREAK THE WORD APART,
YOU HAVE GEO, WHICH MEANS EARTH,

[00:09:46.522]
AND STATIONARY, WHICH
MEANS FIXED AT A POINT.

[00:09:49.002]
SO A GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE ORBITS
AT A SPEED THAT MATCHES THE SPEED

[00:09:53.032]
OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION.

[00:09:54.132]
SO IT ALWAYS STAYS OVER THE
SAME LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.

[00:09:57.152]
ARE THERE OTHER KINDS
OF SATELLITES?

[00:09:59.392]
YES, THERE ARE SEVERAL
TYPES OF WEATHER SATELLITES.

[00:10:01.392]
BUT THE MOST COMMON,
BESIDES GEOSTATIONARY,

[00:10:03.692]
ARE THE POLAR-ORBITING SATELLITES.

[00:10:05.622]
THESE CONSTANTLY CIRCLE THE EARTH
IN AN ALMOST NORTH-SOUTH ORBIT.

[00:10:08.862]
WHY ARE POLAR-ORBITING
SATELLITES IMPORTANT?

[00:10:11.032]
BECAUSE THEY COVER
THE ENTIRE GLOBE,

[00:10:12.912]
UNLIKE GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
THAT ONLY SEE THE SAME PORTION

[00:10:15.872]
OF THE GLOBE ALL THE TIME.

[00:10:17.492]
HOW MANY WEATHER SATELLITES
ARE THERE?

[00:10:18.852]
WELL, COUNTING ONLY
THE GEOSTATIONARY

[00:10:21.162]
AND POLAR-ORBITING
SATELLITES, THERE ARE ABOUT 18.

[00:10:24.642]
HOWEVER, THERE ARE
ABOUT 2,671 SATELLITES

[00:10:28.302]
OF ALL DIFFERENT TYPES IN SPACE.

[00:10:29.982]
WOW, THAT'S A LOT OF SATELLITES.

[00:10:32.422]
THEY MUST BE IMPORTANT.

[00:10:33.902]
YES, THEY ARE, AND
ESPECIALLY WEATHER SATELLITES.

[00:10:36.712]
THEY HELP US MONITOR
STORM DEVELOPMENT

[00:10:38.642]
AND TRACK THE MOVEMENT OF STORMS.

[00:10:40.252]
ARE THEY JUST USED FOR
HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS?

[00:10:43.242]
NO, THEY'RE ALSO USED TO HELP
OUR LOCAL METEOROLOGISTS FORECAST

[00:10:46.282]
OUR WEATHER.

[00:10:47.312]
THIS HELPS THEM ISSUE WARNINGS
FOR THUNDERSTORMS AND HURRICANES.

[00:10:50.362]
WE CAN NOW SEE THAT
METEOROLOGISTS HAVE A LOT

[00:10:52.462]
OF HELP COLLECTING
DATA FROM SATELLITES.

[00:10:55.202]
IF YOU WANT TO LEARN ABOUT A COOL
SATELLITE THAT'LL BE LAUNCHED

[00:10:57.742]
IN THE FUTURE, YOU
NEED TO SEE BILL SMITH.

[00:10:59.932]
THAT SOUNDS LIKE OUR MAN.

[00:11:01.552]
THANKS FOR YOUR HELP.

[00:11:02.612]
BUT FIRST, BEFORE WE GO, LET'S GO
CHECK OUT ANOTHER HURRICANE ROOM.

[00:11:06.512]
BYE, GUYS.

[00:11:13.662]
BYE.

[00:11:14.452]
HI, DR. SMITH, I'M KALI, ONE
OF THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:11:18.192]
WE'VE HEARD THAT YOU'VE DEVELOPED
A NEW SATELLITE THAT WILL BE ABLE

[00:11:21.032]
TO PREDICT WEATHER MORE ACCURATELY.

[00:11:23.352]
THAT'S RIGHT; IT'S
CALLED THE GIFTS.

[00:11:25.442]
GIFTS.?

[00:11:25.922]
YOU MEAN LIKE PRESENTS?

[00:11:27.322]
NO.

[00:11:27.792]
GIFTS.

[00:11:28.042]
IS AN ACRONYM THAT STANDS

[00:11:29.422]
FOR GEOSTATIONARY IMAGING
FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER.

[00:11:33.632]
OR MORE SIMPLY, GIFTS.

[00:11:35.322]
IS A DIGITAL CAMERA PLACED ON A
SATELLITE HIGH ABOVE THE EARTH.

[00:11:39.102]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT THAT THE
SATELLITE REMAIN IN PLACE?

[00:11:41.962]
WELL, BECAUSE IF THE CAMERA'S
IN A GEOSTATIONARY POSITION,

[00:11:45.102]
WE CAN MAKE 3-D MOVIES
OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:11:48.172]
[00:11:49.232]
DO YOU NEED TO WEAR 3-D
GLASSES TO SEE THEM?

[00:11:51.322]
NO, IT'S NOT THAT KIND OF A MOVIE.

[00:11:53.692]
WHY IS THE 3-D IMPORTANT?

[00:11:55.242]
MOST GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES
PROVIDE TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOVIES,

[00:11:59.322]
BUT THE GIFTS.

[00:12:00.002]
ADDS A THIRD DIMENSION: ALTITUDE.

[00:12:02.442]
SO WITH THE GIFTS., WE COULD TELL
THE HEIGHT OF THE STORM AS WELL

[00:12:05.202]
AS ITS GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION.

[00:12:07.392]
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DATA FROM
GIFTS., SUCH AS TEMPERATURE,

[00:12:10.172]
WATER VAPOR, AND WINDS, WILL
BE FED INTO COMPUTER MODELS.

[00:12:13.342]
AND THIS WILL GREATLY
IMPROVE FORECASTS OF WEATHER,

[00:12:16.592]
CLIMATE, AND AIR POLLUTION.

[00:12:18.102]
WILL GIFTS.

[00:12:18.632]
HELP METEOROLOGISTS
PREDICT STORMS EVEN SOONER?

[00:12:21.512]
YES, GIFTS., UNLIKE ANY
OTHER SATELLITE CAMERA,

[00:12:24.392]
CAN OBSERVE THE UPWARD
SPIRALING MOTION OF AIR MOLECULES

[00:12:28.342]
AND ALERT METEOROLOGISTS

[00:12:29.712]
THAT STORMS WILL FORM LONG
BEFORE THEY'RE OBSERVED ON RADAR

[00:12:33.142]
OR IN OTHER SATELLITE PICTURES.

[00:12:34.562]
SO WE WOULD KNOW NOT TO GO

[00:12:36.152]
TO FLORIDA WAY BEFORE THE
STORM EVEN GETS THERE.

[00:12:39.832]
HOW WILL GIFTS.

[00:12:40.612]
PREDICT THE PATH OF A HURRICANE?

[00:12:43.412]
GIFTS.

[00:12:43.642]
SENSES THE MOTION OF
AIR MOLECULES IN CLOUDS

[00:12:46.112]
AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES
IN THE ATMOSPHERE.

[00:12:48.672]
IT PROVIDES A MEASURE
OF THE ATMOSPHERIC WINDS

[00:12:51.282]
THAT STEER THE STORM'S MOVEMENT.

[00:12:53.292]
IN OTHER WORDS, THE WINDS TELL
US WHERE THE STORM WILL GO.

[00:12:56.882]
GIVEN THE SPEED AND THE
VELOCITY OF THE WIND,

[00:13:00.022]
WE CAN PREDICT THE FUTURE
POSITION OF A HURRICANE.

[00:13:02.182]
WE TALKED TO A FAMILY IN MIAMI
WHOSE HOUSE WAS DESTROYED

[00:13:05.772]
BY HURRICANE ANDREW.

[00:13:07.132]
I WONDER IF GIFTS.

[00:13:07.942]
WOULD HAVE HELPED THEM.

[00:13:08.812]
MOST DEFINITELY.

[00:13:09.932]
THE EARLIER WE CAN WARN
PEOPLE, THE MORE TIME THEY HAVE

[00:13:12.452]
TO PREPARE FOR THE STORM.

[00:13:14.102]
THIS WILL RESULT IN LESS
PROPERTY DAMAGE AND FEWER DEATHS.

[00:13:18.032]
IT CAN EVEN HELP SAVE
MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.

[00:13:20.222]
WOW, HOW CAN IT DO THAT?

[00:13:22.172]
WELL, FOR EACH MILE OF
COASTLINE THAT IS WARNED

[00:13:24.412]
OF A HURRICANE COMING ASHORE,
$1 MILLION IS SPENT IN PREPARING

[00:13:28.292]
FOR THE HURRICANE'S LANDFALL.

[00:13:29.892]
SO IF YOU KNEW EXACTLY WHERE
THE HURRICANE WAS GOING TO HIT,

[00:13:33.232]
FEWER PEOPLE WOULD HAVE TO
SPEND MONEY PREPARING FOR IT.

[00:13:35.722]
THE AVERAGE ERROR OF PREDICTING
WHERE LANDFALL WILL OCCUR 24 HOURS

[00:13:40.402]
IN ADVANCE IS 125 MILES.

[00:13:43.762]
SO IF WE WERE ABLE TO REDUCE THAT
ERROR BY, SAY, A SMALL 10%, WELL,

[00:13:48.932]
HOW MANY MILES WOULD THAT BE?

[00:13:50.702]
WELL, 10% OF 125 IS 12 1/2 MILES.

[00:13:56.502]
SO THAT WOULD BE $12.5 MILLION.

[00:13:58.952]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:13:59.992]
WE EXPECT EVEN MUCH GREATER
IMPROVEMENTS WITH GIFTS.

[00:14:02.922]
THAT'S GOING TO BE AWESOME.

[00:14:04.782]
BUT I WISH YOU HAD IT
RIGHT NOW SO WE WOULD KNOW

[00:14:08.792]
IF THE HURRICANE WAS GOING TO BE
ANYWHERE NEAR SEA WORLD IN FLORIDA.

[00:14:12.422]
I'LL LET YOU KNOW, BUT IT WON'T
BE IN THE NEXT COUPLE OF WEEKS.

[00:14:16.742]
THANKS, DR. SMITH.

[00:14:17.252]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:14:17.582]
BYE.

[00:14:17.812]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:14:18.932]
WILL SATELLITES HELP THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES PREDICT

[00:14:21.202]
WHERE THE STORM IS HEADING?

[00:14:22.122]
DO YOU THINK THERE'S
A STRONG PROBABILITY

[00:14:24.422]
THAT THE STORM WILL HIT FLORIDA?

[00:14:26.422]
SHOULD THE AREA BE EVACUATED?

[00:14:28.452]
WE'LL BE BACK FOR THE CONCLUSION OF
THE CASE OF THE PHENOMENAL WEATHER.

[00:14:31.522]
[00:00:01.039]
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES ARE
CLOSE TO CRACKING THE CASE

[00:00:04.019]
OF THE PHENOMENAL WEATHER.

[00:00:05.629]
HELP ANSWER THESE FINAL QUESTIONS:
HOW ARE HURRICANES NAMED?

[00:00:12.069]
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN A HURRICANE WATCH

[00:00:14.669]
AND A HURRICANE WARNING?

[00:00:16.759]
HOW CAN PAST HURRICANES HELP

[00:00:18.589]
TO PREDICT THE TRACK
OF FUTURE HURRICANES?

[00:00:22.209]
[00:00:24.469]
I'M JUST FINISHING UP FIXING
JACOB'S ROLLER COASTER.

[00:00:27.179]
THAT'S SO COOL, AND PRETTY SOON
WE'LL BE LEARNING THE PHYSICS

[00:00:29.989]
BEHIND THE COASTER.

[00:00:31.319]
YES, IN A FEW DAYS, WE'LL
BE ENJOYING THE PHYSICS FAIR

[00:00:33.469]
IN BEAUTIFUL WEATHER.

[00:00:34.859]
THANK GOODNESS THAT
HURRICANE ISN'T STRENGTHENING.

[00:00:36.559]
DON'T FORGET; WE STILL
HAVE TO WORRY

[00:00:38.689]
ABOUT OUR TRIP TO
FLORIDA NEXT WEEK.

[00:00:41.679]
I'M READING THIS BOOK
ON HURRICANES,

[00:00:43.559]
AND I THINK THAT IF
WE LEARN SOMETHING

[00:00:44.919]
ABOUT THE PAST HURRICANES,
THEN WE COULD DO SOMETHING

[00:00:47.429]
ABOUT THE FUTURE ONES.

[00:00:49.029]
THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

[00:00:50.119]
LET'S WATCH DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:00:52.539]
HE HAS A SEGMENT ON THE
HISTORY OF HURRICANES.

[00:00:57.339]
HELLO.

[00:00:57.649]
DID YOU KNOW THAT IT WAS NOT
UNTIL 1953 THAT U.S. SCIENTISTS,

[00:01:03.069]
LIKE MYSELF, EVEN GAVE
NAMES TO HURRICANES?

[00:01:06.909]
OF COURSE, BACK THEN
IT WAS LADIES FIRST.

[00:01:11.419]
NOW, THE FIRST TROPICAL STORM EVER
NAMED BEGAN WITH THE LETTER "A."

[00:01:15.619]
AFTER THAT CAME THE LETTER "B,"
AND THEN SO ON AND SO FORTH.

[00:01:18.969]
YOU GET THE IDEA, OH.

[00:01:19.909]
IN 1979, IT WAS DECIDED TO
ADD MEN'S NAMES TO THE LIST.

[00:01:26.109]
HELLO, MY NAME IS BOB.

[00:01:27.679]
I WANT A HURRICANE NAMED AFTER ME.

[00:01:29.319]
OH, IT'S ONLY FAIR.

[00:01:31.609]
IN 1900, THE GREAT GALVESTON
HURRICANE WAS THE WORST NATURAL

[00:01:36.679]
DISASTER IN U.S. HISTORY.

[00:01:38.649]
THE HURRICANE POUNDED THE ISLAND

[00:01:40.479]
WITH GREAT FORCE OFF
THE COAST OF TEXAS.

[00:01:42.929]
IT KILLED MANY, MANY PEOPLE.

[00:01:45.119]
IT HAD WIND FORCES OF 125 MILES
PER HOUR, MUCH OF WHAT I'M GOING

[00:01:50.219]
TO DEMONSTRATE RIGHT NOW.

[00:01:52.519]
[00:01:54.259]
OH, WELL, AT ANY RATE,
2,600 HOMES WERE DEVASTATED,

[00:01:58.969]
AND IT DESTROYED OVER
3/4 OF THE CITY.

[00:02:01.959]
ON AUGUST 26, 1992, HURRICANE
ANDREW HIT SOUTH OF MIAMI

[00:02:09.489]
WITH WIND GUSTS OF UP
TO 195 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:02:14.429]
OH, I NEED A FAN THAT WORKS!

[00:02:18.679]
HURRICANE ANDREW CUT
A 25-MILE-WIDE PATH

[00:02:21.719]
THROUGH THE EVERGLADES
NATIONAL PARK.

[00:02:23.579]
AND THERE'S MORE.

[00:02:25.329]
ANDREW LEFT A HUGE PATH OF
DESTRUCTION: 62 PEOPLE DEAD,

[00:02:30.359]
25,000 HOMES DESTROYED,
ANOTHER 100,000 DAMAGED.

[00:02:36.199]
WELL, BE THAT AS IT MAY, I
WILL NOW DEMONSTRATE THE POWER

[00:02:39.699]
OF HURRICANES.

[00:02:42.039]
[00:02:53.119]
WHAT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:02:54.909]
THIS HAS BEEN THE HISTORY OF
HURRICANES WITH DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:03:01.059]
SCARY.

[00:03:02.189]
SEE YOU, DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:03:03.049]
I'M GLAD WE HAVE LOTS
OF SATELLITES.

[00:03:06.859]
ISN'T TECHNOLOGY A WONDERFUL THING?

[00:03:09.389]
BUT THOSE ARE THE
HURRICANES FROM THE PAST.

[00:03:11.659]
WE STILL NEED TO FIGURE OUT
HOW TO PREDICT THE PROBABILITY

[00:03:13.939]
OF THE HURRICANE THAT'S
COMING TO FLORIDA.

[00:03:16.299]
SOME OF THE "WHY?"

[00:03:16.829]
FILES CLUB MEMBERS IN
VERO BEACH, FLORIDA,

[00:03:18.639]
ARE PLAYING THE GAME RIGHT NOW.

[00:03:20.369]
LET'S DIAL THEM UP
AND ASK THEM ABOUT IT.

[00:03:25.489]
HI, I'M ASHAUNDRIA.

[00:03:27.169]
AND I AM MOLLY, AND WE'RE BOTH HERE

[00:03:29.029]
FROM MRS. SRIGLEY'S FIFTH GRADE
CLASS AT THOMPSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

[00:03:32.649]
IN VERO BEACH, FLORIDA.

[00:03:33.999]
THE HURRICANE GAME GIVES
OUR CLASS THE EXPERIENCE

[00:03:36.279]
OF TRACKING A HURRICANE AND
PREDICTING ITS POSSIBLE LANDFALL.

[00:03:40.089]
HOW DO YOU TRACK HURRICANES
IN YOUR GAME?

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