Transcript for NASA Connect - The Future of Flight Equation

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[Music]

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[Armstrong] Hi.

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I'm Neil Armstrong, commander
of the Apollo 11 mission.

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[Recording] It's one small step for
man, one giant leap for mankind.

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I'm working with the American
Institute of Aeronautics

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and Astronautics on the
Evolution of Flight Campaign.

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This campaign marks the
100th anniversary of flight.

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And lays the groundwork for the
next 100 years of innovation

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and aviation in space technology.

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The I-AA and NASA Connect are
excited to give you the opportunity

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to learn about the
aircraft design process.

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You'll see a really cool
experimental aircraft.

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You will observe NASA engineers
and researchers using math, science

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and technology to
solve their problems.

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In your classroom, you'll
test and improve wing designs.

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In our instructional
technology activity,

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you will become an employee
of Plane Math Enterprises.

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To design and test
aircraft using a computer.

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So stay tuned as host
Dan Jerome takes you

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on another exciting
episode of NASA Connect.

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[Music]

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[Dan] Hi. Welcome to NASA Connect,
the show that connects you to math,

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science, technology, and NASA.

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I'm Dan Jerome.

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And today, I'm at the national air
and space Museum in Washington, DC.

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Over my shoulder is
the Wright Flyer.

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This is the first manned airplane
to fly under its own power.

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It was built by the
Wright brothers.

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This is the Bell X1, the first
plane to break the sound barrier.

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Notice how sleek its shape is.

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And this is the X-15.

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It's the first airplane
to fly into space.

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Notice how closely
shaped it is to a rocket.

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There are tons of planes here.

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Let's take a look.

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[Music]

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[Dan] Now, before we continue our
show, there are a few things you

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and your teacher need to know.

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First, teachers, make sure
you have the lesson guide

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for today's program.

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It can be downloaded from
our NASA Connect web site.

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In it, you'll find a great
math based hands on activity,

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and a description of our
instructional technology component.

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Kids, you'll want to keep
your eyes on Norbert.

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Because every time he appears
with questions like this,

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have your cue cards from the
lesson guide and your brain ready

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to answer the questions
he gives you.

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Oh, and teachers, if you
are watching a taped version

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of this program, every time you
see Norbert with the remote,

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that is your cue to
pause the videotape

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and discuss the cue card questions.

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This show is about
the future of flight.

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But before we talk
about the future,

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what is commercial
flight like today?

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And what current technologies
are being used by pilots?

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[Music].

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[Tobias] Hi.

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I'm Connie Tobias.

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And I'm a pilot with US Airways.

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This modern Airbus aircraft
gives us the tools we need

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to navigate safely and efficiently

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in today's complex air
traffic control systems.

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The Airbus aircraft has an
array of computer screens

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that give the pilot information
about performance, navigation,

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weather, and the location of
other aircraft in our airspace.

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About 10 years from now,

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over 3 million people
will be flying every day.

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That's about 1 million
more than today.

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Updated computer technology and
faster aircraft will be needed

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to deal with this increase,

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and to reduce the travel
time between destinations.

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[Dan] Thanks, Connie.

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Now that we know what pilots
have to keep in their minds

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with today's aircraft, let's
consider the future of flight.

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Have you ever wondered
what the airplanes

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of tomorrow will look like?

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Or how fast they will travel?

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Will tomorrow's planes travel
into space or beyond turn

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on today's show, we're going
to learn how NASA researchers

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and engineers are using geometry
and algebra to design, develop,

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and test future experimental
airplanes.

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[Voice] What is an
experimental plane?

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[Dan] Experimental planes, or X
planes, are tools of exploration

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that come in many shapes and sizes.

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They fly with jet engines, rocket
engines, or no engines at all.

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Which means that NASA flies
not only the fastest airplanes,

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but the slowest as well.

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Some planes are too
small for a pilot,

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and some are as large
as an airliner.

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The research conducted

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in experimental aircraft today
gives us a glimpse into the future.

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NASA is developing one of the
fastest experimental X planes ever.

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It's called the Hyper X.

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[Voice] What is the Hyper X?

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[Dan] The Hyper X research
vehicle is an experimental plane

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that uses this really cool engine
technology called the scramjet.

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Unlike rockets, such as the
space shuttle main engines,

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which must carry both
fuel and oxygen,

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the scramjet will only
carry hydrogen fuel.

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It will take in oxygen out
of the thin upper atmosphere

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as it travels along.

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We call this kind of
engine and air breather,

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that will allow the Hyper X
to fly at incredible speeds.

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In fact, the Hyper X will fly
at about 3020 m per second,

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which is about 6750
mph, or Mach 10.

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[Voice] What does Mach number mean?

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[Dan] Mach numbers represent
how many times the speed

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of sound vehicle is traveling.

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For example, Mach 1
equals the speed of sound,

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which is approximately 302
m per second, or 675 mph,

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at an altitude of 100,000 feet.

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Which is the test altitude
of the Hyper X. Mach 2,

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which is twice the speed of sound,

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would approximately be 604 m
per second, or were 1350 mph,

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at an altitude of 100,000 feet.

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Mach numbers are used by NASA
researchers describe the speed

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at which a plane is flying.

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Let's use algebra to calculate
the Mach number of Hyper X,

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flying at 3020 m per
second, or 6750 mph.

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This algebraic equation shows that
the Mach number equals the speed

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of the plane divided by the
speed of the sound in the air,

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where M is the Mach number.

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B is equal to the speed of
the plane, and A is equal

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to the speed of sound in the air.

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If the speed of the plane is 3020
m per second and the speed of sound

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at 100,000 feet is
302 m per second,

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then what is the Mach number?

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That's right.

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3020 m per second is about Mach
10, or 10 times the speed of sound.

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We'll learn more about Mach
numbers later on in the show.

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But first, let me tell you

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about the Hyper X. The Hyper X
is designed as a flying engine,

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which means the airplane
and the engine are one unit.

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The unique shape of the airplane
develops the lift necessary

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to keep the plane up in the air,

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so it doesn't need
wings to produce lift.

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The entire undersurface of the
airplane is designed to act

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as part of the engine.

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In order to test the scramjet
engine, the Hyper X is launched

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by a NASA B-52, and boosted by
a rocket to testing altitude.

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It will then separate
from the rocket,

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and the scramjet engine
begin its test flight.

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[Music]

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[Dan] So, have you
ever wondered what goes

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into designing an experimental
plane such as the Hyper X?

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I know I have.

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I'm here at NASA Langley
research Center in Hampton,

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Virginia to talk to Dr. Scott Hall.

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[Voice] What are the steps
in designing an aircraft?

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[Voice] How do the
mission requirements

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of an aircraft determined
its shape?

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[Voice] Wow.

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Wind tunnels test aircraft design.

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Why?

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[Dr. Hall] Hi, Dan.

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Hyper X. is definitely
a very exciting program.

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In my job I use wind tunnels

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to determine the flying
characteristics

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of different vehicles that fly
many times faster than the speed

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of sound, like the
Hyper X exciting part

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of the Hyper X program is
that it's truly pioneering.

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That means no one's
ever done it before,

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so we have to blaze the trail.

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[Dan] NASA sure has
blazed many trails.

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How do they do it?

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[Dr. Hall] The first thing you
have to do in blazing a trail is

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to determine a mission
where you want to go.

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We develop a set of
requirements for the vehicle,

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and then we begin the process

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of designing the vehicle
to meet that mission.

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Have you ever been to an
air show to see a bunch

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of different airplanes?

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[Dan] Yeah.

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Some planes are short.

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Some are long and slender.

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Some fly slow, and some fly fast.

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[Dr. Hall] You're right.

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They perform differently
because they were designed

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to satisfy different missions.

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With the Hyper X program,
our mission is

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to have it fly very fast.

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We also want to be able to
control it, and we want it

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to be able to propel itself.

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You see, NASA has many years

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of experience testing
fundamental shapes, to understand

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and document how those shapes,
we call them geometries,

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respond to the airflow
at various speeds.

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Let me show you.

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The Apollo capsules used to bring
the astronauts back to Earth

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after their trips to the moon
were designed as blunt bodies.

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This is because this
particular shape has high drag,

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the force that slows
an object down.

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[Voice] The blunt body creates
the drag needed to deploy the

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[inaudible] parachute,
followed by the main parachutes.

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The force of drag then gently
lowers the vehicle safely

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to the earth.

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[Dr. Hall] NASA had to design
a vehicle that would slow

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down to speeds where it was safe

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to deploy the parachute
landing in the ocean.

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[Dan] OK, I get it.

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But what about other shapes?

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[Dr. Hall] Well, we know

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that slender shapes like
the Concorde has less drag.

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A vehicle that has to propel
itself, like the Concorde

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or the Hyper X, has to have
an engine with enough power

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to overcome the vehicles drag.

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So if you were preparing the Hyper
X propel it self and fly very fast,

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would you want a blunt
body or a slender body?

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[Dan] Well, I would
like a slender body.

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[Dr. Hall] That's right.

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The Hyper X is designed
as a slender body

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because it has less drag
the engine to overcome.

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You are on your way to becoming
a conceptual designer, Dan.

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[Dan] I am?

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Sweet. So once you've decided
on a mission, what's next?

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[Dr. Hall] Detail design.

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A conceptual designer makes
decisions like the one you just

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made, to find the geometry that
will meet the mission requirements.

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A detail designer uses tools such
as CAD or computer aided drafting

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to turn ideas into drawings.

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These drawings help us work out
the details of how to design parts

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of the Hyper X like engines,
the control surfaces,

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the fuel tanks, and so forth.

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Once we have an initial design, we
begin the process to improve it.

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We compare the design of the
Hyper X to other vehicles

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with similar characteristics.

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We may need to make
changes to the geometry

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to improve the performance.

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[Dan] How do you know if you
need to change the shape?

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[Dr. Hall] One way is
conducting wind tunnel tests.

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You see, during the design
and computer modeling stages,

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we extensively use our wind tunnels

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to quickly screen
our Hyper X designs.

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And then the wind tunnel tests
help us determine the best design,

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and understand how
the vehicle will fly.

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[Dan] OK. So what is a wind tunnel?

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[Dr. Hall] Wind tunnels are
devices that allow us to move air

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over a scale model of a flight
vehicle is Hyper X we use models

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instead of the real vehicle because
they are smaller, less expensive,

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and easier to change is needed.

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This is NASA Langley's 31
inch Mach 10 wind tunnel.

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This tunnel can get the air moving
up to 10 times the speed of sound.

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Once we've placed the model of
the Hyper X in the wind tunnel,

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we make measurements to
determine how the air interacts

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with the model.

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At the nose of the vehicle, the air
near the surface is very smooth.

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We call it the laminar.

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But as the air moves down
the length of the body,

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it changes it becomes turbulent.

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You can see this natural
process by looking at the smoke

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after you blow out a candle.

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After you've blown out
a candle, you'll notice

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that the smoke near the
candle rises smoothly.

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That's laminar flow.

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But farther away from the candle,

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you'll notice it becomes
rough and irregular.

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That's turbulent flow.

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Normally, we think of laminar flow
when designing aerodynamic shapes.

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We want the air to flow
smoothly around them.

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However, the Hyper X geometry
requires turbulent flow.

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[Dan] Why would you want
turbulent flow on the Hyper X?

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[Dr. Hall] In order for the
scramjet engine to work properly.

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You see, turbulent airflow
enhances the mixing of the air

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with hydrogen fuel for
better engine performance.

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Turbulent airflow is created
by a device called the trip,

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located underneath the belly of
the Hyper X Using the wind tunnel,

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we tested several trips with
different shapes were geometries

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to see which one worked
best to change the airflow

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from laminar to turbulent.

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Our wind tunnel tests determined

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that this triangular shaped
trip was the best design

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for creating turbulent flow

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for the scramjet engine
on this vehicle.

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[Dan] How do you test
the scramjet engine?

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[Dr. Hall] We have
specialized wind tunnels capable

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of testing scramjets,
but the ultimate proof

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for the Hyper X is
a flight testing.

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That's the last phase in
designing an aircraft.

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NASA conducts all of its
flight tests on aircraft

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at the NASA Dryden Flight Research
Center in Edwards, California.

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[Dan] Thanks, Scott.

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We'll visit NASA Dryden Flight
Research Center later in the show.

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But first, join me

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[inaudible], where we'll
use technology to prepare

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for today's map based
hands-on activity.

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[Music]

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[Dan] Welcome to my domain.

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In just a minute, we'll get
to the hands-on activity,

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which will require that
you use different shapes

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in designing airplanes.

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Before we do, let's take a look

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at Liberty Interactive Learning's
Destination Math tutorial.

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It's available free for
NASA Connect educators.

[00:14:13.667]
You can get to it from
the NASA Connect web site.

[00:14:16.067]
It's part of the mastering skills

[00:14:17.467]
and concepts free section
of destination math.

[00:14:20.397]
With this lesson, you
will explore the geometric

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and algebraic characteristics
of basic shapes.

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Teachers, this is an
excellent tutorial

[00:14:28.127]
that can give your students
information and assistance

[00:14:31.217]
as they prepared to do the
hands-on activity for the show.

[00:14:34.317]
In this tutorial, digit explores
parallelograms, trapezoids,

[00:14:38.767]
and right triangles while
examining the flags of some

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of the countries in
the United Nations.

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Many thanks to

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[inaudible] for providing
NASA Connect

[00:14:46.457]
with this exciting instructional
technology enhancement to our show.

[00:14:50.547]
Now, let's do an aircraft
design activity

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which you can do in your classroom.

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[Music]

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[Voices] We're from
Pulaski Middle School here

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in Newberry Connecticut.

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NASA Connect has asked us to show
you this shows hands-on activity.

[00:15:07.467]
Here are the main objectives.

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We Use algebra to calculate
wing area and aspect we go.

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We use a portable

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[inaudible] catapult to
analyze wing geometry.

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We design, construct, and
test an experimental wing.

[00:15:22.067]
And you'll work in teams to solve
problems related to wing design.

[00:15:25.657]
The list of materials you'll need
for this activity can be downloaded

[00:15:28.207]
from the NASA Connect web site.

[00:15:30.967]
The class will be divided
into groups of four.

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Each group will need a portable

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[inaudible] catapult, or PGC,

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which your teacher made
previous to this activity.

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[Teacher] Good morning,
boys and girls.

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This morning, NASA has
designated this class

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as aeronautical engineers
in training.

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Your job is to test current wing
designs based on distance traveled,

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glide and speed observations.

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From your analysis of the data that
you collect, you will have the task

[00:15:57.237]
of designing and testing
an experimental wing

[00:16:01.357]
to achieve maximum
distance traveled.

[00:16:04.547]
[Voices] First cut out the
templates for the fuselage, wings,

[00:16:07.757]
and horizontal stabilizers.

[00:16:09.787]
Place the templates on the trays,
and trace around the templates.

[00:16:13.477]
Stick a piece of masking tape
to the nose of the fuselage,

[00:16:17.407]
to prevent the nose of the
fuselage from breaking.

[00:16:21.207]
[inaudible] will calculate the
wing area, the wingspan, the

[00:16:25.147]
[inaudible] for each wing.

[00:16:25.837]
The average cord can be
calculated using this formula.

[00:16:30.647]
[00:16:31.707]
Next have students
calculate the aspect ratio

[00:16:34.777]
for each wing using the formula
wingspan divided by average cord.

[00:16:39.027]
Record all values
onto the data chart.

[00:16:41.577]
Prep the launch area by
measuring 12 m in the PGC.

[00:16:45.337]
Mark the distance at 1 m intervals.

[00:16:47.197]
Place tables or desks
of equal height

[00:16:51.707]
[inaudible], to elevate
the portable.

[00:16:53.577]
Place a book with the
height of approximately 5 cm

[00:16:56.337]
under the front portion of the PGC.

[00:16:59.057]
Select a wing shape to test.

[00:17:00.747]
You will be testing four
different shapes: delta, oblique,

[00:17:07.047]
straight, and swept back.

[00:17:10.707]
Attach a small binder clip to the
aircraft to give it some weight

[00:17:13.637]
in order to achieve
maximum distance traveled.

[00:17:16.747]
Position the aircraft on the PGC.

[00:17:18.267]
Using a rubber band, pull the
aircraft to the launch position.

[00:17:22.247]
Then announce, crew
to flight deck for

[00:17:25.857]
[inaudible].

[00:17:27.567]
5, 4, 3, 2, 1, launch.

[00:17:36.567]
[00:17:37.087]
Conduct five trials
for each wing shape.

[00:17:40.667]
Measure the distance
traveled in centimeters,

[00:17:43.007]
and record the value
onto the data chart.

[00:17:45.457]
Record your observations on glide

[00:17:47.187]
and speed rating using the skills
provided from the lesson guide.

[00:17:51.187]
From the data collected,
each group will design

[00:17:53.107]
and construct their
own experimental wing.

[00:17:55.467]
Design your wing to fly farther
than the original test wings.

[00:17:58.587]
[Teacher] OK now.

[00:17:59.167]
How successful or
unsuccessful was your design?

[00:18:01.947]
What were the factors?

[00:18:04.267]
[inaudible]

[00:18:05.297]
[Voices] Mine had a
lower aspect ratio.

[00:18:09.067]
Mine had a better sweptback wing.

[00:18:12.587]
Special thanks to the AIAA,
Connecticut section, and the AIAA

[00:18:17.127]
[inaudible], who helped
us with the set.

[00:18:20.467]
[Voice] Thanks.

[00:18:20.837]
We had a great experience today.

[00:18:23.477]
And we encourage teachers to
visit our web site to learn more

[00:18:27.517]
about the AI AA mentorship
program in your area.

[00:18:30.677]
[Music]

[00:18:31.947]
[Dan] OK. We've learned
how geometry is important

[00:18:38.737]
in designing an experimental
aircraft.

[00:18:41.037]
With also learned some steps
in the aircraft design process.

[00:18:44.167]
But there's still
one more step to go.

[00:18:46.147]
Got mentioned earlier
that the last stage

[00:18:48.087]
in designing an aircraft
was flight testing.

[00:18:51.607]
Well, the lead center for a flight
testing is NASA Dryden flight

[00:18:54.967]
research Center in
Edwards, California.

[00:18:57.397]
Let's take a look and see what
they're doing with the Hyper X

[00:19:03.897]
[Music]

[00:19:03.897]
[Voices]

[00:19:04.187]
[inaudible] How do the Hyper
X engineers collect the

[00:19:08.047]
research information?

[00:19:09.857]
Why is algebra important
in Hyper X research?

[00:19:15.357]
[Marshall] Hi.

[00:19:15.567]
I'm Laurie

[00:19:16.267]
[Marshall] I'm a research engineer
in the aerodynamics branch here

[00:19:19.317]
at NASA's Dryden flight
research Center.

[00:19:21.377]
I'm a one of the engineers
responsible

[00:19:23.637]
for getting the Hyper
X ready for flight.

[00:19:26.667]
In order to do this, we perform
tests on the vehicle to ensure

[00:19:30.737]
that the instrumentation system
will measure the necessary data.

[00:19:34.997]
We make sure that the control
room is set up properly

[00:19:37.647]
to record this data during flight.

[00:19:40.227]
We also perform inspections of the
Hyper X during assembly and testing

[00:19:43.867]
to ensure that the
systems are operational

[00:19:45.787]
and that no damage has occurred.

[00:19:48.117]
You see, the Hyper X is a
thermal protection system,

[00:19:51.137]
similar to the space shuttle.

[00:19:52.837]
The exterior is covered with
special tiles that allow it

[00:19:55.907]
to withstand the high
temperatures of high-speed flight.

[00:19:59.017]
If any of the tiles were damaged,

[00:20:00.787]
not only would the vehicle's
structure be compromised,

[00:20:03.467]
but the aerodynamic shape

[00:20:04.657]
that we've tested during the
design process could also

[00:20:07.167]
be altered.

[00:20:08.147]
And this can affect the flight.

[00:20:09.587]
[Voice] How do they flight test
the Hyper X at such high speeds?

[00:20:13.817]
[Marshall] Great question.

[00:20:15.497]
The Hyper X is a very small
vehicle, about the size

[00:20:18.947]
of two kayaks side by side.

[00:20:21.457]
As Scott told you earlier, it
will fly out about Mach 10.

[00:20:25.387]
Now because of its size, we
only have enough fuel for use

[00:20:28.607]
at test conditions, or when
the Hyper X reaches Mach 10.

[00:20:31.807]
[Voice] How'd you get the
Hyper X to reach Mach 10?

[00:20:35.437]
[Marshall] The Hyper X is
attached to the nose of a rocket.

[00:20:38.147]
The rocket is mounted under
the wing of a B-52 jet.

[00:20:41.357]
Let's see what happens.

[00:20:42.977]
The B-52 takes the Hyper X,
which is attached to the rocket,

[00:20:46.907]
up to a preset altitude
and speed and releases it.

[00:20:50.567]
Then the rocket ignites
and flies to an altitude

[00:20:53.897]
of approximately 100,000 feet,
traveling to the test conditions.

[00:20:58.127]
The Hyper X separates
from the rocket,

[00:21:00.847]
and the scramjet engine ignites.

[00:21:03.317]
This is when the flight
test begins.

[00:21:05.857]
The Hyper X generate over 600
measurements that are sent

[00:21:09.147]
to the control room
during the flight.

[00:21:11.227]
These measurements allow the
research engineers determine the

[00:21:14.207]
success of the flight.

[00:21:15.737]
Each engineer can access their
data on specially designed displays

[00:21:19.507]
which are also recorded
for post-flight analysis.

[00:21:22.067]
[Voice] How do they
analyze all this data?

[00:21:24.777]
[Marshall] Well, we use
several different methods.

[00:21:27.177]
But algebra is the
foundation for all of these.

[00:21:30.127]
We use algebra throughout
the design, flight testing,

[00:21:32.897]
and post-flight analysis
phases of the experiment.

[00:21:36.567]
The vehicle's stability and
control system is a good example

[00:21:39.557]
of how algebra is used
during flight testing.

[00:21:42.687]
For example, take a seesaw.

[00:21:44.947]
A seesaw consists of a board
and a pivot point or fulcrum.

[00:21:49.497]
Suppose we have Norbert
on one side of the seesaw,

[00:21:52.107]
and Za on the other side.

[00:21:53.667]
Here the seesaw is not balanced.

[00:21:56.077]
[Voice] How do you
balance the seesaw?

[00:21:58.897]
[Marshall] Well, to balance the
seesaw, the product of the weight

[00:22:03.387]
and the horizontal
distance on the left side

[00:22:05.227]
of the pivot point must meet
with a product of the weight

[00:22:08.417]
and the horizontal distance on
the right side of the pivot point.

[00:22:11.607]
By moving Norbert on the
pivot point closer in,

[00:22:15.097]
can see the seesaw
becomes balanced.

[00:22:18.127]
In mathematical terms, the weight

[00:22:20.047]
of Norbert times his
horizontal distance

[00:22:22.177]
from the pivot point
is equal to the weight

[00:22:24.637]
of Za times his horizontal
distance to the pivot point.

[00:22:28.807]
Now in the case of the Hyper X, the
flight computer controls the wings

[00:22:32.737]
and details to keep
the vehicle flying

[00:22:35.347]
and stable throughout
the experiment.

[00:22:37.367]
If not for these calculations,
we wouldn't be able to fly

[00:22:40.317]
and get the necessary data.

[00:22:41.827]
[Voice] Have you flight
tested the Hyper X?

[00:22:44.957]
[Marshall] As a matter
of fact, we did.

[00:22:47.037]
Unfortunately, like
many experiments,

[00:22:49.487]
this one didn't go as planned.

[00:22:50.817]
And the Hyper X never made
it to the test conditions.

[00:22:54.137]
Sometimes when performing
experiments,

[00:22:56.367]
unforeseen evidence can occur.

[00:22:59.057]
However, we were able
to receive data

[00:23:01.577]
from the Hyper X before
the test was terminated.

[00:23:04.367]
We will use this data

[00:23:05.607]
to successfully flight
test the Hyper X again

[00:23:08.447]
and achieve our mission of
testing scramjet technology.

[00:23:11.967]
[Voice] Wow.

[00:23:12.617]
If the Hyper X program
is so successful,

[00:23:15.807]
how will that affect
the future of flight?

[00:23:17.657]
[Marshall] Well, let's see.

[00:23:18.907]
Recently I flew from
NASA Langley in Virginia

[00:23:21.787]
to NASA Dryden here in California.

[00:23:24.077]
It took about five hours.

[00:23:26.117]
His commercial aircraft were
using the same technology used

[00:23:28.947]
in the Hyper X, my flight
time would've been reduced

[00:23:32.087]
to 30 minutes.

[00:23:32.477]
If you ever plan to go into space,
the same technology would allow

[00:23:37.847]
for larger cargo capacity, so
space travel would cost less.

[00:23:42.087]
This technology would also allow

[00:23:43.977]
for reusable vehicles
at a much lower cost.

[00:23:46.357]
This means we could
see more launches

[00:23:48.867]
and more exploration of space.

[00:23:55.387]
[Music]

[00:23:56.187]
[Dan] Thanks, Laurie.

[00:23:57.267]
For the next couple of minutes,
we're going to take a look

[00:23:59.547]
at a web site that will reinforce
this shows hands-on activity

[00:24:02.437]
that you just saw.

[00:24:03.497]
It's called Plane Math.

[00:24:04.767]
And it's produced by Info-use,
in cooperation with NASA.

[00:24:07.557]
We're going to the Museum of
Flight in Seattle, Washington.

[00:24:10.797]
Where students from T. T. Minor
Elementary School will help show

[00:24:13.977]
you what the Plane Math
website looks like.

[00:24:16.997]
From Dan's Domain in the
NASA Connect web site,

[00:24:19.387]
go to planemath.com.

[00:24:21.257]
Click in activities for students.

[00:24:23.067]
Then choose plane math enterprises.

[00:24:25.167]
You'll need to visit each of
the eight training departments.

[00:24:28.087]
Each section is important
information

[00:24:29.887]
about aeronautical
principles and terminology.

[00:24:32.987]
There are a number of geometry
and algebra related math concepts.

[00:24:35.967]
And you'll also find plenty
of interactive activities

[00:24:38.527]
to help you understand the
concepts presented in the web site.

[00:24:42.157]
Experts will guide
you through training

[00:24:44.577]
as you design an aircraft
based on certain requirements.

[00:24:47.867]
When your training is complete,
enter the design department,

[00:24:50.917]
where you meet your client before
beginning the design process.

[00:24:54.187]
Then you'll design the size
of your fuselage and wings.

[00:24:57.357]
The building department
will make a prototype,

[00:24:59.567]
which you'll test in a wind tunnel.

[00:25:01.327]
Based on these results, you'll
choose an engine for your plane.

[00:25:04.707]
There will be a flight test to
see if your plane can take off

[00:25:07.337]
and reach its cruising speed.

[00:25:09.327]
If they succeed in taking
off, you'll get results

[00:25:11.737]
on how your plane flies
under different conditions.

[00:25:14.527]
Based on your results, you
can either make adjustments

[00:25:17.037]
to your plane and retest it

[00:25:18.627]
or present your design
to your customer.

[00:25:21.127]
Well, that's Plane Math.

[00:25:22.637]
Special thanks to
the Museum of Flight

[00:25:24.637]
and are AI-AA student mentors
from the University of Washington.

[00:25:28.837]
Teachers, if you would like
a student mentor to help you

[00:25:31.307]
in your classroom, find out more
in the NASA Connect web site.

[00:25:34.367]
[Music]

[00:25:35.227]
[Dan] Well, that wraps up
another episode of NASA Connect.

[00:25:40.807]
We'd like to thank everyone
who made this program possible.

[00:25:44.237]
Got a comment, question
or a suggestion?

[00:25:46.657]
E-mail them to
connect@LARC.NASA.gov.

[00:25:51.487]
Or pick up a pen and mail
them to NASA Connect,

[00:25:55.027]
NASA Center for Distance Learning,

[00:25:57.027]
NASA Langley Research
Center, Mail stop 400.

[00:26:00.357]
Hampton Virginia, 23681.

[00:26:03.277]
Teachers, if you would like
a videotape of this program

[00:26:05.947]
and the accompanying lesson guide,

[00:26:07.507]
check out the NASA
Connect web site.

[00:26:09.617]
From our site, you can link to the
NASA Educator Resource Network.

[00:26:13.517]
These centers provide
educators free access

[00:26:16.217]
to NASA products like NASA Connect.

[00:26:18.657]
Or from our site, you can
link to CORE, the NASA Center

[00:26:21.917]
of Resources for Educators.

[00:26:24.617]
For information about other
NASA instructional resources,

[00:26:27.967]
visit NASA quest at quest.NASA.gov.

[00:26:32.187]
So until next time,
stay connected to math,

[00:26:35.277]
science, technology, and NASA.

[00:26:38.497]
See you then.

[00:26:39.407]