Transcript for NASA Connect - Having A Solar Blast

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[Melissa:] Hi, I am
Melissa Joan Hart.

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You might know me as a
Sabrina the Teenage Witch.

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[Actor:] Jus made up that stuff,

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[inaudible]

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[Sabrina:] Oh, I get
it -- No, I don't.

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[Actor:] Sabrina I am
not expert on magic,

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but it looks to me like
you are under a spell.

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[Sabrina:] Spell.

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[Actor:] You are witch remember.

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[Sabrina:] Oh my gosh,
you are right.

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Hey, I never took a
shopping again --

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[Melissa:] Although
I play a student

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with some extra special
abilities, I am here to tell you

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that in real life, there are
no short cuts to education.

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[inaudible].

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[Actor:] I don't drive a stick.

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[Sabrina:] You do now.

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[Melissa:] Learning math, science

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and technology will help you
work towards your dreams.

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In this episode of NASA Connect,

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you will learn how
awesome our sun really is.

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You will observe NASA engineers
and researchers using math, science

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and technology to explore
the sun-earth connection.

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In your classroom you will
do a cool hands-on activity

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as we chalk sun-solar cycles.

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And using the instructional
technology activity,

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you will explore the world
to discover even more

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about the sun-earth connections.

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So stay tuned as host
Jennifer Pulley and Dan

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[inaudible] take you on another
exiting episode of NASA Connect.

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[ Music ]

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[Dan] Hi, welcome to NASA Connect.

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The show that connects you to
math, science, technology and NASA.

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I am Dan

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[inaudible].

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[Jennifer:] And I
am Jennifer Pulley.

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Welcome to the Maryland Science
Center here in Baltimore, Maryland,

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home of the Hubble Space
Telescope National Visitor Center.

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Today's show is about.

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[Group:] The Sun.

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[Jennifer:] Did you know
that it would take more

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than one million earths to fill-up
the sun and get this more than 99%

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of all matter in our solar
system is in the sun?

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[Dan:] It only takes about 8
minutes, for light from the sun

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to reach earth and its figures
of sun is - is only considered

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in average sized star.

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[Jennifer:] Here is
another interesting fact,

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in 1989 the sun actually
knocked out power in Canada.

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>> You mean that sun stopped
electricity on the earth.

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[Dan:] That's right, we will
tell you later how it happened.

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[Jennifer:] In the next half hour,

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we hope to give you a better
appreciation for how the sun works.

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How it affects us here on earth?

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[Dan:] And how NASA
researches are studying the sun.

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[Jennifer:] Right, but before
we continue there are few things

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that teacher need to know.

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First, teachers make sure
you have the lesson guide

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for today's program.

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It can be downloaded from
our NASA Connect website.

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And that you will find a great
math based hands on activity

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and a description of our
instructional technology component.

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[Dan:] Zot, you want to
keep your eyes on Norbert

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because every time you appear
for questions likes it,

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[inaudible] from the lesson
guide and your brain ready

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to answer the questions
he gives you.

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[Jennifer:] Oh, and teachers, if
you are watching a taped version

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of this program, every time
we see Norbert with a remote,

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that's your queue to
pause the video tape

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and discus the two part questions.

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And now back to the sun.

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Dan can you move on
my right please.

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[Dan:] Oh sorry!

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[Jennifer:] The sun
is our nearest star.

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It provides us with
more of the light.

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We all know that the sun is
important to life on earth,

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but few of us have been
given a good description

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of the sun and its composition.

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[Dan:] Our Sun is an average
star so or to millions

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of others in the universe.

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But it's a big energy machine.

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If you could capture the energy
to some produces in one second

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that would supply the United
States with enough energy

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for the next thirteen
billion years.

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[Student:] Were does the
Sun's power come from?

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[Jennifer:] Good question.

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The basic energy source for the
Sun comes from nuclear fusion

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and this is when mass
particles combine and tons

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of energy is released.

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The core or innermost part of
the sun is made of hydrogen.

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The Sun is so dense and its size
is so large that light released

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from the core takes about
one hundred thousand years

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to make its away to the surface.

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If the sun want to stop producing
energy today it would take a one

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hundred thousand years
for significant effects

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to be felt at the earth.

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Scientist think there is
enough hydrogen on the sun

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to continue producing energy
for another seven billion years.

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[Dan:] For many centuries,
little is known about the sun.

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However, in the early sixteen
hundred's Italian scientist

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Galileo, used the telescope
to take a closer look at Sun,

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he found darks spots

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that occasionally appeared
engrafted across the sun.

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He also noticed that the dark spots

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on the sun surface were
constantly changing.

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These are called sun spots.

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[Student:] What are your sun spots.

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[Dan:] Let's find out.

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[Dan:] NASA

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[inaudible] Dr Eric Christian
has some answers for us

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at the Naval Observatory.

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>> It's a blast.

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[Dr Eric Christian:] Thanks Dan,
the sun is a fascinating place

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and a brilliant object to observe.

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We observe the sun through
telescopes like this one here

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at the Naval Observatory
March at NDC.

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But Satellite help us too, to get
a better understanding of the sun,

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let's look its different parts.

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The visible surface of the sun,
now which we can actually see

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with human eye is
called the photosphere.

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Temperatures here around six
thousand degrees Celsius.

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The next two outer layers

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of the sun's atmosphere called
chromosphere and the Corona.

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The Corona is actually harder than
the Chromosphere at temperature

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of one to two million
degree Celsius.

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The Corona is visible to the naked
eye during the solar eclipses.

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Remember the dark spot or sun
spots that Galileo studied

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with his telescope; well some
spots are dark cool areas

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for the suns surface with
charged particles are omitted.

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The Sun's spot only looks dark
relative to the brightness

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of the rest of the Sun.

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But it's still pretty hot four
thousand degree Celsius hot.

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The average sun spot is about
the same diameter of the Earth.

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Sun's spot generates some

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of the most violent
storms in the Solar System.

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When a sun

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[inaudible] we call
this a Solar Flare.

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Solar Flare is some of the biggest
explosions in the Solar System.

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When a Solar Flare occurs, gas
heat of more then tens of thousands

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of degrees and energy
surpassing billions

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of atomic bombs is
pulled out from the Sun.

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Another type of explosion is
the CME or Corona mass ejection;

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these explosions can with
beat speeds of million

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of kilometers per hour and to
reach the Earth in just three days.

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[ Music ]

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>> For Solar Flares and
CME's can be very disruptive

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to human activity on
earth and in space

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as these storms we call them
Solar Storms travel to the Earth.

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>> You know Dan just like
Meteorologist your satellites

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to predict whether here on Earth.

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NASA used satellites to
predict solar storms.

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>> Wait a minute, you are saying
that in the future we will talk

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about Solar Storms like we talk
about Storms here on earth.

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>> We sure will.

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>> Predicting the
storms in the future.

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>> It's just in America things
are growing up inside sun spot.

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There will be a high energy birth
of X-rays flowing from the sun

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for you people on the Moon as

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[inaudible] thousand will
come in handy at the force

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to be hitting moon
based Norbert right now.

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>> Solar storms have caused
disruptions in our communications

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and power supplies for instant
in 1989, a solar storm knocked

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out electric power Quebec Canada.

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Six million homes were
without power for nine hours,

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as result of magnetic solar storms.

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Predicting solar storms has huge
benefits to us here on earth.

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If power companies could
receive earlier storm alerts,

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they could minimize
damage and power allergies.

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>> So what is NASA doing to warn
us, about these solar storms

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to learn more about the
sun-earth connection

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and how would affect us I will
show you're really cool website can

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you do it home or its school.

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>> In the meantime
I'm going to help

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to NASA Guided Space Flight
Centre, in Greenville Maryland.

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To talk of astronomer Dr. Stan

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[inaudible] he runs 'Ask
The Space Scientist"

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with NASA's image
satellite program.

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[ Music ]

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>> What is so importance of
electromagnetic radiation,

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how can satellites of
researchers monitor the same,

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why is it important to track solar
storms as they approach the earth?

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>> If you want to get it clear
view about the sun's doing,

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you have to get above the earth

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[inaudible] atmosphere.

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So we use satellite to
go the data that we need

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to understand how the sun works.

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The sun radiates at all energy
levels; radiation is energy

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that travels and spreads
out as it goes.

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There are different
types of radiation,

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let me show you visible light that
comes from the lamp in your house

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or radio waves it come

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from a radio station are
two types of radiation.

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Other example of radiation are
microwaves that could pop corn

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in few minutes infra red light

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which restaurants use
to keep food warm.

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Ultraviolet light which
causes our skin to burn,

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X-rays which help doctors look
at the bones, and gamma rays

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which are emitted from
radioactive materials.

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So Jennifer lets apply this
information to the sun.

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As Eric stated earlier the
photosphere emits energy primarily

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in visible light, while the
lower coronny emits energy

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in extreme ultraviolet light,
and the upper corony in x-rays.

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By zeroing in on one
particular light energy,

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we can study the various parts
of the sun and how they interact.

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[Jennifer:] Okay doctor Almond
how can satellites help us

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to monitor and observe the sun?

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>> With satellite
technology you can,

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look at the sun twenty
four hours a day.

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We can put satellites outside
of the earths atmosphere

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to collect valuable data
from the sun and to act

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as early warning devices
against solar storms.

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Three important satellites that
monitor the sun and provide us

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with real time data are the
Soho, Ace, and Image satellites.

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If you like to learn more about
the Soho satellite Dr. Terry

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[inaudible] one of our researchers

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of NASA Guard has
all the information.

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[Jennifer:] Great,
great, Hey Terry.

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[Terry:] Hi Jennifer,
Soho or the Solar

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[inaudible] conservatory has
a dozen different instruments

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which observe the sun twenty-four
hour of day without any

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[inaudible] earth's atmosphere.

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These instruments record the
activity of a solar corona,

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the photosphere and even
study the sun's deep interior.

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Solar has telescoped someone
to take pictures of the sun

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and ultra-violet light.

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Also Soho can give us a
two-three day early warning

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of coming solar storms that can
effect you with its magnetic field.

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That's really cool, thanks Terry.

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>> Oh you welcome.

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So what's next Dan.

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[Dan:] The second satellite is ACE,

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the advance composition explore
ace operates like an ocean gooey

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that measure the density,
temperature, magnetism and speed

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of the solar wind as it passes by.

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If a solar storm is headed
are way ACE will detect it

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and give us thirty-forty five
minutes warning that the storms is

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about to hit the earth.

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>> Cool. So how the NASA
research is done analyze

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and interpret the data.

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[Dan:] One way we can analyze and
interpret data is by graphing.

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The graph shows the speed of
solar wind changing is it blows

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by the ace satellite.

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The title of this graph
is solar wind speed.

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The horizontal axis or
x-axis represents the number

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of day's in September of 2000.

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And the vertical axis or y-axis
represents the speed of the wind

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in kilometer per second.

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[Jennifer:] Okay, Stan
it looks likes the speed

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of the solar wind ranged

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from three hundred fifty
kilometers per second

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to eight hundred kilometer
per second during the month

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of September.

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[Stan:] You right Jennifer

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on September the 18th the
solar wind reached speeds

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of eight hundred kilometer
per second

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or about one point seven
million miles an hour,

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but most of the time the solar
wind averaged around four hundred

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and fifty kilometer per second.

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From the analysis of this graph we
can determine how long it took the

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solar wind to reach
the earths atmosphere.

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[Jennifer:] That's amazing
Stan, no beside Soho

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and Ace you mention the
third satellite Image is

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that the one you working with?

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[Stan:] That's right Jennifer
Image which means Imager

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from magneto sphere to
aurora global aspiration

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and as the satellite it orbits the
earth and measures the locations

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and changes and the
invisible clouds of particles

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that surround the earth and space,
you probably already know one

[00:12:52.260]
of these cloud systems the

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[inaudible] belts.

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Astronauts and satellites
avoid these belts

[00:12:57.730]
because of the radiation hazard.

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There is also a separate collection
particles call the ring current,

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which appears and disappears
whenever the earth get lack

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by a solar storm another one

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of these clouds call the plasma
sphere is actually a part our own

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atmosphere that extends over ten
thousand miles above the earth.

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The Image satellite lets us
watch these different families

[00:13:18.310]
of clouds change.

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Image helps us understand how
solar storms and cause problems

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for our technology in
space and the health

[00:13:26.010]
of our astronauts
working there too;

[00:13:28.230]
more importantly it helps
scientist to improve our ability

[00:13:31.050]
to forecast space weather.

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[Jennifer:] Wow!

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I realized the sun was critical
to sustain life here on earth,

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but I guess I never realized
the devastating effects

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that sun have on us.

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[Stan:] Its amazing Jennifer
solar storms have caused billions

[00:13:43.130]
of the dollars with the satellite
damage in the last twenty years.

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They have caused blackouts
and will always be a hazard

[00:13:51.560]
for astronauts working in space
satellites like Solo Ace and image

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under replacements will be our
only means of keeping track

[00:14:01.090]
when the next storm hits
earths magnetic field.

[00:14:04.220]
If students would like to learn
more about how the sun works

[00:14:06.860]
and about solar storms they can
visit the sunearthday website

[00:14:10.120]
interested all of by the sun
earth connection education form

[00:14:13.740]
collaboration with the
NASA office based science.

[00:14:16.310]
[Jennifer:] Thank so much Dr.

[00:14:18.400]
[inaudible].

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You know Dan has been working on
some web sites about the sun lets

[00:14:22.370]
[inaudible] up to.

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>> Welcome to

[00:14:27.680]
[inaudible] you got a cool activity

[00:14:29.880]
on our NASA Connect website
help you for our problems

[00:14:34.340]
[inaudible] weather it's a PBL a
Problem Base Learning Activity.

[00:14:38.650]
Here is the problem you and your
class mate did try to solve.

[00:14:41.640]
You are the secretary of your club
have use the pager and cell phone.

[00:14:45.460]
Let your committee know about
the time for your next meeting

[00:14:48.260]
when no one responded you made
several calls to next day and found

[00:14:51.430]
that no one got your message.

[00:14:52.620]
You want to find out
what went wrong.

[00:14:55.000]
Go to Dance Domain on the NASA
Connect website, to find out more

[00:14:58.620]
about how to solve the problem.

[00:15:00.410]
You will also the link
to NASA Guarded Sun-earth

[00:15:02.890]
connection education forum.

[00:15:04.700]
Here you will find a lot of
great resources to help you

[00:15:07.200]
in your exploration one

[00:15:08.780]
of the resources is the
guide space weather.

[00:15:10.930]
In it you will see images and
information about such things

[00:15:14.510]
as sun spots or cycle, solar
flares auroras and more.

[00:15:19.540]
Check out the link to the
eclipse archive it gives detailed

[00:15:22.410]
information for all eclipses of the
sun and moon from 2001 through 2005

[00:15:28.450]
and teacher is an
excellent educators guys

[00:15:31.160]
that you can download
from the website.

[00:15:33.480]
This guide is designed to revived
educators for the quick reference

[00:15:36.670]
to materials and resources
that I will use

[00:15:39.140]
for understanding sun
and earth connection.

[00:15:41.280]
The web based activity I've
just talk about could be used

[00:15:44.640]
for collaborating with other NASA
Connect classing around the world.

[00:15:48.780]
[inaudible] has a website
that provides a meeting place

[00:15:51.350]
and collaborative tools that
over four million teachers

[00:15:54.210]
and student can use to connect
with other classmates and work

[00:15:57.460]
on projects like this together.

[00:15:59.460]
All you have to do is, have
your teacher create a profile

[00:16:01.940]
for your class.

[00:16:03.210]
Make sure to include the key
words NASA Connect in you profile.

[00:16:07.450]
By using e-power search tool,

[00:16:09.230]
your teacher can easily find
other NASA Connect classrooms.

[00:16:12.180]
You will also find free teacher
monitored e-mail for students

[00:16:15.930]
as well as collaborative tools
like moderated discussion boards

[00:16:19.160]
and chat rooms.

[00:16:20.770]
That's it from my demand; now back
to the Maryland Science Center.

[00:16:28.070]
>> Okay, let's reveal.

[00:16:29.430]
We learned about the
basic parts of the sun,

[00:16:31.470]
we've learnt how research
scientists say the sun

[00:16:33.940]
with different types
of light radiation.

[00:16:35.570]
>> We've also learned
that satellite provide us

[00:16:37.590]
with this information.

[00:16:38.730]
>> Right, but what if we
could see the events leading

[00:16:41.410]
up to solar storms.

[00:16:43.010]
Doctor Michelle Larsen from
the University of California

[00:16:45.440]
at Berkeley has the scoop.

[00:16:46.530]
>> What is the goal that
they had seen satellite?

[00:16:52.880]
>> One is solar flare
occur on the sun.

[00:16:55.910]
>> How do solar flares have their
right effect on earth's atmosphere?

[00:16:59.770]
[Michelle Larson:] Hi,
I am Michelle Larson

[00:17:02.260]
and I am Astrophysicist.

[00:17:03.840]
An Astrophysicist is a researcher
who studies physics in space.

[00:17:07.640]
I am here at

[00:17:08.920]
[inaudible] Space in
California with the

[00:17:10.930]
[inaudible] satellite.

[00:17:11.820]
Let's take a look.

[00:17:14.440]
[inaudible], or high energy solo
spectroscopic imager is designed

[00:17:17.330]
to learn more about the
basic physical processes

[00:17:19.590]
that occur in solar flares.

[00:17:21.710]
Teams of Astrophysicist and
engineers worked together

[00:17:24.360]
to decide what kinds
of observations

[00:17:26.390]
[inaudible] will make and what kind

[00:17:27.670]
of scientific instrumentation
will be required.

[00:17:30.330]
The

[00:17:30.690]
[inaudible] teams will achieve
their goals by taking pictures

[00:17:33.260]
of solar flares in the X-ray
and gamma rays radiation range.

[00:17:36.880]
>> What is the solar flare?

[00:17:39.040]
[Michelle Larson:] Well,
remember when Eric told you

[00:17:41.380]
that solar flares are the biggest
explosions in the solar system.

[00:17:45.140]
A solar flare occurs when
magnetic energy that builds

[00:17:47.640]
up in the solar atmosphere
is suddenly released.

[00:17:50.370]
Charged particles such
as electrons, protons

[00:17:52.790]
and heavy ions travel away from
the sun along magnetic field lines.

[00:17:57.100]
Others move towards the surface
of the sun and in an X-ray

[00:17:59.930]
and gamma rays radiation
as they slow down.

[00:18:02.710]
Flares produce all forms of
radiation from radio waves

[00:18:05.860]
and visible light to
X-rays and gamma rays.

[00:18:09.400]
Why

[00:18:09.550]
[inaudible] solar flares.

[00:18:10.960]
>> The biggest flares are
as powerful as billions

[00:18:13.190]
of hydrogen bombs
exploding at the same time.

[00:18:15.870]
We still don't know what
triggers them or how they release

[00:18:18.110]
so much energy in
such a short time.

[00:18:20.230]
But solar flares have
a direct effect

[00:18:21.950]
on the earth's upper atmosphere.

[00:18:23.960]
For instance long distance radio
communications can be disrupted

[00:18:27.080]
by the effective flares on the

[00:18:28.380]
[inaudible].

[00:18:28.380]
It is the part of the
earth's atmosphere.

[00:18:31.630]
In addition, energetic particles
accelerated in solar flares

[00:18:34.900]
that escaped into inner
planetary space are dangerous

[00:18:37.660]
to astronauts outside
the protection

[00:18:39.450]
of the earth's atmosphere
and magnetic field and also

[00:18:42.830]
to electronic instruments in space.

[00:18:45.280]
>> Where do solar flares occur?

[00:18:46.810]
>> Solar flares occur
in the solar atmosphere.

[00:18:50.480]
>> Inside a flare, the temperature
is roughly ten times hotter

[00:18:53.450]
than the corona and can be as high

[00:18:55.510]
as a hundred million
degree Celsius.

[00:18:57.960]
The frequency of solar
flares varies

[00:18:59.850]
with the eleven year solar cycle.

[00:19:01.630]
At solar minimum very
few flares occur.

[00:19:04.400]
As the sun approaches the
maximum part of its cycle,

[00:19:07.260]
they occur more and
more frequently.

[00:19:09.080]
Let me show you on this graph.

[00:19:10.580]
Let's look at the graph of actual
solar flare data from 1990 to 2001.

[00:19:15.710]
The total of this graph is number
of solar flares versus years.

[00:19:19.330]
The horizontal axis or
X-axis represents years

[00:19:22.640]
and the vertical axis or Y-axis
represents the total number

[00:19:25.980]
of flares recorded.

[00:19:26.810]
From the graph, we can see
that we have a solar maximum

[00:19:30.160]
in 1990 and one in 2001.

[00:19:33.030]
We have a solar minimum at some
point between 1995 and 1996.

[00:19:37.810]
This scrap shows us that the
sun does have a solar cycle

[00:19:40.770]
which is about eleven years.

[00:19:42.420]
From this graph, we can predict
when the next solar maximum

[00:19:45.180]
and minimum will occur.

[00:19:46.970]
>> How do you use the

[00:19:47.830]
[inaudible]?

[00:19:47.830]
>> Well it's actually
very difficult

[00:19:51.070]
to study the high energy X-rays

[00:19:52.720]
and gamma rays emitted
during solar flares.

[00:19:55.670]
>> To solve this problem

[00:19:56.940]
[inaudible] uses a
very unique method.

[00:19:59.020]
[inaudible] will obtain pictures
of solar flares within the X-ray

[00:20:01.670]
and gamma-ray range by
using pairs, it medal

[00:20:04.330]
[inaudible] to pass
on to detectors.

[00:20:06.970]
Each grid is a bit like a fine
screen, but with lines running

[00:20:10.170]
in only one direction
like jail bars.

[00:20:12.810]
The solid slots walk radiation

[00:20:15.030]
and the open slits allow
radiation to pass through.

[00:20:18.310]
As the satellite rotates at
about fifteen times per minute,

[00:20:21.820]
we grids will allow high
energy X-rays and gamma-rays

[00:20:24.670]
from different parts of the
sun to sometimes pass through

[00:20:27.530]
and sometimes not depending on
how the slides are oriented.

[00:20:31.120]
The

[00:20:31.190]
[inaudible] detectors will
measure the energies of the X-rays

[00:20:33.950]
and Gamma-rays that get through
and will record how things change

[00:20:37.480]
as the satellite and
therefore the grids rotate.

[00:20:40.570]
This is enough information
the figure

[00:20:42.220]
out where the radiation
came from on the sun.

[00:20:45.010]
This information will be
transmitted to the ground where

[00:20:47.610]
[inaudible] scientists will use it
in their computers to make pictures

[00:20:50.510]
of flares in X-rays and gamma-rays.

[00:20:52.980]
It is like putting
together the pieces

[00:20:54.680]
of puzzle the figure
out, what the picture is.

[00:20:57.280]
The special way

[00:20:58.290]
[inaudible] will measure
high energy radiation

[00:20:59.900]
from the sun combine with those
scientists who analyze the data

[00:21:03.490]
who allow us to study the Sun
and away never be for attempted.

[00:21:06.900]
>> Why

[00:21:07.570]
[inaudible] observe
the solar flares

[00:21:09.180]
in the X-ray and Gamma-ray range?

[00:21:11.780]
>> We know that light
emitted in the X-ray

[00:21:13.650]
and gamma ray range shows
different events and that emitted

[00:21:16.330]
in the visible light range.

[00:21:18.610]
High energy X-rays and gamma-rays
carry the most direct information

[00:21:21.750]
available about the energetic
particle activity on the sun

[00:21:24.770]
that occurs in solar flares.

[00:21:26.130]
With help of

[00:21:27.980]
[inaudible] we will be able to
anticipate solar flares and

[00:21:30.980]
[inaudible] will aid

[00:21:31.460]
in understanding energetic
events throughout the universe.

[00:21:37.020]
>> Thanks Mitchell, say
how would you like to plot

[00:21:41.550]
up the cycles of solar flares.

[00:21:43.910]
Students at

[00:21:45.340]
[inaudible] in Washington
DC, will show you how.

[00:21:48.010]
Check up my nose.

[00:21:49.180]
>> Hi, welcome to

[00:21:52.260]
[inaudible].

[00:21:52.260]
>> Here in Georgetown
Washington, DC.

[00:21:55.290]
NASA Connect has asked us to
show you this hands on activity.

[00:21:59.740]
>> It is called X-ray

[00:22:01.510]
[inaudible].

[00:22:01.510]
>> Here are the main objectives.

[00:22:06.560]
>> You discover the solar
cycle, your investigation

[00:22:09.430]
of solar X-ray player.

[00:22:11.450]
You record the total number
of players in your birth month

[00:22:13.820]
over an eleven year period;
you compute the percentage

[00:22:16.960]
of N-class players
that are current.

[00:22:19.660]
Your

[00:22:19.990]
[inaudible] to help you
identify the long term pattern

[00:22:22.340]
of clear activity on the sun.

[00:22:24.250]
Any you will corporate
problems on this strategies

[00:22:26.600]
in a real life application.

[00:22:27.970]
The list of materials were need
to this activity can be download

[00:22:31.700]
from the NASA Connect website.

[00:22:34.020]
The class will be divided
into groups according

[00:22:36.110]
to their birth month, teacher will
provide each group so a flare data

[00:22:39.830]
by the corresponding birth
month and the each student

[00:22:42.190]
with a calculator, graph
paper and student data charge.

[00:22:46.430]
>> Good morning class, today
your job is to plot and analyze

[00:22:50.190]
[inaudible] data from the satellite

[00:22:52.390]
and determine solar
cycle of the sun.

[00:22:56.030]
>> First add the total number
of players that occurred

[00:22:58.400]
in your birth month for each
year, the coordinate number

[00:23:01.430]
in the last column on the each
row of the Solar flare data sheet.

[00:23:04.990]
Second add all the
numbers in the last column

[00:23:07.580]
of the solar flare data sheets
to determine the total number

[00:23:10.240]
of players in your birth
month for each year.

[00:23:13.070]
According that number, the each
year in the box of the bottom

[00:23:16.020]
of each page of the
solar flare data sheet.

[00:23:18.780]
Next at the total
number of N-class players

[00:23:21.240]
in your birth month for each year.

[00:23:23.230]
Accord that total number of N-class
players in the each year in the box

[00:23:26.700]
at the bottom middle of each page
of the solar flare data sheet.

[00:23:29.750]
[ Speaker [inaudible].]

[00:23:31.670]
>> Groups will need to collaborate
with each other, give information

[00:23:36.870]
on the total number of
players and M class players

[00:23:39.720]
for all months in each year.

[00:23:41.340]
According, to data on
the student data chart.

[00:23:44.100]
Acquire the total number of players
and N-class players for each year

[00:23:47.590]
on the student charge.

[00:23:49.370]
From this data compute the
percentage of N-class players

[00:23:52.500]
for each year by using the
equation N-class player divided

[00:23:56.310]
by total number of
player not divide by 100,

[00:23:59.870]
students will then
draw the percentage

[00:24:01.680]
of N-Class players versus year.

[00:24:03.520]
>> Okay why is it important for
researchers and scientist to know

[00:24:09.480]
when solar maximum and
solar minimums will occur.

[00:24:13.550]
>> So, they want solar is
going to hit the earth.

[00:24:17.670]
>> Anybody else.

[00:24:19.050]
>> Ellison.

[00:24:20.260]
>> So they can warn us

[00:24:21.030]
if the electricity would
go out in our homes.

[00:24:23.970]
>> Special thanks to the
AIAA national capital section

[00:24:27.950]
and the AIAA measures from
the University of Maryland

[00:24:31.500]
who helped us with the show.

[00:24:32.530]
>> Thank you, we had
a great experience

[00:24:36.430]
and we encourage teachers to
visit our web-site to learn more

[00:24:39.770]
about the AIAA Mentor
ship program in your area.

[00:24:43.900]
>> Well that wraps up another
episode of NASA Connect.

[00:24:49.440]
>> We like to thank everyone to
help make this program possible.

[00:24:52.430]
>> Got a comment, questions
or suggestion or email them

[00:24:55.880]
to connect@atlarc.nasa.gov or
pick up the pen and mail them

[00:25:01.490]
to NASA Connect, NASA Centre
Distant Learning NASA Langley

[00:25:06.030]
Research Center Mail Stop
400, Hampton Virginia 23681.

[00:25:11.050]
>> Teachers if you
would liked a video tape

[00:25:12.900]
of this program and the company in

[00:25:15.410]
[inaudible] check out
the NASA Connect website,

[00:25:17.760]
from our site you can link

[00:25:18.920]
to the NASA Educator
Resources Centre Network.

[00:25:21.540]
These centers provide
educators free access

[00:25:24.000]
to NASA products like NASA connect
or from our side you can linked

[00:25:28.330]
to core the NASA Central Operation
of Resources For Educators, do this

[00:25:33.120]
and past NASA Connect
shows on your computer.

[00:25:35.790]
Visit NASA Quest at quest.nasa.gov.

[00:25:39.800]
So until next time
stay connected to math,

[00:25:41.740]
science, technology and NASA.

[00:25:44.370]
See you then.

[00:25:44.870]
>> Bye.

[00:25:45.160]