Transcript for NASA Connect - Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: 3,2,1 Crash

[Rich:] What a break.

[Larry:] Yeah!

This plane looks just as bad as
some of the car we have been in.

[Rich:] Hi!

I'm Rich.

[Larry:] And I'm Larry.

We are the crash test dummies

for the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration?

[Rich:] Larry and I have done more
than 10,000 crash test in order

to help protect motor vehicle past
years like you from serious injury.

[Larry:] On this episode of
NASA Connect you will learn how

measurement ratios and graphs are
use by NASA engineers every day

as they conduct some
pretty extreme tests.

[Rich:] You are telling me?

NASA Langley uses crash
tests dummies like us.

To help them improve the crash

[inaudible]at the
midst of Air Craft.

Like we always say take it from
a dummy make sure you buckle up.

So stay tuned as Van, Jennifer
show you how NASA tests Air Craft

to the extreme.

Three, two, one


[Jennifer:] Wow!

That was an awesome ride, you know
skidding tires is just one way,

that NASA Langley Research
Center conducts test

to improve the Air Craft
performance and safety.

[Van Hughes:] Hey!

Welcome to NASA Connect, the show
that connects you to the world

of mathematics, science,
technology and NASA.

I am Van Hughes.

[Jennifer:] And I'm
Jennifer Pulley.

And we are your host
along with Norbert.

Every time Norbert appears have
you a Q parts from the lesson guide

and your brain ready to answer
the questions he gives you.

And teacher every time Norbert
appears with Ronald that's your Q

to pause the video tape

and discuss the Q part
questions he gives you.

[Van Hughes:] This show
is urging with math.

We will see how NASA
researches measure

and collect data develop
ratios and graphs

to analyze the data
compare the results

and then predict possible solutions

for their real world problems.

[Jennifer:] Using this math
concepts students like you will

conduct an experiment very
similar to NASA Research

that you can try in your classroom.

It's a blast.

[Van:] Then grab a computer and
a mouse and log on to the web.

Our NASA headquarters correspondent
Dr. Shelly Kenright will get you

connected to our web activity.

[Jennifer:] Today, we are at NASA
Langley Research Center in Hampton,

Virginia NASA Langley is the
oldest of the nine NASA facility.

[Van:] Here is another Langley
fact, see this huge structure,

its original name was the Lunar
Landing Research facility.

But today we call it


In the 1960s a

[inaudible] Astronauts
stand right here

in NASA Langley to Land on a moon.

[Jennifer:] The

[inaudible]ratio is measurement,
ratios, and graphing three, two,

one crash and get this
measurement, ratios,

and graphs are used every
day by NASA researches.

They make predictions and draw
conclusions using the data they

collect from their
research and extreme facts.

Speaking of graphs,
does this look familiar

of course this grade would never
put on your desk, it's huge.

It square measures one
meter by one meter.

But anyway NASA researcher use
this spread for film analysis.

[Van:] The air craft passes in
front of the grid and distract

by a camera, then engineers can
measure the distance the aircraft

travels in certain amount of time.

NASA engineer's analysis this data

and make conclusion based
on the test results.

Finally they communicate what they
have learned to aircraft companies

so they built safer aircraft.

We will learn more about of
NASA crashes aircraft from this

[inaudible] later on in the show.

[Jennifer:] Right, but first let's
learn more about NASA Langley.

[Van] Today National Aeronautics
and Space Administration

or NASA was established in 1958

but it's historical root
reach back much harder

to the early 1900s.

Powered flight was developed
by the Wright Brothers in 1903.

However, during World War I,

America realized how far
was behind other countries

in developing air power.

So, congress created the NACA

or the National Advisor
Committee for Aeronautics.

[Child:] What is the Aeronautics?

[Jennifer:] Aeronautics is
simply the science of light.

Any way the NACA decided to built
a Aeronautical Research Facility

and they found out
perfect location.

A sight was chosen
in Hampton Virginia

and the facility was named the
Langley Memorial Aeronautical

Laboratory, after an early
aviation pioneer Samuel

[inaudible] Langley.

[Van:] Later in 1958 congress
changed the name of the NACA

to NASA and NASA Langley
Research Center help

[inaudible] to the space program.

America's first man in space
program project mercury began

at NASA Langley.

[Jennifer:] Today NASA
has grown to nine centers

across the United States they
are involved in aeronautics,

earth science, space science
and human exploration of space.

The knowledge gained from
NASA research can be found

in every day objects like,
sun glass, athletic shoes,

codeless products and even
the highways we drive on.

[Van:] So the next time you
fly in the airplane remember

that almost every American
Aircraft today uses technology

that was developed right here
at NASA Langley Research Center.

[Jennifer:] Okay, now that
you got some facts on NASA

and NASA Langley,
let's see what type

of extreme test NASA
Langley conducts

at the Aircraft Landing
Dynamics Facility.

[Van:] The Aircraft
Landing Dynamics Facility

but that's mouthful.

So, they call it ALDF
or ALDF for sure.

Let's find out how NASA
engineers are using math, science

and technology to solve
the problem they are face

with every day.

[Child:] How is the test
that have solved the problem?

[RJ:] Power graph used to
find possible solution.

[Child:] Where

[inaudible] method
did NASA engineers use

to represent there solution.

[RJ:] The

[inaudible] allows NASA Langley
to test cars, wheels and breaks.

Vehicles like airplanes, cars,

trucks even the space
shell orbiters

to make some safer for everyone.

For example, because jet
airplanes in the space shuttle land

at really high speeds we have to
stimulate this speeds here the

out there, if we want to test the
accurate this is done with the use

of pressurized water, a carriage
and the tire or gear been tested.

10000 gallons of the water
pushed carriage down the track

when the desired speed is
reach the tire is lowered

down to the test surface.

Instruments are used to
measure the force is acting

between the tires
and the test surface.

This data are collective by
computer made into a graph

by comparing many
graphs we are able

to predict how the
tire might behave

under conditions other
than what we test.

Some of the many test
we have conducted beyond

that include something known as

[inaudible] point plane,
that's when you drive your car

or an airplane to fast on the
water covered road of runway

and you actually starts skiing on
the water that's fun if you boating

but not very fun if
you are in airplane.

So the engineers at ALDF
figured out that putting

[inaudible] in the runway
gives the water away to get

out the car a footprint
to keep it in some

[inaudible] plane.

Beside we have found its way to the
highways you and your family drive

on to keep you safe in a


[Jennifer:] Wow!

So NASA Langley engineers solve
lots of real world problems.

[RJ:] That's right.

I remembers that

[inaudible] simulates tire were at
landing speed and runway services.

Sometimes in order to solve real
world problems you have to go

to where the problem really exists.

Take Kennedy's Space Center
in Florida for example.

This is the number one landing
site for space shuttle launches

and landings and the
conditions have to be just right

for the space shuttle
orbiter to take off a land.

[RJ:] Conditions, like the weather.

[RJ:] That's part of it.

If conditions like
the runway texture

and the winds are just right the
space shuttle tires will wear

out and could fail.

You see the runway at Kennedy Space
Center was built very, very rough.

So the water would drain off away

and it wouldn't be too
slippery when it was wet.

But you want the orbit
of harder plane.

But because the orbit of
tires, land with the weight

of about a hundred and fifty
cars and is fast as two hundred

and fifty miles per hour the rough
runway was like a cheese grated

on the tires, too much
wear could cause the tires

to fail during the landing
and we want to prevent that.

[RJ:] How were gets even
worst when the orbit

[inaudible]_ lands in a cross wind.

[RJ:] Alright, I have
heard that too before.

[RJ:] But what exactly
is it cross wind.

[RJ:] Well, cross wind is
the wind blowing at an angle

across the path of an aircraft.

Landing in across wind actually
causes all of there tire

to roll slightly sideways.

We call that yaw angle
and just a small amount

of yaw angle could cause a
tremendous amount of tire wear.

This tire wear limits the amount
of cross when the shuttle can land

or launch in which causes delays.

NASA, wanted to double
the cross when limit

that shuttle could
launch or land in safely.

Our job was to find out how to
smooth the rough runway surface

to reduce tire wear without making
it too slippery when it was wet.

[RJ:] So Bob, I guess you
use the outdoor to figure

out which runway surface
to use at Kennedy.

[RJ:] That's right we started right
here but because of test track here

at the ALDF is only a half
mile long and the runway

of Kennedy is three miles long.

We really couldn't take a bunch
of short distance runs here

and add them together and
accurately predict the wear

for a whole shuttle landing.

We needed a full scale test.

Somehow we had to make the
shuttle tire think it was

on the real shuttle.

[RJ:] Well, how did you do that
then without using a real shuttle?

[RJ:] Well some very smart people

at NASA driving flight
research facility

in Edwood California came up with a

[inaudible] nine ninety program.

This took the idea of the ALDF one
big step forward and allowed us

to land an orbit tire on whatever
runway we want, all at full scale.

The large fixture was built
in the belly of the airplane

that could apply the correct way

to a shuttle tire while the
pilots landed the airplane

at about two hundred and
fifty miles per hour.

[RJ:] Okay so the

[inaudible] nine-ninety
could simulate a shuttle tire

landing pretty well.

But how did you figure out
the best runway service?

[RJ:] Much big question.

Before we put the

[inaudible] nine-ninety
to the test,

we had to get an idea what kind of
runway texture might or might not

to reduce tire wear building lots

of three mile long test trips
would be very expensive.

So we conducted a sub

or small-scale test using a
test vehicle from Langley.

This truck allowed us to wear

out smaller airplane
tires by rolling and

[inaudible] them on lots
of different textures.

And it allowed us to predict
which surfaces might be worthwhile

to install in three
mile long test trips.

[RJ:] How do you measure tire wear?

[RJ:] Well after rolling
these smaller tires

of certain distance
we would weigh them

and see how much rubber
was worn of then we graph

that loss weight with distance.

This graph shows tire wear for some

of the different surfaces
we have tested.

We tested 18 different
textures in all.

On the graph we put a line
showing the maximum amount of wear

that we could live with to
reach on your cross wind limit.

Any surfaces showed were
higher than that limit would be

out of the question and you can
see that limits are choices.

[Jennifer:] Cool!

So now you had five runways
surfaces instead of 18.

What's next?

[RJ:] Next we conducted
fortune test on the surfaces

when they were wet to see
how slippery they might get

in the rain.

This graph shows the
results of those tests.

We also put a line on this graph
showing the minimum friction level

that we could live with.

A surface with less friction
would make it too hard to steer

or stop the shuttle
if the surface wet.

This also limits our choices

and when we combine
these two graphs it said

that we could only
predict the three

of the original eighteen surface
ideas with both reduced wear

but not be two slippery.

With our top three choices,

with the three test
trips and landed the

[inaudible]nine ninety
on each of them.

Comparing graphs and making
predictions really helped us

to narrow down our selection
of expensive test drives.

[RJ:] Okay, so how did
you collect data from the

[inaudible] nine ninety?

[RJ:] While doing our task
we measured the tire forces

of sensitive instruments
and then we use the computer

to graph the results.

We also combine video

[inaudible]of each task
to find out when each

of the tires cord layers worn
through by counting them.

Finally, we could graph the
forces and the tire wear

and compare the performance of the
new surface with the rough surface.

This graph shows that we got less
tire wear for the same forces

on the new surface,
just like we predicted.

Using all these test results
NASA shuttle managers now had the

information they needed
to decide the change

of texture the entire runway
surface at Kennedy Space Centre.

That's almost the equivalent
of a hundred football fields.

Today the shadow orbiter
has the ability

to withstand twice the amount
of cross wing, without worrying

about tire wear, and
we use measurement,

graphs and predictions to do it.

[Jennifer:] NASA Connect travel
North West to Richman Virginia

to conduct the student
activity for today's program.

[RJ:] NASA Connect acts as
can help you to understand how

to do this show the activity.

[Child:] Earlier we learned

that NASA Langley's Aircraft
Landing Dynamics Facility were

out that which is a
carriage pressurized water

and a test track to test tires.

Let simulate the research
they do it out that,

using the upper basin
non-combustor dragster or ENCD.

You test different ratios of
water and upper basin tablets

to prepare the dragster
down the track.

Then you measure the distance
should dragster travels

and create graphs to analyze
the results just like NASA

researchers do.

Instructions for the entire
student activity are found

in the educator's

[inaudible] guy, so make
sure your teacher has it.

Before we contest our dragster
we need to prepare three things.

The dragster, proportion
device and the test track.

First let's make the dragster.

The materials you need like milk
tops and straws are easy to find.

After you've made the
dragster it's time

to assemble the proportion device.

This is made by using a shoe box.

Finally, prepare the test track.

Kind of like the one at ALDF.

This next step is very important
for making accurate measurements.

Now you are ready to begin
testing your dragster.

Make sure you have
your safety goggles on.

Place your dragster
behind the starting line.

And slide the ski rope on
this shoe box enter the straw

on the dragster.

Make sure you line at the dragster

so that the front
wheels are on zero.

Place your foot into
the shoe box to hold it

in place during the task.

Let's conduct the trials.

To prepare a dragster down
the track or use a ratio

of an upper basin tablet to water.

For the first trail use the
ratio of half of tablet of fuel

to two teaspoons of water.

Fill the thumb canister with water

and hold it near the
front of the shoe box.

Quickly drag the fuel tablet
into the canister snap

on the lid attach the canister
to the shoe box and stand back.

Measure the distance your
dragster travel and report

that distance on the data sheet.

After every trail resin the
thumb canister with clean water

and dry it with the paper towel.

Now repeat the trial using the
same ratio of water to fuel

and record the distance traveled.

Average the distance
traveled for the two trails.

Remember how NASA engineers
use prediction to determine

which runway was best
for the space shuttle.

Let's do the same.

Look at your first trail

and predict what size tablet
might repel your dragster a

greater distance.

After you choose a different
size tablet when two trials

with in the new ratio,
be sure to use the amount

of water average the
results like you did before

and record on data sheet.

Based on your findings
predict another size tablet

that might repel your dragster
and even greater distance,

when two trials on the new
ratio and average the distance.

After you have completed all your
trials your teacher would get you

started on graphing your data
then help you understand how

to analyze the results.

[RJ:] Now, how can we did play
the data that we collected.

Think about the information that
we collected and how we are going

to compare it on the chart.

None of we have our graph did play.

I would like a memo from
each of the group to come up

and to plot the average of
their trial on the chart.

[RJ:] Now that we finished and we
have collected all of our data,

it is now time to analyze.

What type of graph is
it, was a bar-graph,

a line graph or scatter graph.

What was the maximum
distance our dragster travel.

What tablet ratio you have
produced to great distance?

Do you think there is another
tablet ratio that to produced

and even greater distance.

Okay, how can we find it out?

[Jennifer:] NASA Connect,
we would like

to thank the Hampton Road
Section of the AIAA for their help

with the classroom activity.

Hey! Teachers, if
your students want

to conduct this awesome activity
then visit the NASA Connect web

site and download the lesson
guide for this program

and kids make sure you
visit our site too.

There are lots of exiting
activities for you to check out.

Speaking of the web, NASA Connect
travels South to North of Virginia

for today's web base activity.

[RJ:] Hi! Norbert and I are here
at Novartis in North of Virginia.

This little times are as huge
and features over one hundred

and fifty interactive exhibits.

Now because of NASA are
teaming up for this program

of NASA Connect introduce to you

to their shows online
activity, the NASA edu-tour.

But first with a little help from
Norbert, let's take quick tour

of Norbert's online laboratory.

Let's observe the
type of lab features

that are adjusting much quicker way

to support the NASA
Connect programs.

The digital content pattern
of lab makes a best collection

of information, ideas, resource

within experts accessible
to you at any time.

[Jennifer:] Okay, very well

as you can see we are here now
inside North of this we see still

[inaudible] have gather to
introduce you to the NASA edu-tour,

a digital tour of the NASA Langley
Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility.

Now this digital tour
has been designed

to augment the video presentation
and to provide you the use

of the opportunity to
use this information

in a ways like NASA scientist.

So let's take a

[inaudible] key of the tour.

[Child:] From the NASA Connect
web site go to Norbert's lab,

where you find a button that
get you the ALDF edu tour.

There are four main parts to make
up this NASA lab: proportion,

test carriage, track and

[inaudible] system.

And you start the tour
you get information

about how the proportion
system works

and also the science
behind the system.

Once you understand
that, you do an activity

that helps you visualized the
mathematics and science concepts.

Look place some animations
then answer questions

about what you have observed.

There is an activity for
each one of the four parts

and related questions that
will touch your knowledge

but we want you to see
the web site for yourself.

So that I will show you now,
oh, by the way there is a review

at the end of the tour that was
summarized what you have learn

during your visit to the lab.

[RJ:] A special thanks to our
Universities students interest

from the AIAA, Hampton
Road, students branch.

The AIAA as the special connect
partner opposite students

as an interest to register
connect classrooms.

To learn more about the

[inaudible] program
check out our website.

Bringing to you the power
of digital learning.

I'm sure you came right
for NASA Connect online.

[RJ:] So you have seen using the
ALDF Langley's test drive and the

[inaudible] nine ninety
to test tires,

and tire wear really helped
engineers to solve their problem

with the shuttle runway
at Kennedy Space Center.

[Van:] Right.

They run test, measuring
collect data, track the results.

[Jennifer:] And predict
solutions to their problems.

Hm! Samsung, what are -- what
you do in your classroom?

[RJ:] Does NASA Langley conduct
any other experience tests?

[Jennifer:] Honey you should
ask remember the title

of today's program
measurement, ratios and graphing.

Three, two one crash, well NASA
Langley actually crashes aircraft.

To test them for safety.

Right here at the Impact
Dynamic Research facility.

[RJ:] Power technology is

to collect the mathematical
data in craft prices.

[RJ:] Right area include
in the results of the test.

[RJ:] How ratio is used
to find the solutions?

[RJ:] Impact Dynamic
Research facility is used

to conduct full scale craft.

The air craft to be tested
suspended from the gantry hold back

to a calculate released
height and then release

to swing like a pendulum into
the impacts surface below.

Just before crashing the
swing cables were released

in the air craft

[inaudible]free flight.

The cables attached the
air craft are release

by power technique explosions.

It's pretty cool to watch.

In fresh air craft you
can see how safe they are

and develop ways to
make them safer.

IDRF is very similar to what the
auto industry does with cars.

Everyone has seen the commercials
with cars been crash into barriers

and it crash means
responding to the forces.

[RJ:] Our quest just

[inaudible] why the centers in data
collected to determine the crash

within its of air craft.

[inaudible] is how well an
air craft protects passengers

in then of the crash.

We use the data from the
dummies to make improvements

to aircraft designs for crash


[Jennifer:] just so cool I mean
you get to crash things for living

[Van] And we get safer air craft.

[Jennifer:] You are right, then the
testing and the research conducted

at the IDRF can really benefit
all airplane passengers.

Whatever your main goal
is reduced the force

on airplane passengers
during the crash.

You want to a create structures
and material that dissipate

or absorb the energy from the
crash before the energy gets

to the passengers.

Take a car instance,
structures like the bumper

and frame are design to crash.

When these parts crash they
dissipate or absorb some

of the energy so that the
passengers are less likely

to be injured.


[inaudible] we are on the
planes that don't have bumpers.

[RJ:] Right, however that parts

of air craft they can
absorb energy in a crash.

Parts like the sub-

[inaudible] which is
the area under the port.

The landing gear, the seat and
even the cushion can absorb energy.

Restraints like the seat
belts are also necessary

to keep the passengers from flying
to the air craft during the crash.

We these part structures are
design correctly or optimized.

The passengers have a better
chance to survive in a crash.

[RJ:] But Lisa how do you design
air craft parts to absorb energy?

[RJ:] Good question we use

[inaudible] data and
crash as dummy data

to develop better
energy absorbing designs.

You see air craft have
made a different material.

Some are made of metals like
aluminum and some are made

of compose materials like
graphite with fiber glass.

A tennis racket is good
example of the graphite material

and those small boats
are made of fiber glass.

Metals and composite performed
very differently in the crash.

So we have to design the parts
to compliment the materials

that aircraft is made of.

Basically we would
not design a sub-core

in a composite aircraft the same
way we would design a sub-core

and a metal air craft.

[RJ:] Can you really design
sub-core that absorbs energy?

[RJ:] Yes, in 1994 we
tested a graphite aircraft

[inaudible] the


When the original
aircraft was released

from the gantry it was extremely
rigid and nothing crushed.

According to the crash test dummy
data we have collected only one

of the six passengers survived.

So we use that data to
design a new energy absorbing

for crushable sub-floor.

It would be like putting
a bumper under the floor.

Then we built and
tested small sections

of different sub-floor designs
until we had the best design.

And second

[inaudible] was modified

by installing the newly
design sub-floor and tested.

The results show that the
new sub-floor improve the

[inaudible] by reducing the
forces on the passengers.

[RJ:] Oh, wow, this look crazy,

how do you collect the
data from the crush test?

[RJ:] We use digital data
collection system that designed

to handle the impacts of
the crash like this one.

All the instruments on board are
large to the data collection system

and after the test the data are
downloaded on to laptop computer,

we analyze by the researchers.

[RJ:] In school we analyze
data and we make graphs, as

[inaudible] you do?

[Lisa:] Absolutely, we make
graphs of the data collected

and compared those to other graphs.

This graph from an
actual test conducted here

at IDRF shows the ratio
of G-force to time.

You can feel the sensation
of G-forces as when you ride

on roll-a-coaster is quite you we
feel pushing you into your seat


As you can see our
graph is a crushing.

Next we calculated the area
under the current and compare it

to a human tolerance graph.

This graph shows the maximum energy
or G-force that human can tolerate

over the specific time.


[inaudible]from 0G to
250G and back to 0G

in a very short, short
amount of time.

The shaded area within
the triangle is the amount

of energy a human can tolerate
in hundred millisecond.

Next we set up a ratio by
comparing the shaded area

under the dummy data
to the shaded area

under the human tolerance data.

We can determine if
the passengers survive.

We want this ratio to be
less than or equal to one

if passengers are to survive.

[RJ:] Okay Lisa, I have
one more question for you.

How does all the information

that you collect here
help aircraft safety.

[Lisa:] By using measurements
and graphs,

we present the data
collected from test

[inaudible] to aircraft
companies into the FAA

or the Federal Aviation

Then the aircraft commenced

[inaudible] newly
designs the aircraft.

The FAA may use the
information just divert new rules

and regulations for
aircraft safety.

[Van] Well, that about wraps up
this episode of NASA Connect.

[Jennifer:] It should as, and
you know Van and I would like

to thank everyone out who
make this program possible.

We hope you have all made the
connection between the research

and extreme test conducted
in NASA Langley and the math,

science technology you do
in your classroom everyday.

[Van:] Jennifer now I would like to
hear from you with you questions,

comments or suggestion.

So write us at NASA Connects,
NASA Langley Research Center,

mail staff 400, Hampton
Virginia 23681 or email us


[Jennifer:] Hey teachers, if
you would like to video tape

of this program and we
accompanying lesson guide,

check out the NASA Connect website.

From our side you can link to
core, the NASA central operation

of resources for educators
or link to space-link

and locate your local NASA
Educator Resource Center.

Until the next time
stay connected to

[Van:] Mathematics

[Jennifer:] Science

[Van:] Technology

[Jennifer:] And NASA.

[RJ:] See you then.

[RJ:] Hey, how are you doing?

[RJ:] How you doing?

[RJ:] Really good working

[RJ:] Okay and action.

[RJ:] So how many
crashes you went through.

[RJ:] About fifteen hundred.

[RJ:] You know skidding
tire is just one way

that NASA Langley Research Center
conducts test to improve aircraft.


[inaudible] here again!

[RJ:] This collection system.

[Van:] Jennifer, I would like to
hear from you with your comments,

question or suggestion so....