Transcript for NASA Connect - Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: 3,2,1 Crash

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[Rich:] What a break.

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[Larry:] Yeah!

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This plane looks just as bad as
some of the car we have been in.

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[Rich:] Hi!

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I'm Rich.

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[Larry:] And I'm Larry.

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We are the crash test dummies

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for the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration?

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[Rich:] Larry and I have done more
than 10,000 crash test in order

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to help protect motor vehicle past
years like you from serious injury.

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[Larry:] On this episode of
NASA Connect you will learn how

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measurement ratios and graphs are
use by NASA engineers every day

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as they conduct some
pretty extreme tests.

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[Rich:] You are telling me?

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NASA Langley uses crash
tests dummies like us.

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To help them improve the crash

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[inaudible]at the
midst of Air Craft.

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Like we always say take it from
a dummy make sure you buckle up.

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So stay tuned as Van, Jennifer
show you how NASA tests Air Craft

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to the extreme.

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Three, two, one

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[inaudible]

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[Jennifer:] Wow!

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That was an awesome ride, you know
skidding tires is just one way,

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that NASA Langley Research
Center conducts test

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to improve the Air Craft
performance and safety.

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[Van Hughes:] Hey!

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Welcome to NASA Connect, the show
that connects you to the world

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of mathematics, science,
technology and NASA.

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I am Van Hughes.

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[Jennifer:] And I'm
Jennifer Pulley.

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And we are your host
along with Norbert.

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Every time Norbert appears have
you a Q parts from the lesson guide

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and your brain ready to answer
the questions he gives you.

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And teacher every time Norbert
appears with Ronald that's your Q

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to pause the video tape

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and discuss the Q part
questions he gives you.

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[Van Hughes:] This show
is urging with math.

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We will see how NASA
researches measure

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and collect data develop
ratios and graphs

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to analyze the data
compare the results

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and then predict possible solutions

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for their real world problems.

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[Jennifer:] Using this math
concepts students like you will

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conduct an experiment very
similar to NASA Research

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that you can try in your classroom.

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It's a blast.

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[Van:] Then grab a computer and
a mouse and log on to the web.

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Our NASA headquarters correspondent
Dr. Shelly Kenright will get you

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connected to our web activity.

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[Jennifer:] Today, we are at NASA
Langley Research Center in Hampton,

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Virginia NASA Langley is the
oldest of the nine NASA facility.

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[Van:] Here is another Langley
fact, see this huge structure,

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its original name was the Lunar
Landing Research facility.

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But today we call it

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[inaudible].

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In the 1960s a

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[inaudible] Astronauts
stand right here

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in NASA Langley to Land on a moon.

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[Jennifer:] The

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[inaudible]ratio is measurement,
ratios, and graphing three, two,

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one crash and get this
measurement, ratios,

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and graphs are used every
day by NASA researches.

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They make predictions and draw
conclusions using the data they

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collect from their
research and extreme facts.

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Speaking of graphs,
does this look familiar

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of course this grade would never
put on your desk, it's huge.

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It square measures one
meter by one meter.

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But anyway NASA researcher use
this spread for film analysis.

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[Van:] The air craft passes in
front of the grid and distract

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by a camera, then engineers can
measure the distance the aircraft

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travels in certain amount of time.

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NASA engineer's analysis this data

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and make conclusion based
on the test results.

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Finally they communicate what they
have learned to aircraft companies

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so they built safer aircraft.

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We will learn more about of
NASA crashes aircraft from this

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[inaudible] later on in the show.

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[Jennifer:] Right, but first let's
learn more about NASA Langley.

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[Van] Today National Aeronautics
and Space Administration

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or NASA was established in 1958

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but it's historical root
reach back much harder

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to the early 1900s.

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Powered flight was developed
by the Wright Brothers in 1903.

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However, during World War I,

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America realized how far
was behind other countries

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in developing air power.

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So, congress created the NACA

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or the National Advisor
Committee for Aeronautics.

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[Child:] What is the Aeronautics?

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[Jennifer:] Aeronautics is
simply the science of light.

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Any way the NACA decided to built
a Aeronautical Research Facility

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and they found out
perfect location.

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A sight was chosen
in Hampton Virginia

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and the facility was named the
Langley Memorial Aeronautical

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Laboratory, after an early
aviation pioneer Samuel

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[inaudible] Langley.

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[Van:] Later in 1958 congress
changed the name of the NACA

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to NASA and NASA Langley
Research Center help

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[inaudible] to the space program.

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America's first man in space
program project mercury began

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at NASA Langley.

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[Jennifer:] Today NASA
has grown to nine centers

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across the United States they
are involved in aeronautics,

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earth science, space science
and human exploration of space.

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The knowledge gained from
NASA research can be found

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in every day objects like,
sun glass, athletic shoes,

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codeless products and even
the highways we drive on.

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[Van:] So the next time you
fly in the airplane remember

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that almost every American
Aircraft today uses technology

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that was developed right here
at NASA Langley Research Center.

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[Jennifer:] Okay, now that
you got some facts on NASA

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and NASA Langley,
let's see what type

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of extreme test NASA
Langley conducts

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at the Aircraft Landing
Dynamics Facility.

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[Van:] The Aircraft
Landing Dynamics Facility

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but that's mouthful.

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So, they call it ALDF
or ALDF for sure.

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Let's find out how NASA
engineers are using math, science

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and technology to solve
the problem they are face

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with every day.

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[Child:] How is the test
that have solved the problem?

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[RJ:] Power graph used to
find possible solution.

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[Child:] Where

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[inaudible] method
did NASA engineers use

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to represent there solution.

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[RJ:] The

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[inaudible] allows NASA Langley
to test cars, wheels and breaks.

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Vehicles like airplanes, cars,

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trucks even the space
shell orbiters

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to make some safer for everyone.

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For example, because jet
airplanes in the space shuttle land

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at really high speeds we have to
stimulate this speeds here the

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out there, if we want to test the
accurate this is done with the use

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of pressurized water, a carriage
and the tire or gear been tested.

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10000 gallons of the water
pushed carriage down the track

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when the desired speed is
reach the tire is lowered

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down to the test surface.

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Instruments are used to
measure the force is acting

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between the tires
and the test surface.

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This data are collective by
computer made into a graph

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by comparing many
graphs we are able

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to predict how the
tire might behave

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under conditions other
than what we test.

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Some of the many test
we have conducted beyond

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that include something known as

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[inaudible] point plane,
that's when you drive your car

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or an airplane to fast on the
water covered road of runway

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and you actually starts skiing on
the water that's fun if you boating

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but not very fun if
you are in airplane.

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So the engineers at ALDF
figured out that putting

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[inaudible] in the runway
gives the water away to get

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out the car a footprint
to keep it in some

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[inaudible] plane.

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Beside we have found its way to the
highways you and your family drive

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on to keep you safe in a

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[inaudible].

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[Jennifer:] Wow!

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So NASA Langley engineers solve
lots of real world problems.

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[RJ:] That's right.

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I remembers that

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[inaudible] simulates tire were at
landing speed and runway services.

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Sometimes in order to solve real
world problems you have to go

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to where the problem really exists.

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Take Kennedy's Space Center
in Florida for example.

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This is the number one landing
site for space shuttle launches

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and landings and the
conditions have to be just right

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for the space shuttle
orbiter to take off a land.

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[RJ:] Conditions, like the weather.

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[RJ:] That's part of it.

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If conditions like
the runway texture

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and the winds are just right the
space shuttle tires will wear

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out and could fail.

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You see the runway at Kennedy Space
Center was built very, very rough.

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So the water would drain off away

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and it wouldn't be too
slippery when it was wet.

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But you want the orbit
of harder plane.

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But because the orbit of
tires, land with the weight

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of about a hundred and fifty
cars and is fast as two hundred

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and fifty miles per hour the rough
runway was like a cheese grated

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on the tires, too much
wear could cause the tires

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to fail during the landing
and we want to prevent that.

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[RJ:] How were gets even
worst when the orbit

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[inaudible]_ lands in a cross wind.

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[RJ:] Alright, I have
heard that too before.

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[RJ:] But what exactly
is it cross wind.

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[RJ:] Well, cross wind is
the wind blowing at an angle

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across the path of an aircraft.

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Landing in across wind actually
causes all of there tire

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to roll slightly sideways.

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We call that yaw angle
and just a small amount

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of yaw angle could cause a
tremendous amount of tire wear.

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This tire wear limits the amount
of cross when the shuttle can land

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or launch in which causes delays.

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NASA, wanted to double
the cross when limit

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that shuttle could
launch or land in safely.

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Our job was to find out how to
smooth the rough runway surface

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to reduce tire wear without making
it too slippery when it was wet.

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[RJ:] So Bob, I guess you
use the outdoor to figure

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out which runway surface
to use at Kennedy.

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[RJ:] That's right we started right
here but because of test track here

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at the ALDF is only a half
mile long and the runway

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of Kennedy is three miles long.

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We really couldn't take a bunch
of short distance runs here

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and add them together and
accurately predict the wear

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for a whole shuttle landing.

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We needed a full scale test.

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Somehow we had to make the
shuttle tire think it was

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on the real shuttle.

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[RJ:] Well, how did you do that
then without using a real shuttle?

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[RJ:] Well some very smart people

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at NASA driving flight
research facility

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in Edwood California came up with a

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[inaudible] nine ninety program.

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This took the idea of the ALDF one
big step forward and allowed us

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to land an orbit tire on whatever
runway we want, all at full scale.

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The large fixture was built
in the belly of the airplane

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that could apply the correct way

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to a shuttle tire while the
pilots landed the airplane

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at about two hundred and
fifty miles per hour.

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[RJ:] Okay so the

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[inaudible] nine-ninety
could simulate a shuttle tire

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landing pretty well.

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But how did you figure out
the best runway service?

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[RJ:] Much big question.

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Before we put the

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[inaudible] nine-ninety
to the test,

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we had to get an idea what kind of
runway texture might or might not

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to reduce tire wear building lots

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of three mile long test trips
would be very expensive.

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So we conducted a sub

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or small-scale test using a
test vehicle from Langley.

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This truck allowed us to wear

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out smaller airplane
tires by rolling and

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[inaudible] them on lots
of different textures.

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And it allowed us to predict
which surfaces might be worthwhile

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to install in three
mile long test trips.

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[RJ:] How do you measure tire wear?

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[RJ:] Well after rolling
these smaller tires

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of certain distance
we would weigh them

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and see how much rubber
was worn of then we graph

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that loss weight with distance.

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This graph shows tire wear for some

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of the different surfaces
we have tested.

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We tested 18 different
textures in all.

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On the graph we put a line
showing the maximum amount of wear

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that we could live with to
reach on your cross wind limit.

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Any surfaces showed were
higher than that limit would be

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out of the question and you can
see that limits are choices.

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[Jennifer:] Cool!

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So now you had five runways
surfaces instead of 18.

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What's next?

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[RJ:] Next we conducted
fortune test on the surfaces

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when they were wet to see
how slippery they might get

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in the rain.

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This graph shows the
results of those tests.

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We also put a line on this graph
showing the minimum friction level

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that we could live with.

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A surface with less friction
would make it too hard to steer

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or stop the shuttle
if the surface wet.

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This also limits our choices

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and when we combine
these two graphs it said

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that we could only
predict the three

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of the original eighteen surface
ideas with both reduced wear

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but not be two slippery.

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With our top three choices,

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with the three test
trips and landed the

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[inaudible]nine ninety
on each of them.

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Comparing graphs and making
predictions really helped us

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to narrow down our selection
of expensive test drives.

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[RJ:] Okay, so how did
you collect data from the

[00:12:28.769]
[inaudible] nine ninety?

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[RJ:] While doing our task
we measured the tire forces

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of sensitive instruments
and then we use the computer

[00:12:34.869]
to graph the results.

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We also combine video

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[inaudible]of each task
to find out when each

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of the tires cord layers worn
through by counting them.

[00:12:42.899]
Finally, we could graph the
forces and the tire wear

[00:12:45.689]
and compare the performance of the
new surface with the rough surface.

[00:12:49.019]
This graph shows that we got less
tire wear for the same forces

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on the new surface,
just like we predicted.

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Using all these test results
NASA shuttle managers now had the

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information they needed
to decide the change

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of texture the entire runway
surface at Kennedy Space Centre.

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That's almost the equivalent
of a hundred football fields.

[00:13:06.819]
Today the shadow orbiter
has the ability

[00:13:08.939]
to withstand twice the amount
of cross wing, without worrying

[00:13:11.429]
about tire wear, and
we use measurement,

[00:13:13.509]
graphs and predictions to do it.

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[Jennifer:] NASA Connect travel
North West to Richman Virginia

[00:13:21.239]
to conduct the student
activity for today's program.

[00:13:24.129]
[RJ:] NASA Connect acts as
can help you to understand how

[00:13:32.599]
to do this show the activity.

[00:13:34.449]
[Child:] Earlier we learned

[00:13:35.089]
that NASA Langley's Aircraft
Landing Dynamics Facility were

[00:13:39.819]
out that which is a
carriage pressurized water

[00:13:42.929]
and a test track to test tires.

[00:13:45.629]
Let simulate the research
they do it out that,

[00:13:48.459]
using the upper basin
non-combustor dragster or ENCD.

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You test different ratios of
water and upper basin tablets

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to prepare the dragster
down the track.

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Then you measure the distance
should dragster travels

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and create graphs to analyze
the results just like NASA

[00:14:05.719]
researchers do.

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Instructions for the entire
student activity are found

[00:14:10.749]
in the educator's

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[inaudible] guy, so make
sure your teacher has it.

[00:14:13.959]
Before we contest our dragster
we need to prepare three things.

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The dragster, proportion
device and the test track.

[00:14:22.049]
First let's make the dragster.

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The materials you need like milk
tops and straws are easy to find.

[00:14:29.409]
After you've made the
dragster it's time

[00:14:31.659]
to assemble the proportion device.

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This is made by using a shoe box.

[00:14:36.399]
Finally, prepare the test track.

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Kind of like the one at ALDF.

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This next step is very important
for making accurate measurements.

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Now you are ready to begin
testing your dragster.

[00:14:47.889]
Make sure you have
your safety goggles on.

[00:14:50.339]
Place your dragster
behind the starting line.

[00:14:52.709]
And slide the ski rope on
this shoe box enter the straw

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on the dragster.

[00:14:57.249]
Make sure you line at the dragster

[00:14:59.299]
so that the front
wheels are on zero.

[00:15:02.149]
Place your foot into
the shoe box to hold it

[00:15:04.359]
in place during the task.

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Let's conduct the trials.

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To prepare a dragster down
the track or use a ratio

[00:15:11.279]
of an upper basin tablet to water.

[00:15:13.879]
For the first trail use the
ratio of half of tablet of fuel

[00:15:18.109]
to two teaspoons of water.

[00:15:20.269]
Fill the thumb canister with water

[00:15:21.959]
and hold it near the
front of the shoe box.

[00:15:24.659]
Quickly drag the fuel tablet
into the canister snap

[00:15:28.109]
on the lid attach the canister
to the shoe box and stand back.

[00:15:32.699]
Measure the distance your
dragster travel and report

[00:15:35.529]
that distance on the data sheet.

[00:15:37.819]
After every trail resin the
thumb canister with clean water

[00:15:41.259]
and dry it with the paper towel.

[00:15:43.079]
Now repeat the trial using the
same ratio of water to fuel

[00:15:47.869]
and record the distance traveled.

[00:15:50.589]
Average the distance
traveled for the two trails.

[00:15:53.179]
Remember how NASA engineers
use prediction to determine

[00:15:56.869]
which runway was best
for the space shuttle.

[00:15:58.919]
Let's do the same.

[00:16:00.039]
Look at your first trail

[00:16:02.259]
and predict what size tablet
might repel your dragster a

[00:16:05.899]
greater distance.

[00:16:07.229]
After you choose a different
size tablet when two trials

[00:16:11.239]
with in the new ratio,
be sure to use the amount

[00:16:14.679]
of water average the
results like you did before

[00:16:17.389]
and record on data sheet.

[00:16:19.589]
Based on your findings
predict another size tablet

[00:16:22.839]
that might repel your dragster
and even greater distance,

[00:16:26.649]
when two trials on the new
ratio and average the distance.

[00:16:30.459]
After you have completed all your
trials your teacher would get you

[00:16:33.999]
started on graphing your data
then help you understand how

[00:16:37.809]
to analyze the results.

[00:16:39.809]
[RJ:] Now, how can we did play
the data that we collected.

[00:16:43.179]
Think about the information that
we collected and how we are going

[00:16:46.849]
to compare it on the chart.

[00:16:49.339]
None of we have our graph did play.

[00:16:50.999]
I would like a memo from
each of the group to come up

[00:16:55.979]
and to plot the average of
their trial on the chart.

[00:16:59.939]
[RJ:] Now that we finished and we
have collected all of our data,

[00:17:08.939]
[00:17:09.609]
it is now time to analyze.

[00:17:11.859]
What type of graph is
it, was a bar-graph,

[00:17:15.039]
a line graph or scatter graph.

[00:17:19.119]
What was the maximum
distance our dragster travel.

[00:17:23.089]
What tablet ratio you have
produced to great distance?

[00:17:26.369]
Do you think there is another
tablet ratio that to produced

[00:17:30.039]
and even greater distance.

[00:17:32.999]
Okay, how can we find it out?

[00:17:40.759]
[Jennifer:] NASA Connect,
we would like

[00:17:41.769]
to thank the Hampton Road
Section of the AIAA for their help

[00:17:45.169]
with the classroom activity.

[00:17:47.319]
Hey! Teachers, if
your students want

[00:17:49.209]
to conduct this awesome activity
then visit the NASA Connect web

[00:17:52.419]
site and download the lesson
guide for this program

[00:17:55.369]
and kids make sure you
visit our site too.

[00:17:58.099]
There are lots of exiting
activities for you to check out.

[00:18:01.479]
Speaking of the web, NASA Connect
travels South to North of Virginia

[00:18:05.299]
for today's web base activity.

[00:18:06.989]
[RJ:] Hi! Norbert and I are here
at Novartis in North of Virginia.

[00:18:11.659]
This little times are as huge
and features over one hundred

[00:18:14.309]
and fifty interactive exhibits.

[00:18:15.539]
Now because of NASA are
teaming up for this program

[00:18:18.629]
of NASA Connect introduce to you

[00:18:20.399]
to their shows online
activity, the NASA edu-tour.

[00:18:23.009]
But first with a little help from
Norbert, let's take quick tour

[00:18:26.519]
of Norbert's online laboratory.

[00:18:29.129]
Let's observe the
type of lab features

[00:18:30.889]
that are adjusting much quicker way

[00:18:32.309]
to support the NASA
Connect programs.

[00:18:34.499]
The digital content pattern
of lab makes a best collection

[00:18:37.509]
of information, ideas, resource

[00:18:39.869]
within experts accessible
to you at any time.

[00:18:44.169]
[Jennifer:] Okay, very well

[00:18:44.979]
as you can see we are here now
inside North of this we see still

[00:18:48.549]
[inaudible] have gather to
introduce you to the NASA edu-tour,

[00:18:51.699]
a digital tour of the NASA Langley
Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility.

[00:18:55.869]
Now this digital tour
has been designed

[00:18:58.269]
to augment the video presentation
and to provide you the use

[00:19:01.129]
of the opportunity to
use this information

[00:19:03.349]
in a ways like NASA scientist.

[00:19:05.099]
So let's take a

[00:19:06.109]
[inaudible] key of the tour.

[00:19:07.419]
[Child:] From the NASA Connect
web site go to Norbert's lab,

[00:19:11.419]
where you find a button that
get you the ALDF edu tour.

[00:19:14.979]
There are four main parts to make
up this NASA lab: proportion,

[00:19:19.009]
test carriage, track and

[00:19:20.759]
[inaudible] system.

[00:19:21.429]
And you start the tour
you get information

[00:19:24.189]
about how the proportion
system works

[00:19:26.629]
and also the science
behind the system.

[00:19:30.209]
Once you understand
that, you do an activity

[00:19:32.899]
that helps you visualized the
mathematics and science concepts.

[00:19:36.769]
Look place some animations
then answer questions

[00:19:39.529]
about what you have observed.

[00:19:41.129]
There is an activity for
each one of the four parts

[00:19:43.949]
and related questions that
will touch your knowledge

[00:19:46.889]
but we want you to see
the web site for yourself.

[00:19:49.619]
So that I will show you now,
oh, by the way there is a review

[00:19:53.699]
at the end of the tour that was
summarized what you have learn

[00:19:56.489]
during your visit to the lab.

[00:19:58.859]
[RJ:] A special thanks to our
Universities students interest

[00:20:01.169]
from the AIAA, Hampton
Road, students branch.

[00:20:03.719]
The AIAA as the special connect
partner opposite students

[00:20:07.089]
as an interest to register
connect classrooms.

[00:20:09.809]
To learn more about the

[00:20:10.729]
[inaudible] program
check out our website.

[00:20:13.289]
Bringing to you the power
of digital learning.

[00:20:15.869]
I'm sure you came right
for NASA Connect online.

[00:20:18.449]
[RJ:] So you have seen using the
ALDF Langley's test drive and the

[00:20:25.699]
[inaudible] nine ninety
to test tires,

[00:20:27.549]
and tire wear really helped
engineers to solve their problem

[00:20:30.659]
with the shuttle runway
at Kennedy Space Center.

[00:20:32.879]
[Van:] Right.

[00:20:33.479]
They run test, measuring
collect data, track the results.

[00:20:37.359]
[Jennifer:] And predict
solutions to their problems.

[00:20:39.939]
Hm! Samsung, what are -- what
you do in your classroom?

[00:20:42.449]
[RJ:] Does NASA Langley conduct
any other experience tests?

[00:20:46.919]
[Jennifer:] Honey you should
ask remember the title

[00:20:49.149]
of today's program
measurement, ratios and graphing.

[00:20:53.069]
Three, two one crash, well NASA
Langley actually crashes aircraft.

[00:20:59.119]
To test them for safety.

[00:21:00.859]
Right here at the Impact
Dynamic Research facility.

[00:21:04.549]
[RJ:] Power technology is

[00:21:05.819]
to collect the mathematical
data in craft prices.

[00:21:11.489]
[RJ:] Right area include
in the results of the test.

[00:21:14.539]
[RJ:] How ratio is used
to find the solutions?

[00:21:16.999]
[RJ:] Impact Dynamic
Research facility is used

[00:21:20.549]
to conduct full scale craft.

[00:21:22.299]
The air craft to be tested
suspended from the gantry hold back

[00:21:26.599]
to a calculate released
height and then release

[00:21:29.439]
to swing like a pendulum into
the impacts surface below.

[00:21:33.809]
Just before crashing the
swing cables were released

[00:21:36.069]
in the air craft

[00:21:37.009]
[inaudible]free flight.

[00:21:38.019]
The cables attached the
air craft are release

[00:21:39.879]
by power technique explosions.

[00:21:41.379]
It's pretty cool to watch.

[00:21:42.689]
In fresh air craft you
can see how safe they are

[00:21:44.969]
and develop ways to
make them safer.

[00:21:47.319]
IDRF is very similar to what the
auto industry does with cars.

[00:21:51.109]
Everyone has seen the commercials
with cars been crash into barriers

[00:21:54.539]
and it crash means
responding to the forces.

[00:21:57.159]
[RJ:] Our quest just

[00:21:58.369]
[inaudible] why the centers in data
collected to determine the crash

[00:22:01.169]
within its of air craft.

[00:22:03.479]
[inaudible] is how well an
air craft protects passengers

[00:22:05.859]
in then of the crash.

[00:22:07.509]
We use the data from the
dummies to make improvements

[00:22:10.529]
to aircraft designs for crash

[00:22:13.559]
[inaudible].

[00:22:13.559]
[Jennifer:] just so cool I mean
you get to crash things for living

[00:22:16.579]
[Van] And we get safer air craft.

[00:22:18.039]
[Jennifer:] You are right, then the
testing and the research conducted

[00:22:20.639]
at the IDRF can really benefit
all airplane passengers.

[00:22:24.419]
Whatever your main goal
is reduced the force

[00:22:26.299]
on airplane passengers
during the crash.

[00:22:28.339]
You want to a create structures
and material that dissipate

[00:22:30.829]
or absorb the energy from the
crash before the energy gets

[00:22:34.239]
to the passengers.

[00:22:35.399]
Take a car instance,
structures like the bumper

[00:22:38.309]
and frame are design to crash.

[00:22:40.509]
When these parts crash they
dissipate or absorb some

[00:22:43.519]
of the energy so that the
passengers are less likely

[00:22:46.239]
to be injured.

[00:22:47.919]
[RJ:]

[00:22:48.179]
[inaudible] we are on the
planes that don't have bumpers.

[00:22:50.129]
[RJ:] Right, however that parts

[00:22:51.559]
of air craft they can
absorb energy in a crash.

[00:22:54.169]
Parts like the sub-

[00:22:55.049]
[inaudible] which is
the area under the port.

[00:22:56.989]
The landing gear, the seat and
even the cushion can absorb energy.

[00:23:00.759]
Restraints like the seat
belts are also necessary

[00:23:03.579]
to keep the passengers from flying
to the air craft during the crash.

[00:23:07.389]
We these part structures are
design correctly or optimized.

[00:23:10.239]
The passengers have a better
chance to survive in a crash.

[00:23:14.529]
[RJ:] But Lisa how do you design
air craft parts to absorb energy?

[00:23:19.559]
[RJ:] Good question we use

[00:23:20.789]
[inaudible] data and
crash as dummy data

[00:23:23.399]
to develop better
energy absorbing designs.

[00:23:25.929]
You see air craft have
made a different material.

[00:23:28.329]
Some are made of metals like
aluminum and some are made

[00:23:30.939]
of compose materials like
graphite with fiber glass.

[00:23:34.309]
A tennis racket is good
example of the graphite material

[00:23:37.589]
and those small boats
are made of fiber glass.

[00:23:40.209]
Metals and composite performed
very differently in the crash.

[00:23:43.539]
So we have to design the parts
to compliment the materials

[00:23:46.519]
that aircraft is made of.

[00:23:48.059]
Basically we would
not design a sub-core

[00:23:50.449]
in a composite aircraft the same
way we would design a sub-core

[00:23:53.439]
and a metal air craft.

[00:23:54.639]
[RJ:] Can you really design
sub-core that absorbs energy?

[00:23:57.679]
[RJ:] Yes, in 1994 we
tested a graphite aircraft

[00:24:01.029]
[inaudible] the

[00:24:01.249]
[inaudible]_.

[00:24:01.249]
When the original
aircraft was released

[00:24:03.939]
from the gantry it was extremely
rigid and nothing crushed.

[00:24:07.109]
According to the crash test dummy
data we have collected only one

[00:24:10.509]
of the six passengers survived.

[00:24:12.589]
So we use that data to
design a new energy absorbing

[00:24:15.869]
for crushable sub-floor.

[00:24:17.949]
It would be like putting
a bumper under the floor.

[00:24:20.929]
Then we built and
tested small sections

[00:24:23.149]
of different sub-floor designs
until we had the best design.

[00:24:26.769]
And second

[00:24:27.709]
[inaudible] was modified

[00:24:28.899]
by installing the newly
design sub-floor and tested.

[00:24:32.719]
The results show that the
new sub-floor improve the

[00:24:36.179]
[inaudible] by reducing the
forces on the passengers.

[00:24:39.949]
[00:24:41.819]
[RJ:] Oh, wow, this look crazy,

[00:24:44.639]
how do you collect the
data from the crush test?

[00:24:47.849]
[RJ:] We use digital data
collection system that designed

[00:24:50.199]
to handle the impacts of
the crash like this one.

[00:24:53.309]
All the instruments on board are
large to the data collection system

[00:24:56.729]
and after the test the data are
downloaded on to laptop computer,

[00:25:01.209]
we analyze by the researchers.

[00:25:04.159]
[RJ:] In school we analyze
data and we make graphs, as

[00:25:07.249]
[inaudible] you do?

[00:25:07.909]
[Lisa:] Absolutely, we make
graphs of the data collected

[00:25:10.239]
and compared those to other graphs.

[00:25:12.369]
This graph from an
actual test conducted here

[00:25:15.219]
at IDRF shows the ratio
of G-force to time.

[00:25:18.339]
You can feel the sensation
of G-forces as when you ride

[00:25:20.689]
on roll-a-coaster is quite you we
feel pushing you into your seat

[00:25:24.299]
[inaudible].

[00:25:24.819]
As you can see our
graph is a crushing.

[00:25:27.159]
Next we calculated the area
under the current and compare it

[00:25:30.379]
to a human tolerance graph.

[00:25:32.349]
This graph shows the maximum energy
or G-force that human can tolerate

[00:25:36.019]
over the specific time.

[00:25:38.149]
The

[00:25:38.309]
[inaudible]from 0G to
250G and back to 0G

[00:25:41.759]
in a very short, short
amount of time.

[00:25:44.249]
The shaded area within
the triangle is the amount

[00:25:46.739]
of energy a human can tolerate
in hundred millisecond.

[00:25:50.079]
Next we set up a ratio by
comparing the shaded area

[00:25:53.699]
under the dummy data
to the shaded area

[00:25:56.219]
under the human tolerance data.

[00:25:58.069]
We can determine if
the passengers survive.

[00:26:00.639]
We want this ratio to be
less than or equal to one

[00:26:03.409]
if passengers are to survive.

[00:26:05.489]
[RJ:] Okay Lisa, I have
one more question for you.

[00:26:07.709]
How does all the information

[00:26:08.929]
that you collect here
help aircraft safety.

[00:26:11.529]
[Lisa:] By using measurements
and graphs,

[00:26:12.999]
we present the data
collected from test

[00:26:14.849]
[inaudible] to aircraft
companies into the FAA

[00:26:17.679]
or the Federal Aviation
Administration.

[00:26:19.989]
Then the aircraft commenced

[00:26:21.069]
[inaudible] newly
designs the aircraft.

[00:26:22.799]
The FAA may use the
information just divert new rules

[00:26:25.909]
and regulations for
aircraft safety.

[00:26:29.489]
[Van] Well, that about wraps up
this episode of NASA Connect.

[00:26:31.969]
[Jennifer:] It should as, and
you know Van and I would like

[00:26:33.699]
to thank everyone out who
make this program possible.

[00:26:36.189]
We hope you have all made the
connection between the research

[00:26:38.959]
and extreme test conducted
in NASA Langley and the math,

[00:26:42.469]
science technology you do
in your classroom everyday.

[00:26:45.829]
[Van:] Jennifer now I would like to
hear from you with you questions,

[00:26:48.189]
comments or suggestion.

[00:26:49.989]
So write us at NASA Connects,
NASA Langley Research Center,

[00:26:53.699]
mail staff 400, Hampton
Virginia 23681 or email us

[00:26:58.749]
at connect@edu.larc.nasa.gov.

[00:27:02.909]
[Jennifer:] Hey teachers, if
you would like to video tape

[00:27:05.219]
of this program and we
accompanying lesson guide,

[00:27:08.489]
check out the NASA Connect website.

[00:27:10.629]
From our side you can link to
core, the NASA central operation

[00:27:14.279]
of resources for educators
or link to space-link

[00:27:17.599]
and locate your local NASA
Educator Resource Center.

[00:27:21.229]
Until the next time
stay connected to

[00:27:23.519]
[Van:] Mathematics

[00:27:24.409]
[Jennifer:] Science

[00:27:25.039]
[Van:] Technology

[00:27:25.839]
[Jennifer:] And NASA.

[00:27:27.489]
[RJ:] See you then.

[00:27:28.479]
[RJ:] Hey, how are you doing?

[00:27:30.369]
[RJ:] How you doing?

[00:27:32.339]
[RJ:] Really good working

[00:27:33.809]
[RJ:] Okay and action.

[00:27:38.889]
[RJ:] So how many
crashes you went through.

[00:27:41.869]
[RJ:] About fifteen hundred.

[00:27:43.439]
[RJ:] You know skidding
tire is just one way

[00:27:46.559]
that NASA Langley Research Center
conducts test to improve aircraft.

[00:27:50.279]
[RJ:]

[00:27:51.279]
[00:27:52.309]
[inaudible] here again!

[00:27:55.159]
[RJ:] This collection system.

[00:28:04.139]
[Van:] Jennifer, I would like to
hear from you with your comments,

[00:28:14.269]
[00:28:16.629]
question or suggestion so....

[00:28:29.179]