Transcript for NASAWhy?Files - The Case of the Inhabitable Habitat

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HI, I'M JACK HANNA,
AND I WORK WITH SOME

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OF THE WORLD'S MOST
INTERESTING AND EXCITING ANIMALS.

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SOME ARE CUTE AND CUDDLY.

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SOME ARE SCARY AND DANGEROUS.

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IF YOU REALLY WANT TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT ANIMALS AND HOW THEY BEHAVE,

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YOU NEED TO LEARN ABOUT THE WORLD
IN WHICH THEY LIVE, THEIR HABITAT.

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STAY TUNED TO LEARN ABOUT HABITATS
ON THIS EPISODE OF THE NASA WHY?

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FILES, THE CASE OF THE
INHABITABLE HABITAT.

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HEY, YOU.

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HEY, ME?

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YEAH, YOU.

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COME SEE OUR CLUBHOUSE IN A TREE.

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WE ARE KIDS ON A MISSION TO EDUCATE
OURSELVES ABOUT THE NASA VISION.

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COME EXPLORE MATH AND SCIENCE
'CAUSE THAT'S WHAT MAKES

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OUR ALLIANCE.

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WE ARE THE WHY?

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FILES CLUB.

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WE YEARN TO LEARN AND WANT TO
SEE EVERYTHING THAT WE CAN BE.

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SO COME JOIN US ON OUR JOURNEY.

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DON'T YOU TOUCH THAT DIAL.

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AND WELCOME TO THE NASA WHY?

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FILES.

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JOIN THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
ON THEIR LATEST PROJECT.

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YOU CAN HELP BY ANSWERING
THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHY IS MARS CALLED THE RED PLANET?

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WHAT IS A HABITAT?

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AND WHAT ARE THE BASIC
NEEDS OF PLANTS?

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DON'T FORGET, WHEN
YOU SEE THIS NASA WHY?

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FILES LOGO, THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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[MUSIC]

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KALI, HEY, KALI, WAIT UP.

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JACOB, WHAT ARE YOU DOING HERE?

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I HOPE YOU'RE NOT THINKING OF
GOING SWIMMING IN THOSE CLOTHES.

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FORGET ABOUT SWIMMING.

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YOU'VE GOT TO GET BACK
TO THE TREE HOUSE.

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WE'RE STARTING A NEW
PROJECT, AND YOU'RE NOT GOING

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TO BELIEVE WHAT IT IS.

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COME ON, LET'S GO.

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BUT I REALLY WANTED
TO CATCH SOME FISH.

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I'VE BEEN TRYING FOR SEVERAL
DAYS, AND I HAVEN'T CAUGHT ANY.

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I WONDER IF THERE'S A
PROBLEM WITH THE WATER.

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FORGET ABOUT THE FISH.

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WE'RE GOING TO BUILD
A HABITAT FROM MARS.

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HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN THE SUN?

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JACOB, I THINK YOU NEED SOME REST.

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I'M FINE, BUT WE BETTER
GET BACK TO THE TREE HOUSE.

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COME ON.

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OKAY, BUT I WONDER WHAT'S
WRONG WITH THE FISH.

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I'M TED TOON, AND KIDS' SCIENCE
NEWS NETWORK IS INTERRUPTING THIS

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BROADCAST FOR AN EXCITING BULLETIN.

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THE YOUNG ASTRONAUTS
ARE AT IT AGAIN,

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THIS TIME WITH A CONTEST
THAT'S OUT OF THIS WORLD.

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FOR DETAILS, WE GO TO OUR
SPACED-OUT CORRESPONDENT,

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I.M. LISSNING, WHO'S
LIVE ON -- IS THIS RIGHT?

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SHE'S LIVE ON MARS?

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YES, BUT HOW IS MY LIPSTICK GOING
TO SHOW IF EVERYTHING IS RED?

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I JUST DON'T -- WHAT?

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WHAT?

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WE'RE ON?

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WE'RE ON!

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THAT'S RIGHT, TED, MARS.

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I'M HERE LIVE ON THE RED PLANET, AN
ENTIRELY NEW ENVIRONMENT WITH NEW

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AND EXCITING CHALLENGES, PERHAPS
THE GREATEST CHALLENGE BEING SIMPLY

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TO SURVIVE.

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DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES TO
BUILD A MODEL OF A MARS HABITAT?

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IF SO, VISIT THE NASA WHY?

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FILES WEBSITE FOR ALL THE
DETAILS, AND GET TO WORK.

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BE THE FIRST KID ON YOUR BLOCK

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TO DISCOVER WHAT LIFE
IS REALLY LIKE ON MARS.

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BACK TO YOU, TED.

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MM-HMM.

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YES, WELL, THAT WAS
I.M. LISSNING ON MARS.

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THIS IS TED TOON BACK HERE
ON PLANET EARTH SIGNING OFF.

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AWESOME.

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CAN YOU IMAGINE LIVING ON
THE PLANET MARS FOR A YEAR?

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I DON'T KNOW.

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IT SEEMS GREAT, BUT
DON'T YOU THINK LIVING

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ON ANOTHER PLANET COULD
BE VERY DIFFICULT?

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IF I CAN LIVE WITH MY SISTER,

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THEN LIVING ON MARS
SHOULD BE REALLY EASY.

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HI, JACOB.

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HI, KALI.

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DID YOU GUYS HAVE ANY
LUCK AT THE BEACH?

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I HAVEN'T CAUGHT A
SINGLE FISH FOR WEEKS.

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SOMETHING'S DEFINITELY WRONG, BUT
I CAN'T FIGURE OUT WHAT IT IS.

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THAT SEEMS STRANGE.

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WHAT'S IN THE BOX, JACOB?

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I BROUGHT SOME STUFF FROM
HOME FOR OUR MARS MODEL.

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HAVE YOU HEARD ABOUT
OUR LATEST PROJECT?

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YEAH, JACOB TOLD ME ALL ABOUT IT.

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HOW ARE WE GOING TO
BUILD A HABITAT FOR MARS?

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CHECK THIS OUT.

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THIS WILL BE OUR RECREATION MODULE.

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IT'LL CONTAIN A PING-PONG
TABLE, AIR HOCKEY TABLE,

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AND A GARAGE SPACE FOR -- YOU GUYS
ARE GETTING AHEAD OF YOURSELVES.

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DO WE EVEN KNOW WHAT WE
WILL NEED TO LIVE ON MARS?

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REMEMBER WHAT WE LEARNED
IN THE INVENTION CONTEST?

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WE NEED TO DO A LOT OF RESEARCH

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AND DESIGN BEFORE WE CAN
ACTUALLY BUILD A MODEL.

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SHE'S RIGHT.

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THAT'S CALLED THE
ITERATIVE PROCESS.

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SO WHERE SHOULD WE START?

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KSNN SAID THERE'S A
LOT OF INFORMATION

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ON THE PROJECT ON THE NASA WHY?

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FILES WEBSITE.

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I'M ON THAT WEBSITE RIGHT NOW.

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WHAT DOES IT SAY?

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FIRST, THE HABITAT MUST MEET THE
BASIC NEEDS TO SUSTAIN HUMAN LIFE

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ON MARS, AND THE MODEL
MUST BE DIVIDED

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INTO THREE SEPARATE SECTIONS.

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ALSO, THE HABITAT MUST UTILIZE
SUNLIGHT AS A MAJOR SOURCE

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OF ENERGY, AND EXPERIMENTS
MUST BE PLANNED

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FOR BOTH THE TRIP AND FOR MARS.

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WOW.

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SOUNDS COMPLICATED.

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SO WHERE DO WE BEGIN?

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WE BEGIN WITH THE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

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OR SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY.

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I KNOW WE USED THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD TO SOLVE OTHER MYSTERIES,

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BUT HOW ARE WE GOING TO
USE IT TO BUILD A MODEL?

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IT DOESN'T MATTER WHETHER
YOU'RE SOLVING A MYSTERY

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OR BUILDING A MODEL,

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THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
IS A GREAT TOOL TO USE.

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I'M SURE WE CAN TALK
TO A LOT OF EXPERTS

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AT NASA ABOUT MARS AND SPACE.

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AND FISH.

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MAYBE WE'LL TALK TO SOMEONE
WHO KNOWS ABOUT FISH HABITATS,

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AND THEY CAN EXPLAIN WHY I
HAVEN'T CAUGHT ANY LATELY.

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GREAT, LET'S GO TO
THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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WE KNOW WE NEED TO BUILD A HABITAT
THAT CAN SUSTAIN LIFE ON MARS.

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WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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WE NEED TO KNOW WHAT MARS IS LIKE.

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YEAH, IS IT HOT OR COLD?

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AND IS THERE ANYTHING
THERE WE CAN EAT?

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IT'S KIND OF LIKE
PLANNING FOR A VACATION.

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I DON'T THINK THAT GOING TO
MARS IS QUITE LIKE A VACATION,

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BUT YOU'RE RIGHT.

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WE HAVE TO KNOW A LITTLE BIT
ABOUT THE PLACE WE'RE GOING.

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SO WHERE DO WE START?

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I'LL BET NASA KNOWS LOTS
OF INFORMATION ON MARS.

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I'LL CHECK OUT THE NASA LANGLEY
RESEARCH CENTER'S WEBSITE.

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THEY'VE DONE A LOT
OF RESEARCH ON MARS.

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GREAT.

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WE SHOULD GO TO THE LIBRARY AND
CHECK OUT SOME BOOKS ON MARS.

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I HAVE SOME BOOKS ON PLANETS
AND SOLAR SYSTEMS AT HOME.

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I MIGHT EVEN HAVE AN "M"
ENCYCLOPEDIA IN MY BOOK BAG.

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YOU CAN'T BE SERIOUS.

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WELL, YOU NEVER KNOW WHEN
YOU NEED AN ENCYCLOPEDIA.

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NASA HAD SEVERAL UNMANNED
MISSIONS TO MARS.

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I'M SURE THEY'LL HAVE
A LOT OF EXPERTS.

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WITH THEIR HELP, THIS
PROJECT WILL BE EASY.

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YEP, HERE IT IS.

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IT SAYS HERE THAT THE AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE IS -23 DEGREES CELSIUS.

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I THOUGHT IT WOULD BE HOT.

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IT ONLY LOOKS HOT
BECAUSE OF ITS RED COLOR.

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IT'S FARTHER AWAY FROM
THE SUN THAN WE ARE.

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WE'LL HAVE TO MAKE SURE OUR
HABITAT HAS A BIG HEATER.

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ONE HEAVY-DUTY HEATER COMING UP.

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ACTUALLY, THE AVERAGE
IS -23 DEGREES CELSIUS.

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THE LOW IS -140 DEGREES CELSIUS.

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THE HIGH IS 20 DEGREES CELSIUS.

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YOU WERE RIGHT, CATHERINE.

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THERE ARE A LOT OF ARTICLES
ABOUT MARS ON THE NASA WEBSITE.

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HERE'S ONE ABOUT A MARS
PLANE BY DR. LEVINE.

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HE'S MY MOM'S FRIEND.

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MAYBE WE CAN EMAIL HIM
AND SEE IF HE CAN HELP US.

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PRINT OUT THE GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEET FOR US TO TAKE WITH US.

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YOU CAN GO TO THE NASA WHY?

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FILES WEBSITE ON THE RESEARCH
RACK AND PRINT OUT YOUR OWN SHEET.

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I'D LOVE TO TALK TO
DR. LEVINE ABOUT MARS.

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GREAT, LET'S GET UP AND GO.

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HI, ARE YOU MR. LEVINE?

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YES, I AM.

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AND YOU MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

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I UNDERSTAND YOU WANT TO
LEARN MORE ABOUT PLANET MARS.

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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WE'RE DESIGNING A HABITAT THAT
WILL SUSTAIN LIFE ON MARS.

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SO WE FIGURED WE NEEDED TO
LEARN MORE ABOUT THE RED PLANET.

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WELL, YOU'VE COME
TO THE RIGHT PLACE.

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MARS IS A VERY INHOSPITABLE
PLANET, AND YOU MUST BE PREPARED.

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WHAT'S IT LIKE ON MARS?

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LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

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MARS IS A VERY DIFFERENT PLANET
THAN THE EARTH: NO TREES,

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NO FLOWERS, NO ANIMALS.

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MARS IS A VERY DESOLATE PLANET.

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WHY DO THEY CALL IT THE RED PLANET?

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THE SURFACE OF MARS CONTAINS
LARGE AMOUNTS OF RUSTY IRON

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THAT GIVE MARS ITS REDDISH COLOR.

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IN ADDITION, STRONG WINDS
BLOW SURFACE MATERIAL

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UP IN THE ATMOSPHERE, GIVING THE
ATMOSPHERE A REDDISH PINK COLOR.

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DOES MARS HAVE LAND
FEATURES LIKE EARTH?

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YES, MARS HAS LOWLANDS,
MOUNTAINOUS HIGHLANDS.

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MARS HAS THE LARGEST
VOLCANO IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM,

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AND MARS HAS THE LONGEST
CANYON IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

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I'VE SEEN THE GRAND CANYON HERE
ON EARTH, AND IT WAS PRETTY BIG.

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OH, IT'S FAR BIGGER
THAN THE GRAND CANYON.

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MARINER'S VALLEY ON MARS
IS ABOUT 3,000 MILES LONG,

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ABOUT THE SAME DISTANCE AS THE
TRIP FROM NEW YORK TO LOS ANGELES.

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WHAT KIND OF ATMOSPHERE
DOES MARS HAVE?

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THE ATMOSPHERE OF
MARS IS VERY THIN.

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IT'S COLD, AND IT'S DRY.

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THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS IS
ONLY ABOUT 1/200 THE THICKNESS

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OF THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.

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IS THERE OXYGEN LIKE HERE ON EARTH?

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NO.

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IN FACT, THE ATMOSPHERE OF
MARS IS 95% CARBON DIOXIDE,

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3% NITROGEN, AND 2% ARGON.

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WE'LL DEFINITELY NEED
TO BRING OUR OWN OXYGEN.

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HOW DO WE KNOW SO MUCH ABOUT MARS?

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OVER THE LAST 30 YEARS, NASA
HAS SENT A NUMBER OF SPACECRAFT

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TO MARS TO STUDY THE PLANET.

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HERE AT THE NASA LANGLEY
RESEARCH CENTER, WE'RE LOOKING

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INTO THE POSSIBILITY OF SENDING
THE FIRST ROBOTIC AIRPLANE TO MARS.

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THAT WOULD BE SO COOL.

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WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE WHAT
OUR PLANE WILL LOOK LIKE,

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FLYING THROUGH THE
ATMOSPHERE OF MARS?

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THAT WOULD BE GREAT.

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CHECK THIS OUT.

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WOW.

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THANKS, DR. LEVINE.

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YOU'VE GIVEN US A LOT TO
CONSIDER ABOUT OUR HABITAT.

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YOU'RE WELCOME.

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ANYTIME.

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HEY, GUYS, HOW WAS DR. LEVINE?

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HE WAS GREAT.

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YOU WOULDN'T BELIEVE ALL THE
MISSIONS NASA HAS SENT TO MARS.

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I'LL ENTER THE DETAIL FROM
THE GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET

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INTO THE COMPUTER.

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THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

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WAIT TILL YOU GUYS READ
ABOUT WHAT WE LEARNED.

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I HAD NO IDEA MARS WAS
SO DIFFERENT FROM EARTH.

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NOT ONLY WAS IT MUCH COLDER,

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BUT THE ATMOSPHERE IS
ALMOST ALL CARBON DIOXIDE,

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SO YOU CAN'T BREATHE
ANY OF IT AT ALL.

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THERE IS ALSO NO FOOD OR
DRINKING WATER ON THE PLANET.

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IT DOESN'T SOUND VERY INVITING.

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IT SOUNDS LIKE WE
HAVE A LOT OF THINGS

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TO CONSIDER BEFORE WE
DESIGN OUR HABITAT.

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FIRST, WE NEED TO DECIDE
WHAT WE NEED TO BRING.

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EXACTLY, AND TO DO THAT, WE HAVE
TO KNOW WHAT MAKES A HABITAT.

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BIANCA, CATHERINE, AND
I ARE GOING ON VACATION

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TO DISCOVERY COVE
IN ORLANDO, FLORIDA.

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I'M SURE THEY HAVE LOTS OF
INFORMATION ON HABITATS.

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I'LL EMAIL THEM AND SEE IF WE
CAN MEET WITH THEIR EXPERTS

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ON HABITATS WHILE WE'RE DOWN THERE.

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AND ANTHONY AND I CAN
DO SOME MORE RESEARCH.

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I BET WE'LL DO LOTS OF RESEARCH.

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AND WE'LL START GETTING
SOME MATERIALS TOGETHER

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SO WE CAN DESIGN OUR HABITAT.

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I BET THE RESEARCHER
THERE WILL HELP ME FIGURE

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OUT WHY THE FISH ARE
MISSING FROM THE BAY.

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WE BETTER PRINT OUT A COUPLE
OF THOSE GET-UP-AND-GO SHEETS.

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WOW, THIS PARK IS REALLY COOL.

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I CAN'T BELIEVE THERE ARE
SO MANY DIFFERENT HABITATS.

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I KNOW.

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WE'VE SEEN THE STINGRAY POOL, THE
BIRD AVIARY AND THE CORAL REEFS.

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HI, KIDS.

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MY NAME IS LAURA.

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YOU MUST BE THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES.

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HOW CAN I HELP YOU TODAY?

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YES, WE ARE.

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WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT HABITATS.

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WELL, YOU'VE COME
TO THE RIGHT PLACE.

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DISCOVERY COVE HAS
OVER SEVEN HABITATS,

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AND WE HAVE OVER 300
SPECIES REPRESENTED HERE.

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WOW, THAT'S A LOT OF
DIFFERENT HABITATS.

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WHAT EXACTLY IS A HABITAT?

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WELL, A HABITAT IS AN ENVIRONMENT
THAT PROVIDES THE BASIC NECESSITIES

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TO SUSTAIN LIFE, THINGS LIKE
FOOD, WATER, AND EVEN SHELTER.

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WHAT ARE SOME DIFFERENT
TYPES OF HABITATS?

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DIFFERENT HABITATS ARE THINGS
LIKE OUR TROPICAL REEF HABITAT.

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WE EVEN HAVE A STINGRAY
LAGOON, BUT OUT IN THE WILD,

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THINGS LIKE THE DESERT,
FORESTS, AND EVEN PONDS.

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OKAY, WE KNOW THAT HABITATS
MEET THE BASIC NEEDS,

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BUT IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE
THAT MAKES THEM DIFFERENT?

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WELL, SURE, THE TYPES OF ANIMALS
AND PLANTS THAT ACTUALLY LIVE

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WITHIN THE HABITAT MAKE ALL
THE DIFFERENCE IN THE WORLD.

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YOU MIGHT CONSIDER
ANIMALS THAT LIVE

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IN A TROPICAL REEF TOTALLY
DIFFERENT THAN SOMETHING THAT LIVES

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IN A RAIN FOREST, BUT
EVEN WITHIN A RAIN FOREST,

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YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE DIFFERENT
HABITATS, LIKE THE CANOPY

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OR EVEN THE FLOOR OF THE FOREST.

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DIFFERENT ANIMALS WILL LIVE
IN DIFFERENT AREAS DEPENDING

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ON WHAT THEY NEED TO EAT,
WHAT TYPES OF PREDATORS LIVE

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IN THE AREA, AND HOW THEY'RE
CAPABLE OF CLIMBING OR EVEN FLYING.

[00:12:24.859]
WE'VE NOTICED THAT THERE ARE
NO FISH IN THE BAY BACK HOME.

[00:12:27.519]
COULD IT BE BECAUSE THEY'VE
MOVED TO A DIFFERENT HABITAT?

[00:12:30.399]
YES, FISH WILL MOVE THROUGHOUT
THEIR LIFETIME DEPENDING

[00:12:32.919]
ON THEIR NEEDS.

[00:12:33.599]
THEY MAY MOVE FOR FEEDING OR
EVEN FOR THEIR BREEDING BEHAVIOR.

[00:12:37.129]
I HAVE A FRIEND THAT WORKS
WITH SIGNALS OF SPRING.

[00:12:39.379]
HE WORKS WITH SEA TURTLES AND
STUDIES THEIR MIGRATORY PATTERNS.

[00:12:42.479]
MAYBE HE COULD HELP YOU
WITH YOUR FISH PROBLEM.

[00:12:44.999]
THAT WOULD BE GREAT.

[00:12:45.969]
COULD YOU EMAIL US
HIS NAME AND NUMBER?

[00:12:47.969]
SURE, I COULD, AND IF YOU WANT

[00:12:49.179]
TO EXPERIENCE A REALLY
DIFFERENT HABITAT,

[00:12:51.369]
YOU'LL HAVE TO SWIM
WITH THE DOLPHINS.

[00:12:52.819]
WE CAN SWIM WITH THE DOLPHINS?

[00:12:54.149]
THAT'S AWESOME.

[00:12:55.589]
COME ON.

[00:12:56.909]
I'LL SHOW YOU OUR DOLPHIN COVE.

[00:12:59.019]
[MUSIC]

[00:13:08.019]
[00:13:32.159]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:13:34.629]
MMM, THAT LOOKS PRETTY GOOD.

[00:13:36.739]
WHAT IS IT?

[00:13:37.879]
AFTER WE GOT YOUR EMAIL
ABOUT BASIC NEEDS,

[00:13:40.309]
WE DECIDED WE BETTER
GET BACK TO THE BASICS.

[00:13:42.649]
SO WE WERE WORKING ON BUILDING
THREE DIFFERENT MODULES

[00:13:44.679]
TO PROVIDE THE BASIC NEEDS OF
AIR, FOOD, WATER, AND SHELTER.

[00:13:48.549]
BUT WE'RE HAVING SOME PROBLEMS.

[00:13:51.429]
IT JUST DOESN'T SEEM TO WORK TO
HAVE THE THREE MODULES SEPARATED.

[00:13:55.899]
ACCORDING TO MY CALCULATIONS, WE
PROBABLY NEED THREE MODULES JUST

[00:13:59.569]
TO STORE ENOUGH FOOD
AND WATER TO SURVIVE.

[00:14:01.759]
WE SHOULD CALL DR. D.
HE'LL BE ABLE TO HELP.

[00:14:05.179]
BESIDES, I WANTED TO TALK TO
HIM ABOUT THE FISH PROBLEM TOO.

[00:14:09.739]
HELLO?

[00:14:10.449]
HELLO, DR. D?

[00:14:11.689]
THIS IS BIANCA.

[00:14:12.319]
OH, HI, BIANCA.

[00:14:13.169]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:14:14.329]
WE WERE WONDERING IF YOU COULD
HELP US WITH OUR LATEST PROJECT.

[00:14:17.979]
WE'RE TRYING TO BUILD
A HABITAT ON MARS.

[00:14:20.259]
SURE, COME ON OVER.

[00:14:21.499]
RIGHT NOW, I'M WORKING
ON MY TERRARIUM.

[00:14:22.989]
MAYBE WE CAN HELP EACH OTHER.

[00:14:25.689]
GREAT, WE'LL BE RIGHT OVER.

[00:14:26.959]
BYE.

[00:14:27.279]
BYE.

[00:14:27.419]
HI, DR. D. HI, GUYS.

[00:14:28.899]
IS THAT THE TERRARIUM THAT
YOU MENTIONED ON THE PHONE?

[00:14:35.549]
YES, IT IS.

[00:14:36.469]
A TERRARIUM IS A CLEAR CONTAINER
FILLED WITH SMALL PLANTS.

[00:14:39.599]
THIS END IS OPEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE,

[00:14:40.929]
BUT MINE IS GOING TO
BE TIGHTLY CLOSED.

[00:14:43.179]
IT'S REALLY TRICKY TO
MAINTAIN ALL THE BASIC NEEDS

[00:14:45.409]
OF PLANTS AFTER I CLOSE IT UP.

[00:14:47.529]
WE LEARNED ABOUT THE NEEDS
OF HUMANS AND ANIMALS.

[00:14:49.979]
THEY INCLUDE WATER,
SHELTER, FOOD, AND AIR.

[00:14:52.799]
WHAT ARE THE BASIC NEEDS OF PLANTS?

[00:14:54.849]
I'M SURE THEY NEED WATER.

[00:14:56.879]
AND THEY NEED FOOD.

[00:14:57.959]
THAT'S RIGHT; THE MOST BASIC FOOD

[00:14:59.209]
OF PLANTS IS THE CARBON
DIOXIDE IN THE AIR.

[00:15:01.689]
AND PLANTS ALSO NEED SUNLIGHT.

[00:15:03.669]
YOU BET; IF MY TERRARIUM
IS GOING TO BE SUCCESSFUL,

[00:15:05.969]
IT MUST MEET ALL THESE NEEDS.

[00:15:07.509]
HEY, I UNDERSTAND YOU NEED
SOME HELP DESIGNING A MODEL

[00:15:09.639]
FOR A HABITAT FOR MARS.

[00:15:11.349]
WE'RE HAVING A LITTLE
TROUBLE GETTING STARTED.

[00:15:13.149]
WELL, THE BEST PLACE TO GET STARTED
IS TO UNDERSTAND YOUR PROBLEM

[00:15:16.069]
BY GATHERING INFORMATION.

[00:15:17.419]
YOU MEAN LIKE THE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

[00:15:19.589]
THAT'S RIGHT; SO WHAT DO YOU KNOW
ABOUT THE ATMOSPHERE OF MARS?

[00:15:22.509]
WE KNOW THAT IT'S MOSTLY
MADE UP OF CARBON DIOXIDE

[00:15:24.969]
AND HARDLY ANY OXYGEN.

[00:15:26.619]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND NOT ONLY THAT,

[00:15:27.939]
BUT THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERE
IS MUCH LESS DENSE

[00:15:30.059]
THAN THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.

[00:15:31.489]
SO IN ADDITION TO NOT HAVING
ANY OXYGEN TO BREATHE, THERE IS

[00:15:34.159]
YET ANOTHER DIFFICULTY.

[00:15:35.489]
WELL, WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:15:36.779]
LET ME SHOW YOU WITH
THIS VACUUM PUMP.

[00:15:38.509]
HERE, TOUCH THIS WATER.

[00:15:43.689]
WHAT DOES IT FEEL LIKE?

[00:15:45.149]
IT'S WARM, BUT IT'S NOT VERY HOT.

[00:15:48.219]
I'M GOING TO PUT THIS WATER
UNDERNEATH THE BELL JAR.

[00:15:50.569]
AND THE VACUUM PUMP'S GOING TO PULL
MOST OF THE AIR OUT OF THE BELL.

[00:15:53.999]
LET'S SEE WHAT HAPPENS.

[00:15:56.609]
WOW, THE WATER'S STARTING TO BOIL.

[00:15:58.359]
DOES THAT MEAN IT'S HOT?

[00:16:00.619]
LET'S FIND OUT.

[00:16:01.579]
IT'S EVEN COOLER THAN BEFORE.

[00:16:10.579]
[00:16:11.069]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:16:11.859]
THE WATER DIDN'T BOIL
BECAUSE IT WAS HOTTER.

[00:16:13.579]
IT TURNS OUT, WHEN THE ATMOSPHERE
IS LESS DENSE, WATER WILL JUST BOIL

[00:16:16.899]
AT A MUCH LOWER TEMPERATURE.

[00:16:18.469]
ON MARS, YOU CAN HAVE
ICE OR WATER VAPOR,

[00:16:20.599]
BUT ANY LIQUID WATER WILL
SIMPLY BOIL AWAY OR FREEZE.

[00:16:23.959]
I GUESS OUR HABITAT HAD BETTER
HAVE A DENSER ATMOSPHERE THAN MARS.

[00:16:27.279]
THANKS, DR. D. OH, AND
BY THE WAY, I'M CONCERNED

[00:16:31.199]
ABOUT WHY THE FISH ARE MISSING
FROM MY FAVORITE FISHING SPOT.

[00:16:34.569]
MAYBE YOU SHOULD HAVE
THE WATER TESTED.

[00:16:35.919]
YOU MIGHT ALSO WANT TO CONTACT
RANGER KETESZ AT SANDY BOTTOM PARK.

[00:16:39.109]
HE MAY BE ABLE TO HELP YOU.

[00:16:41.229]
THANKS, DR. D. BYE.

[00:16:43.459]
BYE.

[00:16:44.159]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:16:45.349]
IS MARS TOO HARSH AN
ENVIRONMENT FOR EXPLORATION?

[00:16:48.419]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES BE
ABLE TO TAKE ENOUGH FOOD TO MARS?

[00:16:51.289]
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE
FISH IN THE BAY?

[00:16:54.459]
FIND OUT IN THE NEXT
EXCITING CHAPTER OF THE CASE

[00:17:02.849]
OF THE INHABITABLE HABITAT.

[00:17:10.409]
IN PART TWO OF THE CASE OF
THE INHABITABLE HABITAT,

[00:17:14.309]
YOU'LL DISCOVER: WHAT
IS A FOOD WEB?

[00:17:18.749]
WHAT IS TRANSPIRATION?

[00:17:21.459]
AND WHY DOES NASA WANT
STUDENTS TO GROW PLANTS?

[00:17:32.419]
[00:17:41.959]
HELLO, RANGER KETESZ.

[00:17:43.389]
HI, KALI.

[00:17:44.259]
DR. D. SAID YOU MIGHT BE
COMING OVER FOR A VISIT TODAY.

[00:17:46.809]
WHAT CAN I HELP YOU OUT WITH?

[00:17:47.799]
I'M CONCERNED ABOUT
THE FISH IN THE BAY.

[00:17:49.339]
NO ONE HAS CAUGHT
ANY FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:17:52.309]
I'M TRYING TO FIGURE OUT
WHAT'S HAPPENED TO THEM.

[00:17:55.119]
WELL, WHAT DO YOU
THINK HAPPENED TO THEM?

[00:17:57.119]
I THINK IT MIGHT BE BECAUSE THEY
DON'T HAVE ENOUGH FOOD TO EAT.

[00:17:59.869]
THAT'S POSSIBLE.

[00:18:00.859]
HAVE YOU CHECKED TO SEE IF ANYTHING
HAPPENED TO DISRUPT THE FOOD WEB?

[00:18:03.859]
WHAT'S A FOOD WEB?

[00:18:04.959]
ORGANISMS THAT LIVE TOGETHER IN
AN AREA ARE CALLED A COMMUNITY.

[00:18:07.789]
MEMBERS OF THE COMMUNITY DEPEND
ON EACH OTHER FOR SURVIVAL.

[00:18:11.699]
THIS DEPENDENCE IS
CALLED THE FOOD WEB.

[00:18:14.099]
HOW DO THEY DEPEND ON EACH OTHER?

[00:18:15.789]
IN A TYPICAL COMMUNITY,
YOU'LL FIND PRODUCERS,

[00:18:18.289]
CONSUMERS, AND DECOMPOSERS.

[00:18:21.449]
PLANTS AND ALGAE ARE PRODUCERS.

[00:18:23.829]
THEY TAKE THE ENERGY
FROM THE LIGHT AND USE

[00:18:25.999]
THAT TO CONVERT CARBON DIOXIDE,
WATER, AND MINERALS INTO FOOD.

[00:18:30.829]
THIS PROCESS IS CALLED
PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

[00:18:33.129]
WHAT ARE CONSUMERS?

[00:18:34.389]
ORGANISMS THAT EAT OTHER
ORGANISMS ARE CALLED CONSUMERS.

[00:18:37.659]
THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT
KINDS OF CONSUMERS.

[00:18:39.429]
DO YOU KNOW WHAT THEY ARE?

[00:18:40.499]
I THINK THAT ONE IS A HERBIVORE.

[00:18:42.589]
THEY EAT PLANTS.

[00:18:43.959]
AND ONE IS A CARNIVORE.

[00:18:44.899]
THEY EAT OTHER ANIMALS.

[00:18:46.129]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND AN
OMNIVORE IS A CONSUMER

[00:18:48.519]
THAT EATS BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

[00:18:50.569]
I GUESS THAT MAKES ME AN OMNIVORE.

[00:18:52.549]
YOU CAN SEE HOW THEY ALL
DEPEND ON EACH OTHER.

[00:18:55.159]
IF PLANTS DIDN'T EXIST, THE
HERBIVORES WOULD HAVE NOTHING

[00:18:57.539]
TO EAT, AND THEY WOULD NOT SURVIVE.

[00:18:59.399]
AND IF THE HERBIVORES
DIDN'T SURVIVE,

[00:19:01.139]
THEN THE CARNIVORES WOULDN'T
HAVE ANYTHING TO EAT.

[00:19:03.259]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:19:04.029]
YOU CATCH ON QUICK.

[00:19:05.469]
WHAT ARE DECOMPOSERS?

[00:19:07.179]
IN ORDER FOR A COMMUNITY TO BE
SUCCESSFUL, THERE MUST BE A WAY

[00:19:10.219]
TO RETURN THE MINERALS AND
OTHER BASIC INGREDIENTS BACK

[00:19:12.639]
TO THE PRODUCERS.

[00:19:14.179]
DECOMPOSERS DO THIS.

[00:19:15.589]
HOW DO THEY DO THAT?

[00:19:18.059]
DECOMPOSERS -- BACTERIA
AND FUNGI --

[00:19:20.529]
FEED ON DEAD PRODUCERS AND
CONSUMERS AND CONVERT THEM BACK

[00:19:23.649]
TO THE BASIC MATERIALS NEEDED BY
PRODUCERS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE.

[00:19:27.489]
IT'S A CYCLE.

[00:19:28.509]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:19:29.989]
NOW, WHAT YOU MIGHT WANT TO DO IS,
TAKE A LOOK AT THE OCEAN AND SEE

[00:19:33.819]
IF THERE'S ANYTHING THAT HAPPENED

[00:19:35.089]
TO DISRUPT THE CYCLE
OF THE FOOD WEB.

[00:19:37.389]
THAT'S A GREAT IDEA.

[00:19:38.299]
THANKS.

[00:19:39.309]
OH, BY THE WAY, WOULD
YOU MIND TAKING A COUPLE

[00:19:41.409]
OF PLANTS TO DR. D. FOR ME?

[00:19:42.709]
THEY'RE FOR HIS TERRARIUM.

[00:19:44.699]
SURE, NO PROBLEM.

[00:19:45.799]
GREAT.

[00:19:46.179]
HEY, DR. D, LOOK WHAT
I BROUGHT YOU.

[00:19:50.129]
TERRIFIC, LOOKS LIKE YOU BROUGHT
SOMETHING FOR MY TERRARIUM.

[00:19:53.979]
YEAH, RANGER KETESZ FROM SANDY
BOTTOM PARK SAID YOU WOULD

[00:19:56.839]
LIKE THEM.

[00:19:57.509]
THANK YOU.

[00:19:58.859]
[00:20:01.669]
MY TERRARIUM IS COMING
ALONG PRETTY GOOD.

[00:20:04.409]
I'M BEING VERY CAREFUL
TO ONLY PUT PLANTS

[00:20:06.249]
IN THAT ONLY REQUIRE
THE SAME CONDITIONS.

[00:20:08.079]
CAN YOU TELL US MORE ABOUT
HOW A TERRARIUM WORKS?

[00:20:10.949]
SURE, MY SEALED TERRARIUM
MUST BE SELF-SUFFICIENT.

[00:20:13.909]
THE ONLY THING THAT CAN COME
INTO THE TERRARIUM IS LIGHT.

[00:20:16.129]
WE ALREADY LEARNED THAT LIGHT
IS A BASIC NEED OF PLANTS.

[00:20:18.759]
WATER'S RECYCLED IN A TERRARIUM.

[00:20:20.539]
PLANTS GIVE OFF WATER WHICH
COLLECTS ON THE PLASTIC,

[00:20:23.059]
RUNS DOWN THE SIDE INTO THE
SOIL WHERE IT'S COLLECTED

[00:20:25.189]
BY THE ROOTS AND RECYCLED.

[00:20:26.949]
WOW, THAT'S PRETTY NEAT.

[00:20:28.269]
WE ALREADY TALKED ABOUT HOW
THE PLANT'S BASIC FOOD IS

[00:20:31.139]
CARBON DIOXIDE.

[00:20:32.289]
PLANTS CONSUME CARBON
DIOXIDE AND PRODUCE OXYGEN.

[00:20:35.509]
WHAT REPLACES THE CARBON
DIOXIDE SO THE PLANTS DON'T DIE?

[00:20:38.519]
WELL, ANIMALS BREATHE IN OXYGEN
AND BREATHE OUT CARBON DIOXIDE,

[00:20:42.059]
BUT OBVIOUSLY, THERE AREN'T
ANY ANIMALS IN THERE.

[00:20:44.769]
THAT'S TRUE, BUT THERE ARE
DECOMPOSERS IN THE SOIL,

[00:20:47.099]
LIKE BACTERIA AND FUNGI.

[00:20:48.869]
THEY ALSO CONSUME CARBON
DIOXIDE AND PRODUCE OXYGEN.

[00:20:52.449]
THEY ALSO BREAK DOWN DEAD MATERIALS

[00:20:53.929]
THAT PRODUCE THE NUTRIENTS
THAT THE PLANTS NEED.

[00:20:55.999]
IT LOOKS LIKE EVERYTHING
GETS RECYCLED.

[00:20:58.329]
TURNS OUT THAT PLANTS
USE SOME OXYGEN

[00:21:00.089]
TO PRODUCE THE ENERGY THEY NEED

[00:21:01.339]
AND GIVE OFF CARBON
DIOXIDE IN THE PROCESS.

[00:21:03.239]
THIS IS CALLED RESPIRATION.

[00:21:05.009]
FORTUNATELY, PLANTS PRODUCE MUCH
MORE OXYGEN THAN THEY CONSUME.

[00:21:08.289]
I'M GLAD ABOUT THAT.

[00:21:09.599]
THERE'S A LOT GOING
ON IN THAT TERRARIUM.

[00:21:11.569]
IT WOULD BE GREAT IF WE
COULD MAKE OUR MARS HABITAT

[00:21:15.669]
AS SELF-SUFFICIENT
AS YOUR TERRARIUM.

[00:21:20.009]
YEAH, JUST ADD SUNLIGHT.

[00:21:22.499]
WE'VE GOT TO GET GOING.

[00:21:27.959]
WE'VE GOT A LOT OF WORK TO DO.

[00:21:33.939]
YEAH.

[00:21:34.019]
BYE, DR. D. BYE.

[00:21:37.459]
I DON'T THINK THIS IS WORKING.

[00:21:43.309]
WE CAN'T TAKE ENOUGH FOOD WITH US.

[00:21:45.969]
WE NEED TO FIND A FOOD
SOURCE, A FOOD WEB.

[00:21:48.259]
RANGER KETESZ DID SAY THAT
THE FOOD WEB IS IMPORTANT.

[00:21:52.309]
BUT HOW ARE WE GOING TO
CREATE A FOOD WEB ON MARS?

[00:21:55.269]
HMM.

[00:21:55.889]
MAYBE THERE'S A PROBLEM WITH
THE FOOD WEB IN THE BAY.

[00:21:59.599]
MAYBE POLLUTION UPSET IT.

[00:22:01.109]
THAT SHOULD BE MY HYPOTHESIS.

[00:22:03.169]
IF POLLUTION UPSET THE FOOD WEB IN
THE BAY, THEN THE FISH WOULD LEAVE.

[00:22:07.079]
PEOPLE CREATE HABITATS ALL
THE TIME, LIKE DISCOVERY COVE

[00:22:10.629]
OR EVEN DR. D'S TERRARIUM.

[00:22:12.149]
THEY ALL HAVE FOOD WEBS.

[00:22:13.499]
THAT'S TRUE; ALL WE REALLY
NEED TO DO IS FIND A WAY

[00:22:16.109]
TO CREATE FOOD IN OUR HABITAT.

[00:22:17.339]
MAYBE WE COULD GROW FOOD ON MARS.

[00:22:19.339]
YEAH, AND PLANTS CREATE OXYGEN.

[00:22:21.609]
WE NEED AIR.

[00:22:22.599]
LOTS OF IT.

[00:22:23.879]
GUYS, WE DON'T EVEN KNOW IF
PLANTS CAN GROW IN SPACE.

[00:22:27.689]
WE NEED TO DO SOME MORE RESEARCH.

[00:22:29.659]
THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:22:32.389]
OKAY.

[00:22:33.589]
WE KNOW THAT ALL PLANTS AND
ANIMALS HAVE BASIC NEEDS

[00:22:37.229]
AND THAT THEY ALL
RELY ON THE FOOD WEB.

[00:22:39.609]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT PLANTS PLAY
A MAJOR PART IN THE FOOD WEB.

[00:22:42.809]
SO WE NEED TO KNOW, CAN
WE GROW PLANTS IN SPACE?

[00:22:45.879]
ANTHONY CAN CHECK THE INTERNET.

[00:22:49.059]
I FOUND SOMETHING
THAT MIGHT HELP US.

[00:22:51.619]
MR. JOHN GRUENER AT THE JOHNSON
SPACE CENTER IS WORKING WITH PLANTS

[00:22:55.609]
AT THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

[00:22:58.119]
LET'S DIAL HIM UP AND ASK HIM
ABOUT GROWING PLANTS IN SPACE.

[00:23:04.229]
HI, KIDS, I'M MR. GRUENER.

[00:23:05.839]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:23:06.809]
HI, MR. GRUENER.

[00:23:07.609]
WE'RE THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES, AND WE'RE TRYING

[00:23:10.219]
TO DESIGN A MARTIAN HABITAT.

[00:23:11.429]
WE REALIZED THAT WE HAVE TO
GROW OUR OWN FOOD ON MARS.

[00:23:15.089]
YEAH, BECAUSE WE DON'T
WANT TO GO HUNGRY.

[00:23:16.659]
AND WE NEED TO KNOW IF PLANTS
GROW DIFFERENTLY IN SPACE

[00:23:19.209]
THAN THEY DO HERE ON EARTH.

[00:23:20.509]
WELL, SORT OF.

[00:23:21.789]
BUT PLANTS STILL NEED THE BASICS,
LIKE LIGHT, AIR, WATER, NUTRIENTS,

[00:23:25.919]
AND A NICE TEMPERATURE
AND HUMIDITY.

[00:23:27.849]
WE KNOW THAT MARS
IS EXTREMELY COLD.

[00:23:30.009]
AND THAT IT DOESN'T HAVE THE
SAME ATMOSPHERE AS EARTH.

[00:23:33.869]
DOES THAT MEAN THAT WE
CAN'T GROW ANYTHING ON MARS?

[00:23:36.569]
NO, IT JUST MEANS THAT YOU'D
HAVE TO GROW THEM INDOORS

[00:23:38.869]
IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT.

[00:23:40.409]
HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

[00:23:41.579]
WELL, HERE AT NASA, WE DESIGNED
PLANT GROWTH CHAMBERS, OR SYSTEMS,

[00:23:45.159]
TO MEET THE PLANT'S BASIC NEEDS,
KIND OF LIKE THIS ONE HERE.

[00:23:47.839]
DO YOU HAVE TO USE SPECIAL SEEDS
TO MAKE PLANTS GROW IN SPACE?

[00:23:50.969]
NO, WE USE THE SAME SEEDS
AS WE DO HERE ON EARTH.

[00:23:54.929]
HOWEVER, WE DO CONDUCT
EXPERIMENTS AND COLLECT DATA

[00:23:58.009]
TO SEE WHAT EFFECT LOW GRAVITY
AND INCREASED RADIATION HAS

[00:24:01.269]
ON THE WAY PLANTS PRODUCE SEEDS.

[00:24:03.199]
WHY IS THAT IMPORTANT?

[00:24:04.069]
WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT
PLANTS CAN REPRODUCE IN SPACE.

[00:24:08.759]
[00:24:11.869]
THIS WILL HELP ASTRONAUTS WHO
LIVE THERE FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:24:15.639]
CAN THE SEEDS PRODUCED ON
MARS GROW HERE ON EARTH?

[00:24:19.889]
YES, AND THEY'RE ABLE TO GERMINATE
AND GROW INTO NEW PLANTS JUST FINE.

[00:24:23.519]
DO YOU ONLY USE PLANTS
IN SPACE FOR FOOD?

[00:24:26.259]
NO, WE ALSO HOPE TO USE PLANTS
TO PRODUCE OXYGEN AND WATER.

[00:24:30.019]
THAT IS SO COOL.

[00:24:32.379]
DURING A PROCESS CALLED
PHOTOSYNTHESIS,

[00:24:34.709]
PLANTS TAKE IN CARBON
DIOXIDE AND PRODUCE OXYGEN.

[00:24:37.829]
WE BREATHE OXYGEN AND
EXHALE CARBON DIOXIDE.

[00:24:41.119]
EXACTLY.

[00:24:42.249]
SO YOU SEE, PLANTS AND PEOPLE
CAN LIVE VERY WELL TOGETHER

[00:24:45.199]
TRADING GASES.

[00:24:46.499]
OKAY, I UNDERSTAND THAT, BUT
HOW DO THEY PRODUCE WATER?

[00:24:50.079]
THROUGH A PROCESS
CALLED TRANSPIRATION.

[00:24:52.199]
WHAT'S TRANSPIRATION?

[00:24:54.899]
WELL, WHEN A PLANT
TRANSPIRES, IT RELEASES WATER

[00:24:58.029]
THROUGH TINY HOLES CALLED PORES

[00:24:59.989]
THAT ARE MOSTLY FOUND
IN THE LEAVES.

[00:25:02.029]
AND THEN THE WATER
EVAPORATES INTO THE ATMOSPHERE,

[00:25:04.229]
AND WE CAN COLLECT
IT AND TURN IT BACK

[00:25:06.249]
INTO LIQUID WATER
ON A COLD SURFACE.

[00:25:08.309]
OH, YOU MEAN JUST LIKE THE
WATER DROPLETS ON THE OUTSIDE

[00:25:11.259]
OF MY GLASS OF ICE WATER.

[00:25:12.969]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:25:13.679]
IT'S CALLED CONDENSATION.

[00:25:15.419]
I GUESS IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE
ABLE TO PRODUCE WATER AND OXYGEN,

[00:25:18.059]
SINCE IT TAKES A LONG
TIME TO GET TO MARS.

[00:25:20.359]
YOU BET IT IS.

[00:25:21.339]
IT WOULD BE VERY EXPENSIVE
TO SEND SPACE VEHICLES

[00:25:23.649]
TO RESUPPLY THE HABITAT.

[00:25:28.799]
THEREFORE, IT IS VERY
IMPORTANT FOR THE HABITAT TO BE

[00:25:36.189]
AS SELF-SUFFICIENT AS POSSIBLE.

[00:25:38.249]
WELL, WHAT KIND OF PLANTS
ARE YOU GROWING IN YOUR LAB?

[00:25:41.259]
WE'RE CURRENTLY EXPERIMENTING
WITH GRAINS LIKE WHEAT AND RICE,

[00:25:44.729]
LEGUMES LIKE PEAS AND PEANUTS,
POTATOES, FRUITS, AND SALAD CROPS.

[00:25:50.049]
I LOVE SALADS.

[00:25:51.389]
THAT'S GOOD, BECAUSE RIGHT NOW,

[00:25:53.219]
THERE ARE NO PLANS
TO PRODUCE ANY MEAT.

[00:25:55.479]
I DON'T LIKE JUST VEGETABLES.

[00:25:57.449]
WELL, DON'T GET TOO DISCOURAGED.

[00:25:59.169]
MEAT WILL STILL BE
AVAILABLE IN PACKAGED FORM,

[00:26:01.469]
BUT IN SMALL QUANTITIES.

[00:26:03.099]
HOWEVER, THERE ARE STILL LOTS
OF GOOD FOODS YOU CAN MAKE

[00:26:05.099]
WITH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

[00:26:06.669]
LIKE WHAT?

[00:26:07.719]
WELL, LIKE PEANUT BUTTER FROM
PEANUTS, JELLY FROM STRAWBERRIES,

[00:26:12.189]
TORTILLAS FROM WHEAT, AND
POTATO CHIPS FROM POTATOES.

[00:26:15.399]
YOU COULD EVEN MAKE
TOMATO SAUCE FROM TOMATOES

[00:26:18.019]
FOR PIZZA OR SPAGHETTI.

[00:26:19.419]
NOW YOU'RE TALKING.

[00:26:20.709]
THAT'S MY KIND OF MEAL.

[00:26:22.919]
AND JUST LIKE HERE ON EARTH,
THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS

[00:26:25.169]
TO EAT A BALANCED
AND NUTRITIOUS DIET.

[00:26:27.629]
THAT'S TRUE.

[00:26:28.099]
MY MOM ALWAYS TELLS ME THAT.

[00:26:30.469]
[00:26:32.619]
WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE US HARVEST
SOME CARROTS FROM OUR CHAMBERS?

[00:26:41.619]
[00:26:47.219]
YES.

[00:26:47.669]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:26:49.019]
THANKS, MR. GRUENER.

[00:26:51.339]
GOOD LUCK WITH YOUR PROJECT, KIDS.

[00:26:52.859]
I CAN'T BELIEVE THEY ACTUALLY
GROW PLANTS IN SPACE FOR FOOD.

[00:26:57.649]
AND OXYGEN.

[00:26:59.269]
WE DEFINITELY NEED TO GROW
PLANTS IN OUR HABITAT.

[00:27:02.169]
I READ ON THE INTERNET
THAT SOME EXPERIMENTS

[00:27:04.159]
ON THE I.S.S. ARE DONE BY KIDS.

[00:27:06.049]
WE SHOULD CHECK IT OUT AND SEE
IF ANYBODY ON THE NASA WHY?

[00:27:08.369]
FILES KIDS CLUB GREW
CONTROLLED PLANTS.

[00:27:10.499]
MAYBE WE COULD GROW OUR
OWN PLANTS FOR THE MODEL.

[00:27:12.789]
IT WOULD HAVE TO BE PRETTY
SMALL TO FIT IN OUR MODEL.

[00:27:15.709]
MRS. SCHWARTZ' CLASS AT KEMP HILL
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN SILVER SPRING,

[00:27:18.559]
MARYLAND, PARTICIPATED.

[00:27:20.149]
CHECK IT OUT.

[00:27:23.009]
HI, I'M BOEWI.

[00:27:24.579]
I'M IN MISS SCHWARTZ'
FOURTH-GRADE CLASS

[00:27:26.789]
AT KEMP HILL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
IN SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND.

[00:27:30.199]
HI, WE READ ON THE INTERNET
THAT YOU'RE PARTICIPATING

[00:27:33.479]
IN A NASA PROJECT WITH SPACE SEEDS.

[00:27:35.079]
YES, WE ARE GROWING
ARABIDOPSIS PLANTS.

[00:27:37.969]
WHAT ARE "ARAB-DOPSIS" PLANTS?

[00:27:40.239]
THEY ARE MORE COMMONLY
KNOWN AS MUSTARD WHEAT.

[00:27:43.079]
IT HAS A LIFE CYCLE OF SIX
WEEKS FROM SEED TO SEED.

[00:27:47.009]
IT IS EASY TO GROW IN SMALL PLACES.

[00:27:49.919]
ALSO, IT PRODUCES A LOT OF SEEDS.

[00:27:52.209]
THAT MAKES IT A GREAT TEST
PLANT TO BE GROWN IN SPACE.

[00:27:55.069]
HOW DO YOU GET SPACE SEEDS?

[00:27:57.659]
WE PARTICIPATED IN
A NASA EXPERIMENT

[00:27:59.999]
THROUGH A COMPANY CALLED
SPACE EXPLORERS, INC.

[00:28:02.499]
THEY GET THE SEEDS FROM NASA
AND DISTRIBUTE TO TEACHERS

[00:28:06.479]
WHO HAVE SIGNED UP FOR THE PROGRAM.

[00:28:08.559]
WHY DOES NASA WANT CHILDREN TO
GROW THE SPACE SEEDS ON EARTH?

[00:28:12.289]
WHENEVER YOU ARE DOING
AN EXPERIMENT,

[00:28:14.149]
YOU HAVE TO HAVE A CONTROL GROUP.

[00:28:16.249]
WE GROW THE PLANTS AS A
CONTROL GROUP FOR THE EXPERIMENT

[00:28:19.119]
ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

[00:28:21.209]
WE LEARNED ABOUT CONTROLS
FROM THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

[00:28:24.009]
WE MEASURE THE PLANTS AS THEY
GROW AND KEEP ACCURATE RECORDS.

[00:28:27.609]
THIS GIVES NASA A REFERENCE POINT
OF NORMAL GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION

[00:28:31.539]
TO COMPARE WITH THE PLANTS GROWN
ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

[00:28:35.799]
WHY IS THAT IMPORTANT?

[00:28:37.989]
SCIENTISTS NEED TO MAKE SURE
THAT THE PLANTS ARE GROWING

[00:28:40.849]
AND PRODUCING JUST
LIKE THEY DO ON EARTH.

[00:28:43.009]
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE
THAT THE PLANTS DO

[00:28:45.269]
FOR THE ASTRONAUTS IN SPACE?

[00:28:47.239]
YES, THEY CREATE A BIOREGENERATIVE
LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM.

[00:28:51.599]
WHAT IS THAT?

[00:28:53.289]
IT'S A SYSTEM THAT USES
PLANTS RATHER THAN MACHINES.

[00:28:56.629]
THE PLANTS RELEASE OXYGEN,
HELP RECYCLE DRINKING WATER,

[00:29:00.059]
AND CREATE WATER VAPOR
THROUGH TRANSPIRATION.

[00:29:03.359]
JUST LIKE MR. GRUENER MENTIONED.

[00:29:05.419]
WE DEFINITELY NEED A
BIOREGENERATIVE SYSTEM

[00:29:07.639]
IN OUR HABITAT.

[00:29:08.789]
THANKS FOR HELPING US.

[00:29:09.649]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:29:11.379]
AND GOOD LUCK ON YOUR PROJECT.

[00:29:13.349]
THAT IS SO COOL.

[00:29:15.879]
SO WE KNOW WE CAN GROW PLANTS
AS A SOURCE OF FOOD AND OXYGEN.

[00:29:19.129]
NASA SURE IS DOING
A LOT OF RESEARCH

[00:29:21.549]
ON LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE.

[00:29:23.179]
MY MOM AND I ARE GOING DOWN TO
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER IN HOUSTON.

[00:29:26.119]
MAYBE WHILE I'M DOWN THERE,
I CAN DO SOME MORE RESEARCH.

[00:29:27.999]
I'VE NEVER BEEN TO JOHNSON.

[00:29:30.099]
I'D LIKE TO CHECK IT OUT.

[00:29:31.649]
OKAY, I'LL CALL MY MOM AND
SEE IF YOU CAN GO WITH US.

[00:29:35.039]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:29:36.229]
WILL LIVING ON MARS REQUIRE
ANY SPECIAL TRAINING?

[00:29:38.699]
WHAT WILL BIANCA AND ANTHONY
LEARN AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER?

[00:29:42.589]
DID POLLUTION KILL ALL
THE FISH IN THE BAY?

[00:29:44.789]
DON'T LEAVE THE PLANET.

[00:29:47.079]
STICK AROUND FOR THE
NEXT SEGMENT OF THE CASE

[00:29:52.579]
OF THE INHABITABLE HABITAT.

[00:30:01.579]
[00:30:01.839]
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION, AND
YOU'LL LEARN THE FOLLOWING:

[00:30:05.539]
WHAT IS THE KC-135 USED FOR?

[00:30:09.679]
WHAT IS NEUTRAL BUOYANCY?

[00:30:12.599]
AND WHAT DOES A SPACESUIT
PROTECT ASTRONAUTS FROM?

[00:30:17.069]
[00:30:19.069]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:30:19.979]
HEY, R.J. WHAT IN
THE WORLD IS THAT?

[00:30:22.769]
YOU MEAN, "WHAT IN
THE MARS IS THAT?"

[00:30:25.159]
ACTUALLY, IT'S A BADMINTON SET.

[00:30:27.399]
THIS IS PRETTY HEAVY.

[00:30:28.289]
HOW ARE YOU GOING TO
PLAY BADMINTON WITH THIS?

[00:30:31.389]
WELL, YOU SEE, THERE'S
LESS GRAVITY ON MARS,

[00:30:33.349]
SO THE RACKET NEEDS TO BE HEAVIER.

[00:30:35.059]
THIS IS PART OF THE EXPERIMENTS
WE'RE GOING TO BE DOING ON MARS.

[00:30:37.909]
WELL, WE COULD BE THE FIRST
ONES TO PLAY BADMINTON ON MARS.

[00:30:41.439]
EXACTLY.

[00:30:42.689]
OH, HOW'S THE FISH PROBLEM GOING?

[00:30:45.049]
IT'S GOOD.

[00:30:45.229]
I HEARD BACK FROM THE E.P.A. --

[00:30:46.619]
THAT'S THE ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION AGENCY --

[00:30:50.089]
THEY SAID THAT THERE IS
NO POLLUTION IN THE WATER

[00:30:51.879]
AND THAT IT'S THE NORMAL
TEMPERATURE FOR THIS TIME OF YEAR.

[00:30:54.789]
SO I'M STILL CONFUSED.

[00:30:56.759]
DON'T WORRY.

[00:30:57.339]
I'M SURE YOU'LL FIGURE IT OUT.

[00:30:58.559]
HEY, GUYS, KSNN IS ON.

[00:31:02.219]
WELL, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,
I'VE BEEN TOLD

[00:31:04.169]
THAT I.M. LISSNING WAS NOT
ACTUALLY ON MARS YESTERDAY,

[00:31:07.509]
BUT WAS PARTICIPATING IN A
SIMULATION OF LIVING ON MARS.

[00:31:12.669]
FOR THIS STUNT -- I, I MEAN,
EXPERIMENT, SHE HAS NOW BEEN SEALED

[00:31:16.409]
IN A SIMULATED MARTIAN HABITAT,

[00:31:19.849]
WHERE SHE WILL EXPERIENCE WHAT
IT WILL BE LIKE FOR ASTRONAUTS

[00:31:22.539]
TO LIVE ON ANOTHER WORLD.

[00:31:24.279]
WE JOIN HER NOW FOR A LIVE REPORT.

[00:31:26.679]
I.M., HOW'S IT GOING?

[00:31:29.179]
TED, YOU'VE GOT TO HELP
ME GET OUT OF HERE.

[00:31:32.349]
I'M DOWN TO A PACKET OF TANG
AND TWO STALKS OF CELERY.

[00:31:37.379]
I CANNOT TAKE THIS ANYMORE.

[00:31:38.969]
BUT YOU'VE ONLY BEEN IN
THERE FOR...15 MINUTES.

[00:31:42.869]
AND YOU HAD ENOUGH FOOD FOR A WEEK.

[00:31:44.909]
TED!

[00:31:46.389]
HELP ME, TED!

[00:31:48.139]
THERE YOU HAVE IT, FOLKS.

[00:31:49.409]
IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S GOING TO TAKE
MORE EFFORT THAN LOCKING A REPORTER

[00:31:52.309]
IN A CLOSET TO FIGURE
OUT HOW TO LIVE ON MARS.

[00:31:55.029]
I'M TED TOON FOR KSNN.

[00:31:56.799]
YOU KNOW, LIVING IN SPACE
WOULD BE QUITE AN ADJUSTMENT.

[00:32:01.569]
I READ THAT ASTRONAUTS HAD
TO TRAIN TO GO TO SPACE.

[00:32:04.269]
I WONDER IF WE'D HAVE TO
TRAIN TO LIVE ON MARS.

[00:32:06.929]
OF COURSE.

[00:32:07.809]
YOU DON'T JUST GO 78 MILLION
KILOMETERS WITHOUT TRAINING.

[00:32:10.699]
I WONDER HOW YOU TRAIN.

[00:32:13.399]
LOOKS LIKE IT'S TIME FOR A
TRIP TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:32:15.839]
WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE TO
BUILD A HABITAT ON MARS.

[00:32:20.209]
AND WE KNOW THAT PLANTS AND
ANIMALS HAVE BASIC NEEDS.

[00:32:22.369]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT THERE ARE
LOTS OF DIFFERENT HABITATS,

[00:32:25.619]
BUT THEY'RE ALL BASICALLY THE SAME.

[00:32:27.509]
ALSO, THE FOOD WEB'S
IMPORTANT TO ALL HABITATS,

[00:32:30.339]
AND PLANTS CAN BE USED AS
A FOOD SOURCE IN SPACE.

[00:32:33.659]
WE NEED TO KNOW HOW PEOPLE TRAIN
TO LIVE IN SPACE FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:32:37.129]
WHERE SHOULD WE GO?

[00:32:38.799]
I SAW EARLIER ON THE COMPUTER
THAT DR. TEXTBOOK HAD THIS SHOW

[00:32:41.649]
ABOUT HOW PEOPLE LEARN
TO LIVE IN SPACE.

[00:32:45.169]
LET'S CHECK IT OUT.

[00:32:46.959]
[00:32:48.819]
HERE'S DR. TEXTBOOK
WITH AN EXCITING LOOK

[00:32:52.119]
INTO THE HISTORY OF
LIVING IN SPACE.

[00:32:54.749]
HELLO.

[00:32:54.889]
WELL, TODAY WE'RE GOING
TO LEARN ABOUT ONE

[00:33:00.969]
OF MAN'S GREATEST
CHALLENGES: LIVING IN SPACE.

[00:33:05.529]
FOR CENTURIES, PEOPLE HAVE ADJUSTED
TO DIFFERENT LIVING CONDITIONS,

[00:33:09.419]
BUT NONE SO DRASTIC AS
GOING FROM THE SURFACE

[00:33:12.609]
OF OUR PLANET INTO OUTER SPACE.

[00:33:16.369]
LEAVING THE PULL OF EARTH'S
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE REQUIRES

[00:33:19.079]
TRAINING AND DISCIPLINE.

[00:33:20.719]
NASA ASTRONAUTS USE SOPHISTICATED
SIMULATORS AND MACHINES

[00:33:24.109]
TO PREPARE THEMSELVES TO
LEAVE EARTH'S GRAVITY.

[00:33:26.819]
YOU EXPERIENCE THE SAME FEELING
WHILE RIDING ON A ROLLER COASTER

[00:33:29.959]
OR EVEN WHILE SPINNING
ON A MERRY-GO-ROUND.

[00:33:33.239]
[00:33:34.519]
ONCE YOU'VE ENTERED SPACE,
HOWEVER, EVERYTHING CHANGES.

[00:33:38.589]
YOU'VE LEFT EARTH'S
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE BEHIND YOU,

[00:33:41.839]
AND YOU'VE NOW ENTERED
THE MICROGRAVITY ZONE.

[00:33:45.899]
IN A MICROGRAVITY
ENVIRONMENT, YOU MUST BE ABLE

[00:33:48.839]
TO WORK RIGHT SIDE
UP OR UPSIDE DOWN.

[00:33:52.189]
DOING THIS ON EARTH CAN BE SLIGHTLY
UNCOMFORTABLE, BUT IN SPACE,

[00:33:55.769]
THERE IS NO UP OR DOWN.

[00:33:57.159]
IT FEELS THE SAME NO
MATTER WHICH WAY YOU HANG.

[00:34:01.899]
ALSO IN MICROGRAVITY, SIMPLE TASKS
LIKE EATING ARE VERY CHALLENGING.

[00:34:07.929]
IN THE EARLY DAYS OF SPACE
FLIGHT, ASTRONAUTS RELIED

[00:34:11.849]
ON ORANGE POWDERED DRINK
MIX AND FREEZE-DRIED...

[00:34:16.839]
FOOD!

[00:34:18.809]
UH!

[00:34:18.839]
NOW THEY ENJOY A VARIETY
OF FULL-COURSE MEALS.

[00:34:23.199]
MMM.

[00:34:24.259]
OF COURSE, LIFE IN SPACE
DOES HAVE ITS BENEFITS.

[00:34:27.829]
ON EARTH, THESE WEIGHTS ARE
DIFFICULT TO LIFT, BUT IF I LET GO

[00:34:31.819]
OF THEM IN SPACE,
THEY SIMPLY STAY PUT.

[00:34:34.459]
AAAHH!

[00:34:34.649]
NOT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:34:37.979]
POOR DR. TEXTBOOK.

[00:34:45.679]
[00:34:48.089]
HE DIDN'T SEEM TO ADAPT.

[00:34:50.349]
I GUESS THE FISH HAVEN'T BEEN
ABLE TO ADAPT VERY WELL EITHER,

[00:34:56.089]
OR THEY'D STILL BE
SWIMMING IN THE BAY.

[00:34:57.909]
MAYBE THAT SHOULD BE
MY NEW HYPOTHESIS.

[00:35:00.619]
IF THE FISH CAN'T ADAPT
TO THEIR NEW ENVIRONMENT,

[00:35:02.979]
THEN THEY WILL LEAVE THE BAY.

[00:35:04.909]
BUT WHY WOULDN'T THEY
BE ABLE TO ADAPT?

[00:35:07.469]
I GUESS I NEED TO DO
SOME MORE RESEARCH.

[00:35:09.929]
ADAPTING SEEMS LIKE
A DIFFICULT PROCESS.

[00:35:12.659]
LET'S GO ASK DR. D. HE
COULD PROBABLY TELL US.

[00:35:14.989]
YEAH.

[00:35:15.419]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:35:15.899]
COME ON.

[00:35:17.569]
[00:35:20.049]
HI, DR. D. OH, HI, GUYS.

[00:35:22.089]
HOW'S YOUR PROJECT GOING?

[00:35:23.289]
IT'S GOING WELL, BUT WE STILL
NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT TRAINING

[00:35:25.709]
AND ADAPTING TO LIVING IN SPACE.

[00:35:27.529]
I'LL GIVE YOU AN EXAMPLE
ABOUT ADAPTING HERE ON EARTH.

[00:35:29.839]
WHEN ASTRONOMERS GO TO WORK AT THE
OBSERVATORIES ON TOP OF MAUNA KEA

[00:35:32.729]
IN HAWAII, WHICH IS ALMOST
14,000 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL,

[00:35:35.849]
THEY HAVE TO ADAPT
TO A NEW ENVIRONMENT.

[00:35:38.069]
BUT IF IT'S ON EARTH, WHY
DO THEY HAVE TO ADAPT?

[00:35:40.139]
THAT VERY HIGH ELEVATION HAS MUCH
LESS OXYGEN THAN HERE AT SEA LEVEL.

[00:35:44.449]
IN ORDER TO ADAPT, THE ASTRONOMERS
GO PARTWAY UP THE MOUNTAIN

[00:35:47.119]
TO ABOUT 9,000 FEET, SPEND ABOUT
24 HOURS THERE AT THIS ELEVATION

[00:35:51.199]
WHERE THE CONDITIONS ARE
NOT QUITE AS EXTREME.

[00:35:53.399]
WHAT HAPPENS IF THEY DON'T?

[00:35:55.179]
THE ASTRONOMERS MIGHT
GET ALTITUDE SICKNESS.

[00:35:57.479]
IF THEY TAKE THIS TIME TO LET THEIR
BODIES GET USED TO LESS OXYGEN,

[00:36:01.159]
THEY MIGHT NOT SUFFER
SUCH SYMPTOMS AS HEADACHES

[00:36:03.779]
OR SEVERE TIREDNESS WHEN THEY
GET TO THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN.

[00:36:06.189]
THAT'S REALLY INTERESTING.

[00:36:07.769]
LET'S PLAY A LITTLE GAME TO SEE IF
YOU CAN ADAPT TO A NEW ENVIRONMENT.

[00:36:11.369]
ARE WE GOING TO CLIMB A MOUNTAIN?

[00:36:13.109]
NO, I'M GOING TO PUT YOU IN
A MIRROR IMAGE ENVIRONMENT.

[00:36:15.819]
WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IS TRACE THIS
STAR WHILE LOOKING IN THE MIRROR.

[00:36:19.069]
JUST STAY BETWEEN THE LINES.

[00:36:20.819]
THIS LOOKS REALLY EASY.

[00:36:21.939]
I'M GOING TO GO FIRST.

[00:36:27.149]
GO AHEAD AND GIVE IT A TRY.

[00:36:29.759]
WOW.

[00:36:30.859]
I CAN'T MOVE MY HAND.

[00:36:32.219]
THIS IS REALLY STRANGE.

[00:36:34.269]
I BET I COULD DO MUCH BETTER.

[00:36:36.989]
IT'S HARDER THAN IT LOOKS.

[00:36:39.869]
ALL RIGHT, LET ME TRY IT AGAIN.

[00:36:41.639]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:36:42.619]
GO AHEAD.

[00:36:42.999]
ANOTHER STAR.

[00:36:44.599]
[00:36:47.519]
IT'S EASIER THIS TIME.

[00:36:49.129]
IT'S STILL HARD, BUT I'M ABLE
TO DO IT BETTER THIS TIME.

[00:36:52.749]
YOU'RE LEARNING HOW TO ADAPT
TO THIS NEW ENVIRONMENT.

[00:36:55.169]
YOU MIGHT WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
HOW PEOPLE TRAIN TO LIVE IN SPACE.

[00:36:57.949]
WHERE SHOULD WE GO?

[00:36:58.649]
YOU MIGHT CHECK OUT
THE NASA WEBSITE.

[00:37:01.799]
IF ANYONE KNOWS, THEY SHOULD.

[00:37:04.519]
THANKS, DR. D. BYE.

[00:37:06.209]
BYE.

[00:37:07.199]
JACOB, WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:37:09.219]
I'M TESTING MY NEW MARS POGO STICK.

[00:37:14.539]
I DON'T THINK YOUR POGO STICK'S
GOING TO WORK VERY WELL ON MARS.

[00:37:19.409]
WHY NOT?

[00:37:19.959]
REMEMBER THE CASE OF
THE CHALLENGING FLIGHT?

[00:37:22.629]
WE LEARNED ABOUT NEWTON'S
FIRST LAW.

[00:37:24.499]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:37:25.439]
AN OBJECT IN MOTION STAYS IN
MOTION UNTIL A FORCE ACTS UPON IT.

[00:37:29.099]
SO YOU SEE, JACOB, IF YOU JUMPED
ON YOUR POGO STICK IN MARS,

[00:37:31.849]
YOU'D END UP IN SPACE.

[00:37:33.199]
NOT NECESSARILY.

[00:37:34.369]
I DID A LITTLE RESEARCH AND FOUND

[00:37:36.019]
OUT THAT THE APOLLO ASTRONAUTS
JUMPED ALL OVER THE MOON,

[00:37:38.319]
AND THE MOON HAS 1/6
THE GRAVITY OF EARTH.

[00:37:40.779]
THAT'S LESS THAN MARS,
WHICH IS 1/3.

[00:37:43.569]
BUT THE APOLLO ASTRONAUTS HAD
SUITS THAT WEIGHED 350 POUNDS.

[00:37:47.899]
THAT'S WHY THEY DIDN'T
JUMP VERY HIGH.

[00:37:49.369]
THAT MEANS THAT, ON THE
MOON, IT WOULD WEIGH ABOUT...

[00:37:54.839]
58 POUNDS OR 116 ON MARS.

[00:38:00.009]
WOW, HE'S GOOD AT MATH.

[00:38:02.359]
SO I MIGHT BE ABLE
TO USE MY POGO STICK.

[00:38:04.399]
WELL, YOU COULD, BUT I WOULDN'T
UNLESS I DID A LOT MORE RESEARCH.

[00:38:07.779]
HEY, GUYS, I JUST GOT AN
EMAIL FROM MR. DEL ROSSO.

[00:38:10.379]
HE CAN TELL US HOW ASTRONAUTS
TRAIN TO LIVE IN SPACE.

[00:38:14.549]
HI, I'M DOM DEL ROSSO,
TEST DIRECTOR

[00:38:18.409]
WITH NASA'S REDUCED
GRAVITY AIRPLANE.

[00:38:20.049]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:38:21.039]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT ASTRONAUTS

[00:38:22.739]
AND HOW THEY LIVE
AND WORK IN SPACE.

[00:38:25.469]
WELL, THEY TRAIN IN
MANY DIFFERENT WAYS.

[00:38:27.209]
ONE OF THE WAYS IS ABOARD OUR
KC-135, THE WEIGHTLESS WONDER.

[00:38:30.879]
WHY DO YOU CALL IT
THE WEIGHTLESS WONDER?

[00:38:32.279]
THE KC-135 IS AN AIRPLANE WE CAN
USE TO SIMULATE THE FREE FALL

[00:38:36.089]
OF ZERO GRAVITY SO THE ASTRONAUTS
CAN EXPERIENCE WEIGHTLESSNESS.

[00:38:39.259]
HOW DO YOU SIMULATE
WEIGHTLESSNESS IN AN AIRPLANE?

[00:38:42.439]
WELL, WE FLY A SERIES OF HUGE
ARCS IN THE SKY WE CALL PARABOLAS.

[00:38:46.209]
IT'S KIND OF LIKE RIDING A
GIANT ROLLER COASTER IN THE SKY.

[00:38:49.729]
I LEARNED ABOUT PARABOLAS IN
MATH, AND I LOVE ROLLER COASTERS.

[00:38:54.349]
WELL, THEN YOU WOULD
LOVE THE KC-135.

[00:38:56.819]
WE START AT AN ALTITUDE
OF ABOUT 24,000 FEET

[00:38:59.639]
AND CLIMB TO MAKE AN ARC.

[00:39:01.259]
WHEN THE PLANE REACHES THE TOP
OF THE ARC AT ABOUT 33,000 FEET,

[00:39:04.439]
IT DIVES BACK TOWARDS THE EARTH.

[00:39:06.149]
ANYONE INSIDE THE
AIRPLANE IS ALSO FALLING

[00:39:08.199]
AT THE SAME RATE THAT WE'RE DIVING.

[00:39:09.849]
THIS CAUSES THE PEOPLE
TO FLOAT AROUND INSIDE.

[00:39:11.999]
THAT'S REALLY COOL.

[00:39:13.519]
DO THEY FLOAT FOR VERY LONG?

[00:39:15.639]
NOT REALLY.

[00:39:16.499]
ONLY FOR ABOUT 20 OR 25
SECONDS IN 0 G. HOWEVER,

[00:39:20.269]
WE CAN CHANGE THE PARABOLA TO
SIMULATE EITHER THE GRAVITY OF MOON

[00:39:23.269]
OR MARS, AND THEY LAST
A LITTLE BIT LONGER.

[00:39:25.439]
SO HOW DOES THIS HELP THE
ASTRONAUTS TO TRAIN FOR SPACE?

[00:39:29.149]
WELL, IT GIVES THE
ASTRONAUTS A CHANCE

[00:39:30.939]
TO SEE HOW THEIR BODIES WILL REACT
AND ADAPT TO WEIGHTLESSNESS AS WELL

[00:39:34.299]
AS GIVE THEM A CHANCE TO PRACTICE

[00:39:35.779]
WITH THEIR EXPERIMENTS
BEFORE THEY FLY.

[00:39:38.119]
WE CAN ALSO USE IT TO VERIFY
AND HELP DESIGN NEW HARDWARE

[00:39:41.369]
FOR THE ASTRONAUTS TO USE LATER ON.

[00:39:42.739]
I GET SICK WHEN I
RIDE ROLLER COASTERS.

[00:39:45.499]
DO PEOPLE EVER GET
SICK ON THE KC-135?

[00:39:48.499]
WELL, YES, OCCASIONALLY,
AN ASTRONAUT WILL GET SICK,

[00:39:51.029]
AND THAT'S WHY, SOMETIMES, PEOPLE
WILL CALL IT "THE VOMIT COMET,"

[00:39:54.409]
BUT IT DOESN'T HAPPEN
ALL THAT OFTEN.

[00:39:56.889]
[00:39:58.039]
THANKS, MR. DEL ROSSO.

[00:39:59.309]
THIS REALLY HELPED.

[00:40:01.249]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND GOOD
LUCK ON YOUR PROJECT.

[00:40:03.269]
GOOD-BYE, MR. DEL ROSSO.

[00:40:04.999]
WOW.

[00:40:05.539]
IT'D BE PRETTY COOL TO FLOAT IN
SPACE -- UNLESS YOU GOT SICK.

[00:40:09.169]
YOU'D HAVE TO HAVE A PRETTY
STRONG STOMACH TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:40:12.249]
YOU HAVE TO HAVE A PRETTY
STRONG STOMACH TO TRAIN.

[00:40:14.489]
SPEAKING OF TRAINING, I JUST GOT
AN EMAIL FROM BIANCA AND ANTHONY

[00:40:17.809]
DOWN AT JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:40:19.579]
THEY'RE GOING TO TALK TO MR. UTTLEY
AT THE NEUTRAL BUOYANCY LABORATORY.

[00:40:23.389]
I THINK THAT'S WHERE THEY
TRAIN FOR SPACE WALKS.

[00:40:26.839]
WELL, THE NEUTRAL BUOYANCY
LABORATORY SOUNDS A LOT EASIER

[00:40:29.899]
THAN THE VOMIT COMET.

[00:40:30.919]
I HOPE THEY DON'T GET SICK.

[00:40:33.469]
I NEVER THOUGHT A LABORATORY
WOULD HAVE A SWIMMING POOL.

[00:40:36.759]
ME EITHER.

[00:40:37.169]
I WONDER WHAT THEY DO HERE.

[00:40:39.479]
I'M GLAD YOU ASKED.

[00:40:40.759]
YOU TWO MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:40:43.059]
YES, WE ARE.

[00:40:44.189]
WELL, MY NAME IS MR. UTTLEY,

[00:40:45.509]
AND THIS IS THE NEUTRAL
BUOYANCY LABORATORY,

[00:40:47.759]
OR N.B.L. WE USE THIS TANK

[00:40:49.819]
TO SIMULATE A WEIGHTLESS
ENVIRONMENT JUST LIKE YOU'D SEE

[00:40:52.079]
IN SPACE.

[00:40:52.709]
IT SURE IS BIG.

[00:40:54.859]
JUST HOW BIG IS IT?

[00:40:55.589]
THE N.B.L. IS 202 FEET LONG.

[00:40:58.159]
IT'S 102 FEET WIDE
AND 40 FEET DEEP.

[00:41:00.649]
THAT MEANS IT HOLDS JUST OVER
6.2 MILLION GALLONS OF WATER.

[00:41:04.139]
THAT'S AS BIG AS 12 OLYMPIC-SIZED
SWIMMING POOLS ALL PUT TOGETHER.

[00:41:07.499]
WOW, THAT IS BIG.

[00:41:09.729]
WHY DO YOU NEED SUCH A BIG
TANK -- I MEAN, LABORATORY?

[00:41:13.589]
WELL, THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION COMPONENTS ARE REALLY BIG,

[00:41:16.979]
SO WE NEEDED TO HAVE AN
ENVIRONMENT THAT WAS BIG ENOUGH

[00:41:19.069]
TO BE ABLE TO HAVE ASTRONAUTS
PRACTICE PUTTING ALL THE

[00:41:21.099]
COMPONENTS TOGETHER.

[00:41:22.089]
HOW DO THE ASTRONAUTS
TRAIN IN THE N.B.L.?

[00:41:24.289]
WELL, INSTRUCTORS COACH THE
ASTRONAUTS ON TASKS AND TECHNIQUES

[00:41:27.979]
AND SPACE WALKS THAT
THEY'RE GOING TO HAVE

[00:41:29.439]
TO DO WHILE LIVING
AND WORKING IN ORBIT.

[00:41:31.709]
SPACE WALKS?

[00:41:32.849]
WHY WOULD THEY NEED
TO WALK IN SPACE?

[00:41:35.109]
WELL, SOMETIMES ASTRONAUTS HAVE
TO GO OUTSIDE OF THEIR SPACE HOME

[00:41:38.879]
TO DO SUCH THINGS AS
ASSEMBLE THE SPACE STATION

[00:41:41.379]
OR EVEN FIX THE HUBBLE
SPACE TELESCOPE.

[00:41:43.759]
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE
THEY DO IN THE N.B.L.?

[00:41:45.679]
YES, AS A PART OF
SPACE WALK TRAINING,

[00:41:47.579]
THEY TRAIN ON TASKS LIKE
CONNECTING POWER SUPPLIES,

[00:41:51.329]
DEPLOYING RADIATORS,
DEPLOYING SOLAR RAYS,

[00:41:53.949]
OR EVEN CHANGING BATTERIES.

[00:41:55.339]
CHANGING BATTERIES?

[00:41:56.799]
THAT DOESN'T SOUND VERY HARD.

[00:41:58.869]
WHY DO YOU HAVE TO TRAIN
FOR SUCH EASY JOBS?

[00:42:01.599]
IT MAY SOUND EASY, BUT WORKING
IN SPACE IS VERY CHALLENGING.

[00:42:04.899]
THERE IS NO UP OR DOWN,
AND SO OBJECTS MAY NOT BE

[00:42:07.739]
IN THE SAME ORIENTATION THEY WERE
IN WHEN THEY WERE TRAINING HERE

[00:42:10.269]
IN THE N.B.L. AT LEAST ALL
THE HEAVY STUFF DOESN'T WEIGH

[00:42:13.219]
AS MUCH AS IT DOES ON EARTH.

[00:42:14.809]
ACTUALLY, EVEN THOUGH
IT'S WEIGHTLESS IN ORBIT,

[00:42:17.099]
OBJECTS STILL HAVE THEIR MASS,
SO YOU HAVE TO BE VERY CAREFUL

[00:42:20.089]
ABOUT MOVING A LARGE OBJECT
QUICKLY BECAUSE IT WILL BUILD

[00:42:22.969]
UP MOMENTUM, SO ASTRONAUTS
HAVE TO TRAIN TO BE ABLE

[00:42:25.849]
TO MOVE THINGS VERY
SLOWLY AND DELIBERATELY.

[00:42:28.439]
THIS IS A LOT MORE
COMPLEX THAN WE THOUGHT.

[00:42:31.109]
WHY DO YOU USE WATER?

[00:42:32.719]
WE CREATE A WEIGHTLESS ENVIRONMENT

[00:42:34.189]
BY USING THE PRINCIPLE
OF NEUTRAL BUOYANCY.

[00:42:36.349]
WHAT IS NEUTRAL BUOYANCY?

[00:42:38.259]
WELL, NEUTRAL BUOYANCY IS WHEN
AN OBJECT HAS THE SAME TENDENCY

[00:42:41.699]
TO FLOAT AS IT DOES TO SINK, AND
THAT JUST HOVERS IN THE WATER,

[00:42:45.889]
AND THAT IS THE SAME PROPERTY
AS BEING WEIGHTLESS ON ORBIT.

[00:42:48.649]
SO YOU CAN TAKE A
190-POUND ASTRONAUT,

[00:42:50.899]
PUT THEM INTO A 200-POUND
SPACESUIT, PRESSURIZE THE SUIT,

[00:42:54.339]
AND ADD WEIGHTS TO THE
CHEST, BACK, ARMS, AND LEGS,

[00:42:57.499]
JUST SO THAT THEY'RE
HOVERING AROUND IN THE WATER.

[00:42:59.599]
THAT GIVES THEM THE SAME REACTIVE
FORCES THAT THEY WOULD HAVE

[00:43:01.959]
IN ORBIT, SO WHEN YOU PUSH
YOURSELF AWAY FROM SOMETHING,

[00:43:04.559]
YOUR BODY IS GOING TO
CONTINUE TO FLOAT AWAY FROM IT.

[00:43:06.729]
IF THE SUIT WEIGHS 200 POUNDS, HOW
DO YOU GET THEM OUT OF THE POOL?

[00:43:10.269]
ACTUALLY, WE'RE TAKING
THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:43:11.529]
OUT OF THE WATER RIGHT NOW.

[00:43:13.459]
[00:43:22.059]
WOW.

[00:43:22.819]
THOSE SUITS ARE AWESOME.

[00:43:24.279]
IF YOU REALLY WANT TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT SPACESUITS, YOU SHOULD TALK

[00:43:26.689]
TO DR. ROSS HERE AT
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:43:29.289]
THAT WOULD BE GREAT.

[00:43:30.379]
I'LL GIVE HER A CALL AND
LET HER KNOW YOU'RE COMING.

[00:43:33.179]
THANKS, MR. UTTLEY.

[00:43:38.089]
BYE.

[00:43:39.029]
BYE.

[00:43:39.569]
HI, MISS ROSS.

[00:43:40.419]
I'M BIANCA, AND THIS IS ANTHONY.

[00:43:42.329]
HI, IT'S NICE TO MEET YOU BOTH.

[00:43:43.809]
I UNDERSTAND FROM MR. UTTLEY
THAT YOU WANT TO LEARN

[00:43:45.879]
ABOUT THE SPACESUITS
THAT ASTRONAUTS WEAR.

[00:43:47.859]
WOW, DO ASTRONAUTS REALLY
HAVE TO WEAR ALL THIS STUFF?

[00:43:50.949]
YES, THEY DO.

[00:43:51.499]
THE SPACESUIT PROTECTS
THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:43:52.879]
FROM THE EXTREME ENVIRONMENT
OF SPACE.

[00:43:54.599]
WE KNOW THEY NEED A
SPACESUIT FOR OXYGEN,

[00:43:56.559]
BUT WHAT ELSE DOES
IT PROTECT THEM FROM?

[00:43:58.509]
IT PROTECTS THEM FROM THINGS
LIKE EXTREME TEMPERATURES,

[00:44:01.379]
VERY SMALL METEOROIDS,
ORBITAL DEBRIS, AND RADIATION.

[00:44:04.779]
WOW, I DIDN'T KNOW
SPACE IS SO DANGEROUS.

[00:44:07.169]
THE SPACESUIT LOOKS BIG.

[00:44:09.099]
IT IS BIG, AND WHEN
AN ASTRONAUT WEARS IT,

[00:44:10.969]
IT INFLATES LIKE A BALLOON
TO MAKE IT EVEN LARGER.

[00:44:13.669]
WHY DOES IT INFLATE?

[00:44:14.929]
IN SPACE, THERE'S NO AIR
PRESSURE, AND WITHOUT AIR PRESSURE,

[00:44:17.739]
THE ASTRONAUTS' BLOOD WOULD BOIL.

[00:44:18.979]
THAT DOESN'T SOUND GOOD.

[00:44:20.369]
NO, IT'S NOT, SO THE SPACESUIT
PROVIDES THE AIR PRESSURE THE BODY

[00:44:23.409]
NEEDS TO KEEP THAT FROM HAPPENING.

[00:44:25.249]
WHAT ARE THESE?

[00:44:26.179]
THESE ARE THE ASTRONAUTS'
LONG JOHNS.

[00:44:28.129]
THEY KEEP THE ASTRONAUT COOL
WHILE HE OR SHE WORKS IN SPACE.

[00:44:30.519]
HOW DOES IT DO THAT?

[00:44:31.729]
THERE ARE LITTLE TUBES
WOVEN INTO THE LONG JOHNS.

[00:44:34.409]
WATER FLOWS THROUGH THE TUBES,
KEEPING THE ASTRONAUTS COOL.

[00:44:36.279]
THERE ARE SOME DAYS I
WISH I HAD ONE OF THESE.

[00:44:39.019]
IS THAT WHAT I THINK IT IS?

[00:44:41.609]
YES, IT IS.

[00:44:42.829]
IT'S CALLED A M.A.G. FOR
MAXIMUM ABSORBENCY GARMENT.

[00:44:45.779]
DO ASTRONAUTS REALLY
HAVE TO WEAR THAT?

[00:44:47.949]
YES, SPACE WALKS CAN LAST UP TO
EIGHT HOURS, AND THAT'S A LONG TIME

[00:44:50.979]
TO GO WITHOUT A BATHROOM BREAK.

[00:44:52.189]
THAT'S FOR SURE.

[00:44:53.059]
I COULDN'T GO THAT LONG.

[00:44:54.649]
NEITHER CAN THE ASTRONAUTS, AND
THEY ARE WORKING WITH BILLIONS

[00:44:57.259]
OF DOLLARS OF EQUIPMENT.

[00:44:58.569]
THEY NEED TO BE ABLE TO CONCENTRATE
IN ORDER TO DO THEIR JOB CORRECTLY.

[00:45:01.119]
AND YOU CAN'T CONCENTRATE IF
YOU HAVE TO GO THE BATHROOM.

[00:45:04.029]
DO YOU MAKE THESE
SPACESUITS, MISS ROSS?

[00:45:06.079]
NO, NASA HIRES A COMPANY TO
ACTUALLY MAKE THE SPACESUITS.

[00:45:09.629]
MY PRIMARY JOB IS TO TEST
AND EVALUATE THE SUITS

[00:45:12.099]
SO THAT I CAN DESIGN
BETTER SPACESUITS.

[00:45:13.749]
WE LEARNED ALL ABOUT THAT
FROM OUR INVENTION CONTEST.

[00:45:16.079]
IT'S CALLED THE ITERATIVE PROCESS.

[00:45:17.829]
IT SOUNDS LIKE YOU'VE
TESTED, EVALUATED DATA,

[00:45:19.939]
AND REDESIGNED YOURSELVES.

[00:45:21.319]
DO ASTRONAUTS HAVE TO WEAR
DIFFERENT SUITS FOR DIFFERENT JOBS?

[00:45:24.189]
SOMETIMES; FOR EXAMPLE,
JOE KOSMO AND I WORK

[00:45:27.229]
FOR THE COMPANY CALLED I.L.C. TO
BUILD A BETTER SPACESUIT GLOVE.

[00:45:30.409]
WHY DID THEY NEED A BETTER GLOVE?

[00:45:31.649]
TO BUILD SPACE STATIONS.

[00:45:33.299]
THE GLOVE IS A PHASE SIX,

[00:45:34.499]
AND I MADE SURE IT WAS
READY TO USE IN SPACE.

[00:45:36.499]
DID IT REALLY WORK?

[00:45:37.109]
YES, IT DID.

[00:45:38.409]
THE GLOVE WAS USED ON THE
FIRST AMERICAN SPACE STATION

[00:45:40.869]
INSTRUCTION MISSION, STS-88.

[00:45:42.639]
THAT IS SO COOL TO KNOW THAT YOU
ACTUALLY HELPED THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:45:45.829]
BUILD THE SPACE STATION.

[00:45:47.399]
I MIGHT DO THAT SOMEDAY.

[00:45:48.829]
YES, YOU MIGHT.

[00:45:49.669]
KEEP UP THE HARD WORK.

[00:45:50.639]
THANKS, MISS ROSS.

[00:45:51.819]
WE LEARNED A LOT.

[00:45:52.809]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND GOOD
LUCK ON YOUR MARTIAN HABITAT.

[00:45:55.649]
THANKS.

[00:45:56.229]
BYE.

[00:45:57.479]
BYE.

[00:45:58.389]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:45:59.709]
IS THE TREE HOUSE
GETTING A LITTLE MESSY?

[00:46:02.039]
DID THE FISH MIGRATE FROM THE BAY?

[00:46:04.099]
STICK AROUND, AND GET ALL THE FACTS
IN THE FINAL SEGMENT OF THE CASE

[00:46:07.759]
OF THE INHABITABLE HABITAT.

[00:46:10.399]
IN THE CONCLUSION OF THE CASE
OF THE INHABITABLE HABITAT,

[00:46:19.399]
[00:46:23.769]
YOU'LL BE ASKED: HOW ARE
SPACE TRASH CANS DIFFERENT?

[00:46:28.179]
HOW CAN SPACE TRASH BE DANGEROUS?

[00:46:31.779]
AND WHAT IS MIGRATION?

[00:46:33.509]
WE ONLY HAVE ONE MORE MODULE TO GO.

[00:46:37.659]
THE RESEARCH MODULE
CONNECTS WITH THE GREENHOUSE.

[00:46:46.659]
[00:46:47.649]
THIS IS REALLY COOL.

[00:46:54.439]
I THINK I COULD LIVE THERE.

[00:46:56.309]
FOR A WHILE ANYWAY.

[00:46:58.769]
IT'S ALMOST AS NICE AS THE
I.S.S. MODEL WE SAW IN HOUSTON.

[00:47:06.429]
WE DID A GOOD JOB, GUYS.

[00:47:07.519]
WE DID.

[00:47:08.189]
I WONDER WHAT KIND OF EXPERIMENTS
WE'LL DO IN OUR RESEARCH MODULE.

[00:47:11.269]
WELL, I'VE DECIDED TO FOCUS
ON RECREATION IN SPACE.

[00:47:14.279]
I THINK WE SHOULD LOOK
INTO BADMINTON ON MARS.

[00:47:17.329]
OR A POGO STICK AS
POSSIBLE TRANSPORTATION.

[00:47:19.819]
BUT FIRST, WE NEED TO EXPERIMENT ON
HOW TO GET RID OF ALL THIS TRASH.

[00:47:22.519]
I GUESS IT HAS GOTTEN
A LITTLE MESSY IN HERE.

[00:47:26.139]
I WONDER WHAT THEY DO
WITH TRASH IN SPACE.

[00:47:28.619]
I DON'T THINK THEY HAVE
GARBAGE TRUCKS ON MARS.

[00:47:31.159]
I BET MISS ROSS KNOWS
SOMEONE WHO COULD HELP US.

[00:47:32.749]
I'LL CONTACT HER AND
SEE WHO WE SHOULD CALL.

[00:47:35.479]
AND WHILE YOU DO THAT, WE NEED
TO GET RID OF ALL THIS TRASH.

[00:47:39.109]
MAKE SURE YOU PUT THE PAPER AND
PLASTIC INTO THE RECYCLING BINS.

[00:47:48.109]
[00:47:58.699]
WOW, THIS LOOKS MUCH BETTER.

[00:48:01.419]
I NEVER THOUGHT BUILDING A MODEL
WOULD CREATE SO MUCH TRASH.

[00:48:04.039]
I HOPE IT DOESN'T GET THAT
BAD ON THE I.S.S. GUYS, LOOK.

[00:48:07.729]
I FOUND SOMEONE WHO CAN
HELP US WITH TRASH IN SPACE.

[00:48:13.869]
HI, I'M LISA POLANSKY, AND I WORK

[00:48:15.889]
ON THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION PROGRAM

[00:48:17.779]
AT THE JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:48:19.449]
WHAT CAN I DO FOR YOU TODAY?

[00:48:20.869]
WE WERE WONDERING HOW YOU
TAKE OUT THE TRASH IN SPACE.

[00:48:23.469]
ON THE SPACE STATION,

[00:48:25.069]
THE ASTRONAUTS HAVE TRASH
CANS LIKE WE DO ON EARTH,

[00:48:27.849]
EXCEPT THEY HAVE A FEW DIFFERENCES.

[00:48:29.319]
WHAT KIND OF DIFFERENCES?

[00:48:31.289]
WHEN YOU'RE IN A WEIGHTLESS
ENVIRONMENT,

[00:48:33.559]
THE TRASH HAS A TENDENCY
TO FLOAT OUT OF THE CANS,

[00:48:36.069]
SO WE HAVE SPECIAL
OPENINGS TO KEEP IT INSIDE.

[00:48:38.259]
THIS WAY, IT DOESN'T
BOTHER THE ASTRONAUTS.

[00:48:40.549]
TRASH IS BAD ENOUGH
SITTING ON THE GROUND.

[00:48:42.409]
I WOULDN'T WANT IT
FLYING AROUND EVERYWHERE.

[00:48:44.489]
ACTUALLY, THE ASTRONAUTS
ATTACH THE CAN TO THE WALL

[00:48:47.199]
SO IT DOESN'T FLOAT AWAY.

[00:48:49.839]
AT HOME, I USE THE THREE "RS":
REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE.

[00:48:52.229]
DO ASTRONAUTS USE THESE IN SPACE?

[00:48:55.059]
ACTUALLY, THERE'S NOT
A WHOLE LOT TO RECYCLE

[00:48:57.009]
ON THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

[00:48:58.929]
WE TRY TO REDUCE THE AMOUNT
OF ITEMS THAT BECOME TRASH

[00:49:01.429]
ON ORBIT BEFORE THEY GO UP.

[00:49:03.479]
HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

[00:49:04.709]
ONE OF THE WAYS IS BY USING
MORE EFFICIENT PACKING MATERIAL.

[00:49:08.049]
WE ALSO REUSE THE CLOTHING ITEMS
LIKE THE SHORTS AND THE PANTS.

[00:49:11.469]
IF YOU DID HAVE ANY TRASH, COULDN'T
YOU JUST LAUNCH IT INTO SPACE?

[00:49:15.209]
ONE OF THE REASONS WE DON'T
LAUNCH TRASH INTO SPACE IS

[00:49:17.999]
BECAUSE IT BECOMES SPACE TRASH,
AND THAT CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS.

[00:49:22.419]
HOW CAN SPACE TRASH BE DANGEROUS?

[00:49:25.199]
ANY TRASH INJECTED INTO SPACE
TRAVELS AT A HIGH RATE OF SPEED,

[00:49:28.829]
AND AT HIGH SPEEDS, EVEN THE
SMALLEST PIECE CAN DO DAMAGE

[00:49:31.829]
TO THE VEHICLE.

[00:49:32.999]
A PIECE THAT IS 10 CENTIMETERS
LONG CAN CAUSE AS MUCH DAMAGE

[00:49:36.229]
AS 25 STICKS OF DYNAMITE.

[00:49:37.809]
25 STICKS OF DYNAMITE?

[00:49:40.259]
THAT'S SCARY.

[00:49:41.419]
WHAT DO YOU DO WITH
THE FULL TRASH CANS?

[00:49:44.239]
WHEN THE CANS ARE FULL, WE PUT IT

[00:49:45.929]
IN THE RUSSIAN UNMANNED
VEHICLE CALLED PROGRESS.

[00:49:48.889]
THE PROGRESS UNDOCKS FROM THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

[00:49:51.629]
AND BURNS UP IN EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.

[00:49:53.999]
WE ALSO USE THE SPACE SHUTTLE TO
RETURN HARDWARE THAT IS REUSABLE.

[00:49:58.369]
WOW, THAT'S ONE WAY
TO RECYCLE AND REUSE.

[00:50:01.299]
I DIDN'T KNOW A SPACE
SHUTTLE COULD CARRY TRASH.

[00:50:03.919]
THAT'S A LOT BETTER THAN HAVING
TRASH FLY ALL THROUGH SPACE.

[00:50:06.939]
THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT.

[00:50:08.579]
THANKS FOR YOUR HELP,
MISS POLANSKY.

[00:50:10.979]
MY PLEASURE, KIDS.

[00:50:12.149]
ANYTIME.

[00:50:13.679]
SO THEY DO RECYCLE IN SPACE.

[00:50:15.679]
SO THAT MEANS THAT WE
DEFINITELY HAVE TO REUSE, REDUCE,

[00:50:19.199]
AND RECYCLE IN OUR HABITAT.

[00:50:20.629]
IT'S ALWAYS A GOOD IDEA
TO USE THE THREE "RS."

[00:50:21.899]
OKAY, LET'S GET THE CAMERA

[00:50:24.129]
SO WE CAN START WORKING
ON OUR PRESENTATION.

[00:50:27.759]
[00:50:29.119]
OKAY, FIRST, LET'S TAKE A
LOOK AT THE LIVING MODULE.

[00:50:32.159]
WHO'S GOING TO BE OUR NARRATOR?

[00:50:34.779]
COME ON, KALI, DON'T YOU WANT
TO BE IN THE PRESENTATION?

[00:50:39.339]
YES, BUT I FINALLY
GOT AN EMAIL BACK

[00:50:41.649]
FROM MR. GLEN SCHUSTER
OF SIGNALS OF SPRING.

[00:50:45.489]
AFTER DOING A LITTLE RESEARCH,

[00:50:47.159]
I FIGURED OUT THAT MY
HYPOTHESIS WAS WRONG.

[00:50:52.18