Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of the Radical Ride

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HI, I'M MACKENZIE ROSMAN, AND I
PLAY RUTHIE ON THE WB'S 7TH HEAVEN.

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I MAY NOT BE AN OFFICIAL TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVE YET, BUT ON THE SHOW,

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I LOVE TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS.

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NO MATTER HOW DIFFICULT
PROBLEMS MAY SEEM,

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THERE'S ALWAYS A SOLUTION,
AND THEY'RE A LOT EASIER

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TO FIND USING MATH,
SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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STAY TUNED AND HELP OUR TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES LEARN MORE

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ABOUT THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION
IN THE NEXT EXCITING EPISODE

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OF THE NASA SCI FILES: THE
CASE OF THE RADICAL RIDE.

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COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHAT INVENTION LED TO
MAN-MADE TRANSPORTATION?

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WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS?

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THE CHANNEL TUNNEL WAS A
SOLUTION TO WHAT PROBLEM?

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WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON,
THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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YOU GUYS EXCITED?

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YOU BET.

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LET'S GO.

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OKAY, 45 MILES TO THE AUDITORIUM.

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DR. D IS TRAVELING AT
ABOUT 55 MILES AN HOUR.

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RELATIVELY LIGHT CARGO.

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WE SHOULD ARRIVE AT
THE AWARDS CEREMONY

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WITH FIVE MINUTES TO SPARE.

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JUST ENOUGH TIME FOR YOU TO
WORK ON YOUR ACCEPTANCE SPEECH.

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I WOULD LIKE TO THANK
MY MOM AND DAD.

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NOT SO FAST.

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YOU ARE BEING AWARDED AS A GROUP.

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GOOD POINT.

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JUST TRY AND KEEP IT OVER
50, DR. D. I DON'T WANT

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TO BE LATE, EVEN IF WE DON'T WIN.

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OF COURSE, DRIVE SAFELY.

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ARE YOU SURE YOUR
CALCULATIONS ARE CORRECT?

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WE MIGHT BE CUTTING
IT A LITTLE CLOSE.

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WHY?

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IS THE WIND BLOWING?

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DR. D, ARE YOU DRIVING
AGAINST THE WIND?

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DON'T WORRY.

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I THINK WE'LL BE ALL RIGHT AS
LONG AS WE DON'T HIT TRAFFIC.

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I KNOW YOU WANTED
TO GET HERE EARLY,

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BUT HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE?

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MY MOM DROPPED ME
OFF 20 MINUTES AGO.

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WE MADE REALLY GOOD TIME.

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IN THAT CASE, WE SHOULD
RECONSIDER THE MINIVAN

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AS THE ULTIMATE FORM
OF TRANSPORTATION.

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VERY FUNNY.

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OUR MINIVAN IS NICE,
BUT I WOULDN'T GO SO FAR

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AS TO SAY IT'S THE ULTIMATE
FORM OF TRANSPORTATION.

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AND EVEN IF IT IS ADVANCED,

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IT'S NOT EXACTLY FUTURISTIC
LIKE IN THE NEXT CENTURY.

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WHICH IS OUR ASSIGNMENT.

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SO WHAT DO WE DO?

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LET'S OPEN THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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GOOD IDEA.

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SO WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THAT TRANSPORTATION
CHANGES OVER TIME

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AND THAT IT INVOLVES MOVING
OVER AIR, SEA, AND LAND.

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SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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WE NEED TO KNOW HOW TRANSPORTATION
WILL CHANGE IN THE NEXT 100 YEARS.

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HOW DO WE FIGURE THAT OUT?

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HISTORY.

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HISTORY?

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DR. D TOLD US THAT HISTORY OFTEN
TELLS US HOW THINGS WILL WORK

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IN THE FUTURE.

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SO WHERE DO WE GO?

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WELL, FOR STARTERS, I THOUGHT
WE SHOULD RESEARCH THE HISTORY

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OF THE CAR.

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WHY DON'T YOU CHECK THE INTERNET?

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MAYBE WE CAN GO TO A CAR SHOW AND
SEE ONE OF THOSE COOL CONCEPT CARS.

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MY THOUGHTS EXACTLY.

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IN FACT, TONY'S VISITING
HIS FAMILY IN DETROIT.

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I'M SENDING HIM AN EMAIL RIGHT NOW.

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MAYBE HE CAN VISIT THE
WALTER P. CHRYSLER MUSEUM.

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DON'T FORGET THE CONCEPT CAR.

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RIGHT.

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I'M ALSO SENDING AN EMAIL

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TO THE OTHER TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES TO KEEP THEM UPDATED.

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AND GET THEIR IDEAS.

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SPEAKING OF THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES, WHERE ARE THEY?

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DR. D, IF WE DON'T START MOVING
SOON, WE'RE GOING TO HAVE

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TO AVERAGE ABOUT 90 MILES PER
HOUR TO GET THERE ON TIME.

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SORRY, KIDS.

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I DON'T KNOW WHAT THE PROBLEM IS.

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THE PROBLEM IS, WE
NEED A HELICOPTER.

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I'M NOT SURE THAT A HELICOPTER
WOULD HELP US AT THIS POINT.

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HEY, BIANCA JUST SENT US AN EMAIL.

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SHE AND KALI ARE WORKING ON
OUR TRANSPORTATION ASSIGNMENT.

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WHAT IS THE ASSIGNMENT?

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WE'RE DOING RESEARCH ON WHAT
TRANSPORTATION WILL LOOK LIKE 100

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YEARS FROM NOW.

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COOL.

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BIANCA SAID THAT TONY'S GOING

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TO VISIT THE WALTER P. CHRYSLER
MUSEUM NEAR DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

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MAY I USE THE COMPUTER REAL QUICK?

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IF TONY'S CHECKING OUT CARS, I HAVE
A FEW QUESTIONS FOR HIM TO ASK.

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SURE; REMIND HIM TO GET
HIS GET UP AND GO SHEET

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FROM THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

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THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

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YOU CAN ALWAYS FIND
GREAT INFORMATION

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AND RESOURCES AT THE SITE.

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HI, MR. DRESSEL.

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I'M TONY.

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THANKS FOR MEETING WITH ME.

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MY PLEASURE.

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HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

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WE'RE WORKING ON A SCHOOL
ASSIGNMENT RESEARCHING WHAT

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TRANSPORTATION WILL
BE LIKE IN 100 YEARS.

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WE THOUGHT THE BEST PLACE TO
START WOULD BE IN THE PAST.

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THAT'S A GREAT PLACE TO BEGIN.

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CAN YOU TELL ME WHEN AND
WHERE TRANSPORTATION BEGAN?

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WELL, THE FIRST FORM OF
TRANSPORTATION WAS BY FOOT

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OR MORE COMMONLY KNOWN AS WALKING.

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YEAH, I KNOW ALL ABOUT WALKING.

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AT SOME POINT, BOATS WERE USED,
AND ANIMALS WERE DOMESTICATED,

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BUT THE REAL TRANSPORTATION
BREAKTHROUGH HADN'T HAPPENED

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QUITE YET.

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BREAKTHROUGH?

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LIKE THE INVENTION OF
THE DRIVER'S LICENSE?

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NOT QUITE YET.

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ARCHAEOLOGISTS BELIEVE THAT THE
VERY FIRST STEP TOWARDS MAN-MADE

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TRANSPORTATION BEGAN IN EITHER
MESOPOTAMIA OR ASIA SOMETIME

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AROUND 4000 TO 3500 B.C. WITH
THE INVENTION OF THE WHEEL.

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WAS THE INVENTION OF THE
CAR NEXT IN THE TIME LINE?

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WELL, IT WAS REALLY THE
INVENTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE

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IN THE LATE 18TH CENTURY THAT MADE
MASS TRANSPORTATION THE STANDARD.

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THE EARLY TRAINS WERE SLOW, AND
THEY WERE OFTEN VERY DANGEROUS,

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BUT AS LOCOMOTIVES IMPROVED,
THEY REALLY BECAME IMPORTANT

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TO OUR STEADILY GROWING
AND VERY YOUNG COUNTRY,

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ESPECIALLY CONSIDERING WE DIDN'T
HAVE A VERY GOOD ROAD SYSTEM.

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I UNDERSTAND HOW TRAINS HELP
PEOPLE TRAVEL LONG DISTANCES,

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BUT HOW DID PEOPLE IN
THE CITY GET AROUND?

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WELL, THERE WAS WALKING, AND THEN
THERE WERE HORSECARS AND TROLLEYS

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AND FINALLY SUBWAYS, BUT THEN
IN THE 1880S AND THE 1890S,

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THEY DISCOVERED THE BICYCLE, WHICH
WAS GREAT, BECAUSE THEY COULD GO

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WHERE THEY WANTED TO
AND WHEN THEY WANTED TO.

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SO THEY HAD WHEELS, BUT
THEY DIDN'T HAVE WHEELS.

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RIGHT, THEY DIDN'T HAVE
WHEELS, AS IN CARS.

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WASN'T THE CAR INVENTED AROUND
THE TURN OF THE CENTURY?

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WELL, ACTUALLY, IN FRANCE, NICOLAS
JOSEPH CUGNOT INVENTED A CAR

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AS EARLY AS 1769, BUT SINCE
IT WAS POWERED BY STEAM,

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MOST PEOPLE DON'T CONSIDER
IT REALLY AN AUTOMOBILE.

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BUT IN THE 1880S, GOTTLIEB
DAIMLER AND KARL BENZ

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IN GERMANY INVENTED A LIGHT,
PRACTICAL AUTOMOBILE ENGINE

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THAT REALLY USHERED IN THE
ERA OF THE MODERN AUTOMOBILE.

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HOW HAS THE CAR CHANGED OVER TIME?

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WELL, THIS IS A 1902 RAMBLER.

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IT'S BASICALLY A POWERED BUGGY
BUILT USING THE SAME SORT

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OF TECHNOLOGY THEY
USE TO BUILD BICYCLES.

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AND THIS IS A 1915 DODGE.

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IT'S BASICALLY AN IMPROVED
VERSION OF THE MODEL T FORD.

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IT WAS A FRONT-ENGINE, REAR-DRIVE
OPEN TOURING CAR INTENDED

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FOR A RURAL MARKET.

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WHY DID THE STYLE OF CARS CHANGE?

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IN THE 1920S, PEOPLE'S
LIFESTYLES BEGAN TO CHANGE.

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WE WERE NO LONGER A
COUNTRY DEFINED AS RURAL,

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AND PEOPLE BEGAN DEMANDING
MORE COMFORTABLE CARS.

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TAKE A LOOK AT THIS 1929 NASH.

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IT SHOWS THE SHIFT
AWAY FROM OPEN CARS.

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THE CAR WAS NO LONGER JUST
A FAIR-WEATHER OPTION.

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IT WAS NOW A NECESSITY, AND
THEREFORE IT NEEDED TO BE ENCLOSED.

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WOW.

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THIS ONE LOOKS DIFFERENT.

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IT'S A 1934 CHRYSLER AIRFLOW.

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IT'S THE FIRST MASS-PRODUCED
AERODYNAMIC CAR DESIGN.

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BY 1934, ENGINEERS HAD DISCOVERED
JUST HOW MUCH DIFFERENCE AIR

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RESISTANCE MADE ON CAR PERFORMANCE.

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WE LEARNED ABOUT AIRFLOW IN THE
CASE OF THE CHALLENGING FLIGHT

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AND HOW IMPORTANT IT IS ON DRAG.

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AND AIRFLOWS REALLY
CHANGED THE WAY CARS LOOKED.

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TRANSPORTATION HAS SURE
CHANGED THROUGHOUT HISTORY.

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YES, AS TRANSPORTATION
IMPROVES, IT'S EASIER TO LIVE

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AND WORK FARTHER APART.

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IF YOU WALK TO WORK, YOU'RE
NOT LIKELY TO LIVE MORE

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THAN ABOUT A MILE AWAY FROM WHERE
YOU WORK, BUT IF YOU'VE GOT A CAR,

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YOU CAN DRIVE 30 OR
MORE MILES TO WORK.

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AND WITH THE INVENTION
OF THE AIRPLANE IN 1903

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BY THE WRIGHT BROTHERS, WE
CAN LIVE EVEN FARTHER AWAY

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AND TAKE VACATIONS
TO FARAWAY PLACES.

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THANKS, MR. DRESSEL.

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THIS HAS BEEN A LOT OF HELP.

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YOU'RE WELCOME.

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FEEL FREE TO ENJOY THE EXHIBITS.

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THERE'S A LOT MORE TO SEE.

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I WOULD NEVER SUGGEST BREAKING A
LAW, BUT IT LOOKS LIKE WE WILL HAVE

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TO AVERAGE ABOUT 227
MILES PER HOUR TO MAKE IT

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TO THE CEREMONY ON TIME.

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I THINK YOU NEED TO CHECK
YOUR NUMBERS, JACOB.

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WE SHOULD BE FINE.

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REMEMBER, WE HAVE MOVED.

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WELL, JACOB DOES HAVE A POINT.

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IF WE SIT IN TRAFFIC FOR VERY
LONG, THE CAR BECOMES USELESS.

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WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

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WELL, NO CAR CAN TRAVEL
SAFELY AT 227 MILES PER HOUR.

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RACE CARS CAN.

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BUT NOT ON THE HIGHWAY.

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GOOD POINT, CATHERINE.

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EVENTUALLY YOU WOULD
DISCOVER CERTAIN LIMITATIONS

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TO ANY TECHNOLOGY.

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LOOK AT ALL THE DIFFERENT
FORMS OF TRANSPORTATION

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THAT HAVE BEEN INVENTED
OVER THE YEARS--

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FOR EXAMPLE, HOT AIR BALLOONS,
HELICOPTERS, FLYING CARS,

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MY OWN PERSONAL HOVERCRAFT,
SKATEBOARDS, POGO STICKS.

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WAIT A MINUTE, DR. D. DID YOU
SAY YOUR OWN PERSONAL HOVERCRAFT?

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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WHERE DID YOU BUY A HOVERCRAFT?

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I DIDN'T BUY IT.

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I DESIGNED IT AND BUILT IT.

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WOW, DR. D. HOW DID
YOU BUILD A HOVERCRAFT?

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AND DID IT TAKE LONG TO BUILD?

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SLOW DOWN, KIDS.

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LET ME START BY HAVING YOU LOOK
AT THE DEVICE IN THE BACKSEAT.

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IT'S CALLED A MARBLE TWISTER.

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THIS DOESN'T LOOK
LIKE A HOVERCRAFT.

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YEAH, BUT IT'S PRETTY COOL.

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WHAT DOES IT DO?

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PUT A MARBLE IN THE TRACK AT THE
TOP AND TELL ME WHAT YOU SEE.

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IT'S GOING AROUND IN CIRCLES

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AND GRADUALLY GETTING
CLOSER TO THE BOTTOM.

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VERY GOOD.

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THE MARBLE TWISTER
ILLUSTRATES ITERATION.

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WHAT DID YOU SAY?

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ITERATION.

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IT'S PART OF THE ENGINEERING
DESIGN PROCESS.

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IT'S LIKE A CYCLE.

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WOW, WE'VE SEEN LOTS
OF CYCLES BEFORE,

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LIKE THE ROCK CYCLE
AND THE WATER CYCLE.

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IN THIS CYCLE, YOU DEVELOP
A PLAN FOR YOUR PROJECT,

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DESIGN AND BUILD A MODEL,
TEST AND EVALUATE THE MODEL,

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AND THEN BEGIN THE CYCLE AGAIN

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BY REDESIGNING THE MODEL
BASED UPON YOUR TEST RESULTS.

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I GET IT.

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THEN YOU TEST THE REDESIGNED
MODEL, EVALUATE THE RESULTS,

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AND REDESIGN THE MODEL AGAIN.

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THAT'S JUST LIKE THE MARBLES.

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EACH TIME YOU GO AROUND
THE CYCLE, YOU GET CLOSER

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TO A FINISHED PRODUCT, JUST LIKE
EACH TIME AROUND THE CIRCLE,

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THE MARBLES GET CLOSER
TO THE BOTTOM.

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HOW MANY TIMES DO YOU NEED
TO GO THROUGH THE CYCLE?

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THE PRODUCT IS NEVER
PERFECT; YOU HAVE TO DECIDE

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WHEN IT'S CLOSE ENOUGH.

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THIS ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS
SOUNDS AN AWFUL LOT LIKE THE

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SCIENTIFIC METHOD, EXCEPT
THE STEP ABOUT IDENTIFYING

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OR RECOGNIZING A PROBLEM
ISN'T INCLUDED.

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ACTUALLY, I JUST HADN'T
GOTTEN TO THE FIRST STEPS YET.

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IN THE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS,

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THE FIRST STEP IS CALLED
IDENTIFYING A NEED OR WANT.

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THEN YOU BRAINSTORM IDEAS LIKE
WE DID IN THE INVENTION PROCESS

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IN THE CASE OF THE
"WRIGHT" INVENTION.

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VERY GOOD.

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THE ENGINEERING DESIGN
PROCESS IS VERY SIMILAR

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TO THE INVENTION PROCESS.

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AFTER BRAINSTORMING,
THE NEXT STEP IS,

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SELECT A SOLUTION AND DO RESEARCH.

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AND THEN YOU DEVELOP A PLAN.

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THAT'S IT, AND THE CYCLE BEGINS.

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WHENEVER YOU ARE FACING
A DESIGN CHALLENGE,

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THE PROCESS WE HAVE JUST
DISCUSSED WILL BE VERY HELPFUL.

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I CAN'T IMAGINE A MORE DIFFICULT
CHALLENGE THAN THIS TRAFFIC JAM.

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TRUST ME, JACOB, THERE HAVE
BEEN BIGGER CHALLENGES.

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I REMEMBER READING ABOUT
THE CHANNEL TUNNEL.

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THEY HAD ALL KINDS OF CHALLENGES
TO OVERCOME TO MAKE IT WORK.

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EXACTLY.

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WHAT IS THE CHANNEL TUNNEL?

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THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH WORKED
TOGETHER TO BUILD A TUNNEL

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UNDER THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.

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IT IS A MAJOR ACHIEVEMENT IN
DESIGN FOR TRANSPORTATION.

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COOL.

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WHY DON'T YOU CHECK THE INTERNET
FOR-- I'M WAY AHEAD OF YOU.

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WORKING, WORKING.

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OKAY, HERE WE GO.

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ROSIE AND WENDY, SCI FILES KIDS'
CLUB MEMBERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM,

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HAVE DONE THEIR OWN INVESTIGATION
ON THE CHANNEL TUNNEL.

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AWESOME.

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THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
HAVE OFFICIALLY GONE GLOBAL.

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WOW, THIS IS INCREDIBLE.

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WE'RE ACTUALLY AT THE OFFICIAL
NERVE CENTER OF THE CHANNEL TUNNEL.

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HELLO, WE'RE LOOKING
FOR MR. STORER.

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THAT WOULD BE ME.

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HI, YOU MUST BE ROSIE AND WENDY.

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I RECEIVED YOUR EMAIL.

[00:12:11.269]
HOW MAY I HELP YOU?

[00:12:12.499]
WE'RE INVESTIGATING TRANSPORTATION.

[00:12:14.449]
AND IN OUR RESEARCH,
WE LEARNT THAT ADVANCES

[00:12:16.349]
IN TRANSPORTATION USUALLY
RESULT OF HAVING A PROBLEM.

[00:12:18.889]
AND NEEDING A SOLUTION.

[00:12:20.269]
THE CHANNEL TUNNEL WAS DEFINITELY
A SOLUTION TO A VERY OLD PROBLEM.

[00:12:23.629]
13,000 YEARS AGO, BRITAIN WAS
CONNECTED TO MAINLAND EUROPE

[00:12:27.209]
BY A NATURAL ISTHMUS,
OR LAND BRIDGE.

[00:12:29.679]
THEN A CHANGE IN SEA LEVEL CAUSED

[00:12:31.189]
BY THE LAST ICE AGE
CREATED THE ENGLISH CHANNEL.

[00:12:34.579]
IT SEEMS WE HAVE HAD THE TECHNOLOGY
TO BUILD TUNNELS FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:12:37.879]
WHY WASN'T IT BUILT EARLIER?

[00:12:39.589]
TWO CENTURIES AGO, NAPOLEON AGREED
THAT A TUNNEL SHOULD BE BUILT,

[00:12:42.769]
BUT AFTER WAR BROKE OUT
BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND,

[00:12:44.979]
THE TUNNEL IDEA WAS ABANDONED.

[00:12:46.889]
EVEN THOUGH THERE WERE
SEVERAL PLANS FOR A TUNNEL,

[00:12:49.009]
THERE WERE STILL TECHNOLOGICAL
PROBLEMS TO OVERCOME.

[00:12:51.359]
WHAT KIND OF PROBLEMS?

[00:12:52.619]
PEOPLE DIDN'T KNOW MUCH ABOUT THE
GEOLOGY UNDER THE ENGLISH CHANNEL,

[00:12:55.699]
SO THEY WERE UNSURE WHETHER
THEY COULD BORE THROUGH IT.

[00:12:58.109]
THERE WAS ALSO A VENTILATION
PROBLEM.

[00:13:00.129]
HOW DID THEY OVERCOME THE PROBLEM?

[00:13:01.329]
IN THE 1870S, BOTH ENGLAND
AND FRANCE AGREED TO WORK

[00:13:05.019]
ON A JOINT TUNNEL SCHEME.

[00:13:06.569]
WITH GOVERNMENT APPROVAL,
THE TUNNEL COMPANIES STARTED

[00:13:09.009]
ON THE FIRST SERIOUS SCIENTIFIC
GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION TO FIND

[00:13:12.819]
OUT JUST WHAT KIND OF
ROCKS ARE UNDER THE SEABED.

[00:13:15.359]
WHAT DID THEY DISCOVER?

[00:13:16.499]
THEY FOUND A BED OF CHALK MARL,
WHICH WAS PERFECT FOR A TUNNEL.

[00:13:19.249]
IT WAS EASY TO DIG AND
IMPERVIOUS TO WATER.

[00:13:21.769]
IT COULD ALSO STAND UP
WITHOUT SUPPORTING WALLS

[00:13:23.989]
AND WAS THICK ENOUGH
TO HOLD A TUNNEL.

[00:13:25.499]
SO WHY DIDN'T THEY DIG THE TUNNEL?

[00:13:27.039]
THEY MADE SEVERAL ATTEMPTS.

[00:13:28.209]
IN 1880, TESTING WAS CARRIED OUT
WITH A TUNNEL BORING MACHINE.

[00:13:31.249]
THE FOLLOWING YEAR, ANOTHER ATTEMPT
WAS MADE BUT ABANDONED AGAIN.

[00:13:35.159]
[00:13:37.679]
AT LEAST THEY KEPT TRYING.

[00:13:38.899]
YES, FINALLY, IN THE
1980S, THE BRITISH

[00:13:41.069]
AND FRENCH GOVERNMENTS
COMMISSIONED MORE STUDIES

[00:13:43.239]
AND DECIDED THAT A TRADITIONAL
RAIL TUNNEL WOULD BE THE LEAST

[00:13:46.269]
RISKY AND THE BEST
VALUE FOR THE MONEY.

[00:13:48.009]
HOW LONG DID IT TAKE TO BUILD?

[00:13:49.329]
ABOUT SEVEN YEARS.

[00:13:50.739]
THE BUILDERS BORED THE TUNNELS
FROM 1987 TO 1991, AND FROM 1991

[00:13:56.219]
TO 1994, WORKERS FITTED OUT
THE TUNNELS AND TERMINAL.

[00:13:59.149]
WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE THE TUNNEL?

[00:14:00.839]
THAT'LL BE FANTASTIC.

[00:14:01.829]
THIS IS AMAZING.

[00:14:06.979]
WHY ARE THERE THREE TUNNELS?

[00:14:09.609]
ACTUALLY, THERE ARE THREE
INTERCONNECTED TUBES.

[00:14:12.319]
TWO ARE THE RAIL TRACKS
FOR GOING EACH WAY,

[00:14:14.679]
PLUS ONE SERVICE TUNNEL USED FOR
MAINTENANCE AND AS A SAFE HAVEN

[00:14:18.109]
IN CASE OF EMERGENCIES.

[00:14:19.539]
OF COURSE.

[00:14:20.229]
YOU WANT TO MAKE THE
TUNNEL SAFE AS POSSIBLE,

[00:14:22.229]
ESPECIALLY FOR SUCH A LONG TUNNEL.

[00:14:31.229]
[00:14:31.519]
HOW LONG IS THE TUNNEL?

[00:14:33.249]
IT'S ABOUT 50 KILOMETERS TOTAL,
WITH 37 KILOMETERS UNDERWATER.

[00:14:36.879]
ITS AVERAGE DEPTH IS ABOUT
40 METERS UNDER THE SEABED.

[00:14:39.969]
I IMAGINE IT TOOK A LOT OF PEOPLE
TO BUILD SOMETHING SO COMPLICATED.

[00:14:43.209]
YES, IT TOOK OVER 13,000 ENGINEERS,
TECHNICIANS, AND WORKERS TO BUILD

[00:14:46.969]
OVER 150 KILOMETERS OF TUNNELS.

[00:14:49.169]
THAT'S REMARKABLE.

[00:14:50.299]
CAN YOU DRIVE THROUGH THE TUNNEL,
OR DO YOU HAVE TO TAKE THE TRAIN?

[00:14:52.299]
YOU CAN DO BOTH, SORT OF.

[00:14:55.209]
TRAINS OPERATED BY EUROTUNNEL USE
THE TUNNEL TO CARRY CARS, COACHES,

[00:14:59.109]
MOTORCYCLES, CARAVANS, AND LORRIES.

[00:15:01.539]
YOU JUST DRIVE YOUR CAR
INTO THE TRAIN AND TRAVEL

[00:15:03.939]
WITH YOUR CAR THROUGH THE TUNNEL.

[00:15:05.899]
EWS CARRIES CONTAINERIZED FREIGHT,

[00:15:08.249]
AND THE EUROSTAR TRAINS
CARRY FOOT PASSENGERS.

[00:15:11.129]
IT SEEMS LIKE THE CHANNEL
TUNNEL HANDLES ALL KINDS

[00:15:13.779]
OF TRAVELERS AND TRANSPORTATION.

[00:15:15.569]
MOST DEFINITELY.

[00:15:16.189]
IN THE PAST YEAR, EUROTUNNEL
CARRIED OVER 2 1/4 MILLION CARS,

[00:15:20.959]
ABOUT 70,000 COACHES,
AND 1.6 MILLION LORRIES.

[00:15:25.389]
EUROSTAR CARRIED 6.3
MILLION PASSENGERS,

[00:15:27.999]
AND EWS CARRIED 1.7
MILLION TONS OF FREIGHT.

[00:15:31.459]
THAT'S A LOT OF PEOPLE AND FREIGHT.

[00:15:33.339]
CORRECT.

[00:15:33.829]
AND WITH THE OPENING OF THE TUNNEL,
PEOPLE CAN TRAVEL BETWEEN BRITAIN

[00:15:36.609]
AND MAINLAND EUROPE ANY
TIME OF THE DAY OR NIGHT

[00:15:39.219]
AND IN ANY KIND OF WEATHER.

[00:15:40.979]
IT'S NOW POSSIBLE TO HAVE BREAKFAST
IN LONDON, LUNCH IN PARIS,

[00:15:44.259]
AND DINNER IN BARCELONA, SPAIN.

[00:15:46.109]
IT CERTAINLY MAKES THE
WORLD SEEM SMALLER.

[00:15:47.909]
NOT AT THIS TIME, BUT
FRANK DAVIDSON HAS A VISION

[00:15:50.609]
OF A TRANSATLANTIC TUNNEL SOMEDAY.

[00:15:52.499]
A TUNNEL ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN?

[00:15:54.279]
THAT WOULD BE IMPOSSIBLE.

[00:15:55.979]
THAT MIGHT SEEM SO NOW,
BUT HUNDREDS OF YEARS AGO,

[00:15:58.229]
SO DID THE CHANNEL TUNNEL.

[00:15:59.239]
MR. DAVIDSON PROPOSES THAT A
FLOATING TUNNEL BE ANCHORED

[00:16:02.539]
TO THE SEA FLOOR AND A MAGLEV
TRAIN BE USED TRAVELING AT SPEEDS

[00:16:06.609]
UP TO 5,000 MILES AN HOUR.

[00:16:08.579]
YOU COULD LITERALLY LIVE IN
THE U.S. AND WORK IN EUROPE.

[00:16:11.899]
OR LIVE IN EUROPE AND WORK WITH
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES DURING

[00:16:14.639]
THE DAY.

[00:16:14.759]
THANKS, MR. STORER.

[00:16:16.339]
YOU HAVE BEEN MOST HELPFUL.

[00:16:17.699]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:16:18.989]
WHY DON'T WE GO AND FINISH
OUR RIDE THROUGH THE TUNNEL?

[00:16:23.549]
SURE, SOUNDS GREAT.

[00:16:24.899]
THAT'S ALL FOR OUR INVESTIGATION.

[00:16:26.389]
BE SURE AND VISIT THE
NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE

[00:16:28.759]
FOR MORE EXCITING ADVENTURES
AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY.

[00:16:32.159]
THAT WAS AMAZING.

[00:16:33.189]
TALK ABOUT SOLVING A MAJOR PROBLEM.

[00:16:34.999]
WE COULD USE A TUNNEL TO
GET TO THE AWARDS CEREMONY.

[00:16:37.449]
I JUST HOPE WE MAKE IT.

[00:16:38.689]
ME TOO.

[00:16:39.369]
WE'RE RUNNING OUT OF TIME.

[00:16:41.939]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:16:43.149]
WHAT'S CAUSING THE TRAFFIC JAM?

[00:16:44.909]
HOW WILL THE PAST HELP THE
DETECTIVES UNDERSTAND THE FUTURE?

[00:16:47.819]
DO YOU THINK DR. D'S
HOVERCRAFT WILL BE A SUCCESS?

[00:16:51.069]
STAY TUNED FOR THE
NEXT EXCITING CHAPTER

[00:16:52.899]
OF THE CASE OF THE RADICAL RIDE.

[00:16:55.179]
[00:00:03.459]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:07.069]
EXPLAIN WHY RESEARCH IS
SUCH AN IMPORTANT STEP

[00:00:09.499]
IN THE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS?

[00:00:12.029]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO BUILD
A MODEL OF YOUR DESIGN?

[00:00:15.429]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT
TO TEST YOUR MODEL?

[00:00:16.979]
I KNOW THAT WE'RE
GETTING A LOT DONE,

[00:00:21.069]
BUT WHY DID WE HAVE
TO BE HERE SO EARLY?

[00:00:24.779]
YOU'RE KIDDING, RIGHT?

[00:00:26.449]
NO, YOU'RE NEVER THIS
EARLY FOR SCHOOL.

[00:00:28.439]
I HOPE WE'LL FINALLY GET A
CHANCE TO MEET MR. GREGORY.

[00:00:31.469]
MR. GREGORY, THE DEPUTY
ADMINISTRATOR FOR NASA?

[00:00:35.149]
HE'S COMING HERE?

[00:00:36.339]
IT'S NOT EVERY DAY YOU GET
THE CHANCE TO WIN AN AWARD.

[00:00:38.989]
IT'S EVEN MORE RARE
TO MEET NASA VIPS.

[00:00:40.669]
I FEEL SO UNDERDRESSED.

[00:00:43.129]
YOU'RE FINE.

[00:00:43.579]
I HEAR HE'S PRETTY COOL.

[00:00:45.309]
WE SHOULD KEEP AN EYE OUT.

[00:00:46.539]
WHAT DOES HE LOOK LIKE?

[00:00:48.059]
I DON'T KNOW.

[00:00:48.409]
I'VE NEVER MET HIM.

[00:00:49.209]
BUT I HEARD HE'S SUPPOSED
TO BE PRESENTING TODAY.

[00:00:51.759]
I'M JUST GLAD WE GOT HERE EARLY.

[00:00:54.359]
AND ON THE TOPIC OF
PRESENTING, I JUST FINISHED GOING

[00:00:56.809]
OVER TONY'S GET UP AND GO SHEET.

[00:00:58.889]
AND?

[00:00:59.549]
TONY HIT A RESEARCH GOLD MINE.

[00:01:01.929]
NOT ONLY DID HE GO TO THE
MUSEUM, BUT HIS AUNT SET HIM

[00:01:04.489]
UP WITH AN EXPERT
AT GENERAL MOTORS.

[00:01:06.519]
I'M SENDING HIM QUESTIONS NOW.

[00:01:08.119]
COOL.

[00:01:09.249]
GUESS THE EARLY BIRD
DOES GET THE WORM.

[00:01:11.259]
VERY FUNNY.

[00:01:13.239]
[00:01:15.289]
THANK YOU FOR MEETING ME.

[00:01:18.589]
OH, NOT A PROBLEM.

[00:01:19.699]
YOUR AUNT WAS TELLING ME
ABOUT YOUR ASSIGNMENT.

[00:01:21.549]
SHE SAID YOU'RE DOING RESEARCH
INTO FUTURE TRANSPORTATION.

[00:01:24.479]
RIGHT, WE'RE RESEARCHING WHAT
TRANSPORTATION WILL LOOK LIKE

[00:01:26.619]
IN 100 YEARS.

[00:01:27.809]
WELL, I CAN'T PREDICT THE FUTURE,

[00:01:29.269]
BUT I CAN TELL YOU IT
SHOULD BE VERY EXCITING.

[00:01:32.609]
[00:01:34.339]
WOW, THIS IS INCREDIBLE!

[00:01:37.439]
ARE YOU ACCEPTING
APPLICATIONS FOR TEST DRIVERS?

[00:01:40.049]
NOT EXACTLY, BUT YOU
CAN CHECK IT OUT.

[00:01:43.389]
WHAT KIND OF CAR IS THIS?

[00:01:45.139]
THIS IS GM'S AUTONOMY.

[00:01:46.459]
IT'S A CONCEPT CAR DESIGNED AROUND
FUEL CELL AND BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY.

[00:01:51.629]
FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY?

[00:01:53.499]
WHAT'S A FUEL CELL?

[00:01:54.859]
FUEL CELLS ARE LIKE BATTERIES,
EXCEPT AS LONG AS THEY'RE FED FUEL,

[00:01:58.439]
THEY KEEP PRODUCING ENERGY.

[00:01:59.859]
THEY DON'T GO FLAT
OR NEED RECHARGING.

[00:02:02.539]
THIS PARTICULAR TYPE OF FUEL
CELL CONVERTS HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

[00:02:06.199]
INTO WATER AND PRODUCES ELECTRICITY

[00:02:08.909]
AND HEAT IN THE PROCESS.

[00:02:10.929]
[00:02:12.309]
SO THIS CAR USES HYDROGEN
FOR FUEL INSTEAD OF GASOLINE.

[00:02:15.799]
YES, IT DOES.

[00:02:16.979]
SO HOW DID YOU COME UP WITH
THE IDEA FOR THE AUTONOMY?

[00:02:19.739]
WELL, IDEAS FOR NEW VEHICLES
CAN COME FROM BREAKTHROUGHS

[00:02:22.279]
IN TECHNOLOGY, FROM FORMAL
PROCESSES LIKE CONSUMER RESEARCH,

[00:02:27.199]
OR FROM VERY INFORMAL PROCESSES
LIKE DISCUSSIONS IN THE OFFICE

[00:02:31.139]
OR EVEN IDEAS THAT POP INTO
YOUR HEAD WHILE YOU'RE DRIVING.

[00:02:34.339]
SOUNDS A LOT LIKE BRAINSTORMING.

[00:02:35.799]
IT IS.

[00:02:36.549]
WE BRAINSTORM ALL THE TIME.

[00:02:37.909]
WHEN WE HEAR CUSTOMERS TALK ABOUT
WHAT THEY LOVE ABOUT THEIR VEHICLE

[00:02:41.109]
OR WHAT THEY WISH IT
COULD DO DIFFERENTLY,

[00:02:43.629]
IT AUTOMATICALLY MAKES
US START THINKING

[00:02:45.339]
ABOUT SOLUTIONS AND NEW DESIGNS.

[00:02:47.979]
DR. D TOLD US ABOUT
THE DESIGN PROCESS.

[00:02:50.269]
IT SEEMS LIKE ONCE YOU
HAVE BRAINSTORMED SOLUTIONS

[00:02:52.139]
FOR THE PROBLEM, YOU HAVE
TO DO A LOT OF RESEARCH.

[00:02:54.979]
IT'S REALLY THE SCIENTIFIC
METHOD IN ACTION.

[00:02:57.579]
TO DEVELOP AN IDEA INTO A VEHICLE
IS REALLY JUST A LONG SERIES

[00:03:01.549]
OF SOLVING PROBLEMS.

[00:03:03.049]
BEFORE YOU CAN START
SOLVING THOSE PROBLEMS,

[00:03:04.889]
YOU HAVE TO MAKE SURE YOU
HAVE ALL THE DATA, KNOWLEDGE,

[00:03:07.259]
AND INFORMATION THAT YOU NEED.

[00:03:08.999]
FOR EXAMPLE, I NEED TO MAKE
SURE I'M NOT VIOLATING ANY

[00:03:11.879]
OF THE LAWS OF PHYSICS.

[00:03:13.139]
SO YOU HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT THINGS
LIKE GRAVITY AND FRICTION.

[00:03:15.819]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:03:16.789]
AND SOMETIMES IN THE AUTO
INDUSTRY, WE DO CONSUMER RESEARCH

[00:03:20.789]
TO MAKE SURE THAT WHAT WE'VE
DESIGNED IS REALLY WHAT

[00:03:22.969]
PEOPLE WANT.

[00:03:23.969]
ONE WAY TO DO THAT IS
TO BUILD A CONCEPT CAR.

[00:03:26.769]
SO THIS IS A CONCEPT CAR?

[00:03:29.009]
RIGHT; A CONCEPT CAR IS
A ONE-OF-A-KIND VEHICLE

[00:03:31.539]
THAT HELPS ENGINEERS AND
DESIGNERS STUDY AND LEARN.

[00:03:34.799]
WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED
FROM THIS CONCEPT CAR?

[00:03:36.369]
A LOT.

[00:03:37.499]
WE LEARNED THAT WHEN YOU USE
FUEL CELLS AND BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY

[00:03:41.109]
TO DRIVE A VEHICLE, YOU NO LONGER
NEED AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE,

[00:03:44.799]
AN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION,
A GAS TANK,

[00:03:47.549]
OR ANY OF THE MECHANICAL LINKAGES
THAT WE HAVE IN CARS TODAY.

[00:03:51.249]
THOSE ARE REALLY BIG PARTS
THAT TAKE UP A LOT OF ROOM.

[00:03:54.439]
WITHOUT THEM, THE CAR DOESN'T
HAVE TO LOOK THE SAME ANYMORE,

[00:03:57.199]
AND YOU'RE FREE TO DESIGN IT
DIFFERENTLY INSIDE AND OUT.

[00:04:01.539]
DOES IT TAKE A LONG TIME TO
DEVELOP A CAR FROM AN IDEA

[00:04:04.009]
TO A REAL CAR THAT PEOPLE CAN BUY?

[00:04:05.959]
ONE OF GM'S CONCEPTS, THE PONTIAC
SOLSTICE, WENT FROM CONCEPT

[00:04:10.149]
TO PRODUCTION IN JUST ABOUT TWO
YEARS, AND THAT'S REALLY FAST.

[00:04:14.089]
BUT WITH A REALLY FUTURISTIC
VEHICLE LIKE THE AUTONOMY,

[00:04:16.909]
IT'S DIFFERENT.

[00:04:17.909]
WE'RE GOING TO LEARN SO MUCH MORE
BEFORE WE'RE READY TO PRODUCE IT,

[00:04:21.039]
SO THE FIRST FUEL CELL VEHICLES

[00:04:22.569]
THAT ARE SOLD PROBABLY
WON'T LOOK LIKE THIS.

[00:04:25.419]
IT REALLY DEPENDS ON TECHNOLOGY,
ON THE PURPOSE OF THE CONCEPT,

[00:04:29.069]
AND WHAT THE PUBLIC
THINKS ABOUT IT.

[00:04:31.099]
SO NOT ALL CONCEPT CARS ARE BUILT?

[00:04:33.029]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:04:33.639]
IT TAKES A LOT OF PEOPLE, TIME, AND
MONEY TO BUILD A CONCEPT VEHICLE,

[00:04:37.379]
SO WE TRY TO MAKE SURE
THAT WE BUILD THE ONES

[00:04:39.309]
THAT ARE THE BEST USE OF OUR
RESOURCES, THE ONES THAT ARE GOING

[00:04:42.559]
TO HELP US LEARN THE MOST ABOUT
TECHNOLOGY, ABOUT OUR CUSTOMERS,

[00:04:45.939]
AND ABOUT OUR OWN CAPABILITIES.

[00:04:47.469]
IT SOUNDS LIKE RESEARCH IS JUST
AS IMPORTANT IN THE DESIGN PROCESS

[00:04:50.319]
AS IT IS IN THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

[00:04:52.219]
THANK YOU.

[00:04:52.629]
YOU'VE BEEN VERY HELPFUL.

[00:04:53.589]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND DON'T HESITATE
TO CALL IF YOU NEED ANYTHING.

[00:04:56.809]
SO CAN I BORROW THE
KEYS TO THE AUTONOMY?

[00:04:58.889]
FOR RESEARCH.

[00:05:00.419]
DO YOU HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE?

[00:05:02.789]
I'LL HAVE TO GET BACK TO YOU ON
THAT ONE-- IN, LIKE, SIX MONTHS.

[00:05:06.489]
OKAY, TONY, TELL YOUR
AUNT I SAID HELLO.

[00:05:08.819]
I WILL.

[00:05:09.629]
BYE.

[00:05:10.829]
[00:05:15.869]
WOW, I WONDER IF TONY
DROVE ANY OF THOSE CARS.

[00:05:18.219]
I WONDER IF DR. D WILL EVER
GET TO DRIVE THIS VAN AGAIN.

[00:05:21.909]
HOW'S IT GOING, DR. D?

[00:05:23.279]
SLOW, BUT I STILL
THINK WE'LL MAKE IT.

[00:05:25.729]
I DON'T KNOW.

[00:05:26.869]
AWARDS CEREMONIES AREN'T LIKE
MOVIES, WHERE THERE'S A BUNCH

[00:05:28.989]
OF PREVIEWS AT THE BEGINNING.

[00:05:30.789]
BUT NO PRESSURE.

[00:05:32.139]
PRESSURE IS ACTUALLY A GOOD THING.

[00:05:33.969]
ARE YOU SERIOUS?

[00:05:35.299]
REMEMBER, SOME OF THE
BEST INVENTIONS HAVE COME

[00:05:37.349]
FROM THE PRESSURE OF
HAVING TO SOLVE A PROBLEM.

[00:05:39.539]
WE SHOULD DO PRETTY WELL
WITH THE ASSIGNMENT,

[00:05:41.569]
BECAUSE I'M DEFINITELY
FEELING THE HEAT.

[00:05:43.579]
WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:05:44.289]
DR. D, YOU NEVER TOLD US
ABOUT YOUR HOVERCRAFT.

[00:05:46.989]
OH, YES.

[00:05:48.249]
WELL, AFTER BRAINSTORMING
WITH THREE

[00:05:50.119]
OF THE SCI FILES KIDS' CLUB
MEMBERS IN MY LAB LAST WEEK,

[00:05:52.849]
WE DECIDED UPON A HOVERCRAFT.

[00:05:54.739]
DID SOME RESEARCH ON HOVERCRAFT
TO PREPARE FOR THE DESIGN PROCESS.

[00:05:58.539]
WHAT DID YOU FIND OUT?

[00:05:59.669]
I DISCOVERED THAT THE NAVY HAS
USED HOVERCRAFT TO TRANSPORT

[00:06:02.519]
UP TO 60 TONS OF CARGO
OVER BOTH LAND AND WATER.

[00:06:05.399]
WOW.

[00:06:06.449]
THERE ARE 2,000 POUNDS IN A TON.

[00:06:09.099]
THAT IS MORE THAN 120,000 POUNDS.

[00:06:12.939]
VERY GOOD.

[00:06:13.769]
THEY CAN GO UP TO SPEEDS OF 46
MILES PER HOUR WITH A FULL LOAD.

[00:06:17.459]
THIS REQUIRES ENGINES
WITH 16,000 HORSEPOWER.

[00:06:20.729]
THAT'S A LOT OF HORSES.

[00:06:22.589]
I ALSO DID SOME RESEARCH
ON AIR PRESSURE.

[00:06:24.629]
I NEEDED TO DISCOVER HOW
POWERFUL A BLOWER I WOULD NEED

[00:06:27.389]
FOR AN AIR SUPPLY AND HOW
BIG THE CRAFT WOULD HAVE

[00:06:29.719]
TO BE TO SUPPORT MY WEIGHT.

[00:06:30.819]
IT'S WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW.

[00:06:33.209]
PRECISELY.

[00:06:34.379]
I ALSO FOUND I NEEDED TO BUILD A
MODEL OF MY HOVERCRAFT AND TEST IT

[00:06:38.049]
TO FIND THE ANSWERS TO
ALL OF MY QUESTIONS.

[00:06:39.949]
I'M PROBABLY GOING TO
HAVE TO TEST AND RETEST

[00:06:42.979]
TO REFINE MY MODEL
BEFORE I ACTUALLY BUILD MY

[00:06:45.899]
PROTOTYPE HOVERCRAFT.

[00:06:47.939]
CAN WE HELP?

[00:06:48.919]
SURE.

[00:06:49.449]
LET'S TAKE A LOOK
AT MY FIRST MODEL.

[00:06:52.629]
BASED UPON MY RESEARCH, A CHOSE A
ROUND DESIGN COVERED IN PLASTIC.

[00:06:56.569]
MY RESEARCH INDICATED I NEEDED A
LEAF BLOWER TO PROVIDE ENOUGH AIR

[00:06:59.539]
FOR THE FULL-SIZE HOVERCRAFT, BUT
FOR THESE MODELS, I'M JUST GOING

[00:07:02.849]
TO USE THIS VACUUM CLEANER.

[00:07:04.299]
YOU HAVE HOLES IN THE PLASTIC, BUT
HOW DO YOU KNOW HOW MANY TO MAKE?

[00:07:07.489]
AND HOW BIG TO MAKE THEM?

[00:07:08.999]
THAT'S JUST THE PROBLEM
I'M WORKING ON RIGHT NOW.

[00:07:11.269]
I'M TESTING SEVERAL MODELS TO
FIND JUST THE RIGHT PATTERN

[00:07:13.839]
AND SIZE FOR THE HOLES.

[00:07:15.039]
I'M GOING TO TEST EACH MODEL TO
SEE HOW MUCH WEIGHT IT CAN LIFT.

[00:07:18.239]
LET'S TRY IT.

[00:07:20.269]
[00:07:32.319]
WHY DID YOU HAVE TO SOMETIMES
LIFT UP THE HOVERCRAFT?

[00:07:34.569]
WELL, SOMETIMES, WHEN THE
AIR IS FIRST TURNED ON

[00:07:36.649]
AND THE PLASTIC IS FLAT AGAINST
THE TABLE, THE AIR CAN'T GET

[00:07:39.389]
OUT OF THE HOLES TO
START THE LIFTING.

[00:07:41.389]
I HADN'T ANTICIPATED THIS PROBLEM.

[00:07:43.519]
I KNOW.

[00:07:44.399]
YOU COULD FASTEN SOMETHING
UNDERNEATH THE HOVERCRAFT

[00:07:46.819]
THAT WOULD GIVE IT A
LITTLE LIFT TO BEGIN WITH.

[00:07:49.019]
THEN YOU WOULDN'T
HAVE TO LIFT IT UP.

[00:07:51.059]
EXCELLENT IDEA.

[00:07:52.409]
OUR MODELING PROCESS IS
HELPING US TO UNCOVER

[00:07:54.609]
AND SOLVE PROBLEMS
WE DIDN'T ANTICIPATE.

[00:07:57.059]
ARE YOU ALSO GOING TO
USE DIFFERENT-SIZE DISKS?

[00:07:59.609]
I SURE AM.

[00:08:00.349]
IN FACT, THAT'S MY NEXT STEP.

[00:08:02.439]
IT SOUNDS LIKE BUILDING MODELS OF
THE HOVERCRAFT WAS REALLY HELPFUL.

[00:08:05.649]
IT REALLY WAS.

[00:08:06.779]
SPEAKING OF MODELS, NASA BUILDS
LOTS OF MODELS FOR THEIR DESIGNS.

[00:08:10.069]
WHY DON'T YOU VISIT THEIR
MODEL SHOP AND LEARN MORE

[00:08:11.779]
ABOUT THE MODELING PROCESS?

[00:08:13.389]
WELL, WE'RE KIND OF STUCK RIGHT
NOW, DR. D. I'LL EMAIL R.J.

[00:08:17.309]
AND ASK HIM TO VISIT
THE MODEL SHOP.

[00:08:19.079]
HE CAN GIVE US A REPORT.

[00:08:20.639]
GREAT IDEA.

[00:08:21.809]
I ALSO THINK WE SHOULD DO MORE
RESEARCH ON TRANSPORTATION.

[00:08:24.779]
OKAY.

[00:08:25.569]
EMAIL SENT.

[00:08:27.969]
NO RUSH.

[00:08:29.229]
WE HAVE TIME.

[00:08:30.319]
OH, COOL, DR. TEXTBOOK HAS
A HISTORY OF TRANSPORTATION.

[00:08:34.449]
I HAVE TO SEE THIS.

[00:08:35.889]
OH, WHOA, HO-HO-HO!

[00:08:41.219]
HELLO.

[00:08:41.629]
DR. TEXTBOOK HERE.

[00:08:44.019]
HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED
HOW BIRDS FLY?

[00:08:47.259]
WHOO!

[00:08:48.679]
WELL, THAT'S EXACTLY THE
QUESTION THAT ORVILLE

[00:08:51.679]
AND WILBUR WRIGHT PONDERED
WHEN THEY WERE TRYING

[00:08:53.909]
TO DISCOVER CONTROLLED FLIGHT,
AND IT LED THEM TO THIS!

[00:09:00.039]
AN INNER TUBE BOX?

[00:09:01.649]
HA!

[00:09:02.259]
WELL, YOU MAY SAY, "DR.
TEXTBOOK, ARE YOU MAD?

[00:09:05.499]
"WHAT HAS AN INNER TUBE BOX
GOT TO DO WITH THE STORY

[00:09:08.319]
OF CONTROLLED FLIGHT?"

[00:09:09.729]
WELL, THE STORY IS THIS.

[00:09:11.949]
ONE DAY IN THEIR BICYCLE SHOP,
THE WRIGHT BROTHERS ARE TALKING

[00:09:15.239]
TO SOME CLIENTS, AND THEY'RE
PLAYING WITH AN INNER TUBE BOX

[00:09:18.259]
AND TWISTING IT BACK AND FORTH.

[00:09:21.969]
AND ONE DAY, THEY
SUDDENLY REALIZE, "EUREKA!

[00:09:24.829]
THIS IS IT!

[00:09:26.109]
"THIS IS THE ANSWER TO OUR QUEST!

[00:09:28.119]
CONTROLLED FLIGHT!"

[00:09:29.789]
GET IT?

[00:09:30.569]
HA-HA.

[00:09:31.139]
WELL, IN 1903, IT WAS A VERY
BIG YEAR, BECAUSE IN THAT YEAR,

[00:09:35.869]
THE AUTOMOBILE MADE ITS
FIRST CROSS-COUNTRY TRIP

[00:09:38.659]
FROM SAN FRANCISCO
TO NEW YORK CITY,

[00:09:41.349]
AND THE WRIGHT BROTHERS MADE
THEIR HISTORIC FIRST FLIGHT.

[00:09:45.769]
YOU SEE, TECHNOLOGY NOW HAS
SURPASSED THE EXPECTATIONS

[00:09:49.459]
THAT THE WRIGHT BROTHERS
HAD FOR THEIR AEROPLANE.

[00:09:53.839]
OF COURSE, WE'VE ALL HEARD
ABOUT NASA'S HYPER-X PLANE.

[00:10:01.299]
WITH ITS NEW TECHNOLOGY, WE'LL
ALL BE ABLE TO FLY MUCH FASTER

[00:10:05.409]
AND MORE EFFICIENTLY THAN
THIS 1911 MODEL B AEROPLANE.

[00:10:09.999]
WITH THE NEXT 100 YEARS, INNOVATIVE
TECHNOLOGY WILL MAKE THE SKIES

[00:10:14.839]
THE LIMIT.

[00:10:16.639]
[00:10:18.499]
WHOO!

[00:10:21.379]
OH-HO-HO-HO!

[00:10:21.749]
OH-HO-HO-HO-HO!

[00:10:22.279]
JUST FOR FUN, LET'S SEE HOW THIS
1911 MODEL B AEROPLANE FARES

[00:10:31.279]
[00:10:35.719]
IN THE SKIES WITH MY
HYPERREALISTIC SIMULATION

[00:10:39.299]
OF PLANES FROM THE FUTURE!

[00:10:40.969]
WHOA!

[00:10:41.049]
AAAAAAAH!

[00:10:42.639]
[00:10:52.519]
NOT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:10:55.529]
I'M HERE AT THE NASA LANGLEY
RESEARCH CENTER'S MODEL SHOP

[00:11:02.429]
TO LOOK INTO THE DESIGN
PROCESS INVOLVING MODELS.

[00:11:06.659]
HELLO, R.J. I READ YOUR FRIEND'S
EMAIL, SO I UNDERSTAND YOU WANT

[00:11:10.179]
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT MAKING A MODEL.

[00:11:12.039]
YES.

[00:11:13.039]
NOW, WE'RE DOING AN
ASSIGNMENT ON TRANSPORTATION

[00:11:14.999]
AND WHAT IT WOULD LOOK
LIKE IN 100 YEARS.

[00:11:17.329]
NOW, I UNDERSTAND THAT IN THE
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS,

[00:11:20.259]
THAT MAKING A MODEL
IS VERY IMPORTANT,

[00:11:21.719]
BUT I'M NOT EXACTLY SURE WHY.

[00:11:24.009]
OKAY.

[00:11:24.869]
SAY IF YOU WANTED TO TEST YOUR OWN
DESIGN, WOULD IT BE A GOOD IDEA

[00:11:27.929]
TO JUST GO AND BUILD IT?

[00:11:29.859]
PROBABLY NOT, BECAUSE
IT WOULD COST TOO MUCH,

[00:11:31.919]
AND YOU DON'T EVEN
KNOW IF IT'LL WORK.

[00:11:33.879]
EXACTLY.

[00:11:34.989]
WHAT IF YOUR PLANE OR CAR
DOESN'T WORK PROPERLY?

[00:11:37.619]
THEN YOU WILL ALSO RISK
LOSING A HUMAN LIFE DURING THE

[00:11:40.789]
TESTING PHASE.

[00:11:42.309]
WOW, I DIDN'T THINK OF THAT.

[00:11:44.699]
BUT WHY ARE THE MODELS SO SMALL?

[00:11:46.729]
WHEN WE BUILD MODEL AIRPLANES,

[00:11:48.499]
THE ENGINEER DETERMINES
WHAT SCALE IS NEEDED.

[00:11:50.699]
WHAT IS SCALE?

[00:11:51.979]
SCALE IS THE RATIO OR MEASURE
BETWEEN THE SIZE OF THE MODEL

[00:11:54.769]
AND THE FULL-SIZE VERSION.

[00:11:56.429]
FOR AN EXAMPLE, TAKE A
LOOK AT THIS F-18 MODEL.

[00:11:59.939]
THE SCALE IS 5%, WHICH
SIMPLY MEANS IT'S 1/20

[00:12:03.219]
OF THE FULL-SIZE AIRPLANE.

[00:12:04.599]
SO IF AN AIRPLANE IS 10 METERS
LONG AND I WANT TO BUILD A MODEL

[00:12:07.559]
ABOUT 1/10 ITS SIZE, THEN THE
MODEL WOULD BE ABOUT 1 METER

[00:12:11.659]
FOR A SCALE OF 1 TO 10.

[00:12:13.059]
VERY GOOD.

[00:12:14.189]
WHAT SCALE IS NORMALLY
USED WHEN BUILDING MODELS?

[00:12:16.539]
WELL, ONE RULE OF THUMB TO FOLLOW
IS THAT THE SMALLER THE SCALE,

[00:12:20.039]
THE LESS EXPENSIVE IT IS TO BUILD,
AND THE EASIER IT IS TO MODIFY.

[00:12:23.819]
HOWEVER, THE SIZE VARIES
DEPENDING ON THE DESIGN

[00:12:26.419]
AND HOW THE MODEL IS TESTED
IN THE VARIOUS WIND TUNNELS.

[00:12:29.239]
AREN'T ALL WIND TUNNELS THE SAME?

[00:12:31.069]
WE HAVE 38 WIND TUNNELS,
AND THEY VARY IN SIZE,

[00:12:34.829]
AND THEY TEST DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS.

[00:12:36.979]
SOME TUNNELS ARE LARGE ENOUGH
TO TEST A SMALL AIRPLANE,

[00:12:40.089]
WHILE OTHERS ARE ONLY A
FEW CENTIMETERS IN SIZE.

[00:12:42.769]
WHY DOES NASA BUILD
AIRPLANE MODELS?

[00:12:45.079]
HERE AT NASA LANGLEY, WE CONDUCT
RESEARCH ON MODEL AIRPLANES

[00:12:48.359]
IN ORDER TO MAKE THEM SAFER,
QUIETER, ENERGY EFFICIENT,

[00:12:51.809]
AND MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY.

[00:12:54.249]
WE ALSO WANT TO FIND WAYS
TO MAKE THEM LESS EXPENSIVE

[00:12:56.649]
TO BUILD AND MAINTAIN.

[00:12:58.549]
USING MODELS MAKE THIS
RESEARCH EASIER AND LESS COSTLY.

[00:13:02.829]
WOW, THAT MODEL OVER
THERE LOOKS REALLY COOL.

[00:13:05.939]
IT'S CALLED A BLENDED
WING BODY, BWB FOR SHORT.

[00:13:08.949]
IT'S A FUTURISTIC AIRPLANE
WITH A UNIQUE SHAPE

[00:13:11.269]
THAT WOULD CAUSE THE ENTIRE PLANE
TO GENERATE LIFT AND MINIMIZE DRAG.

[00:13:15.109]
WE LEARNED ABOUT LIFT AND DRAG IN
THE CASE OF THE CHALLENGING FLIGHT.

[00:13:18.309]
THEY'RE TWO OF THE
FOUR FORCES OF FLIGHT.

[00:13:19.669]
IF YOU WANT TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT FLIGHT,

[00:13:22.069]
CHECK OUT THE NASA
SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:13:24.269]
VERY GOOD.

[00:13:25.109]
AND THE DESIGN OF THIS
AIRPLANE IS MORE EFFICIENT

[00:13:27.509]
AND WILL CONSUME 20%
LESS FUEL WHILE CRUISING

[00:13:30.569]
AT HIGH SUBSONIC SPEEDS.

[00:13:32.329]
WOW.

[00:13:33.669]
IT LOOKS LIKE THE WINGSPAN ON
THIS IS ABOUT 88 CENTIMETERS,

[00:13:37.389]
OR .88 METERS, ON A
SCALE OF 1 TO 100,

[00:13:40.739]
SO THE FULL-SIZE VERSION IS
GONNA BE 88 METERS ACROSS.

[00:13:44.959]
THAT'S ONE HUGE PLANE.

[00:13:46.659]
IT WOULD BE SLIGHTLY LESS THAN
THE LENGTH OF A FOOTBALL FIELD.

[00:13:49.739]
IT'S BEING DEVELOPED TO
CARRY 800 PASSENGERS,

[00:13:52.349]
BUT RECENT STUDIES HAVE
FOCUSED ON VEHICLES

[00:13:54.799]
IN THE 450-PASSENGER CLASS.

[00:13:56.889]
THIS MODEL HERE IS EXPECTED
TO FLY IN THE YEAR 2020.

[00:14:00.659]
2020?

[00:14:02.889]
LET ME SEE.

[00:14:03.349]
I'LL BE ABOUT 29 YEARS OLD.

[00:14:06.439]
AND I'LL BE-- NEVER MIND.

[00:14:09.729]
THANKS, MR. JAMES.

[00:14:11.019]
I NEVER KNEW MODELS
WOULD BE SO USEFUL.

[00:14:13.209]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND I WISH YOU
GOOD LUCK ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT.

[00:14:15.519]
ALL RIGHT, BYE.

[00:14:16.399]
BYE-BYE.

[00:14:17.919]
IF THOSE GUYS DON'T GET HERE
SOON, THEY WON'T GET A CHANCE

[00:14:20.459]
TO ENJOY THE CEREMONY
OR MEET MR. GREGORY.

[00:14:23.359]
ACCORDING TO THE TRAFFIC
WEB CAMS ON THE INTERNET,

[00:14:26.259]
THE TRAFFIC SITUATION IS NOT GOOD.

[00:14:27.869]
AT LEAST WE'RE GETTING GOOD
FEEDBACK FROM R.J. AND MR. JAMES.

[00:14:31.629]
I NEVER KNEW MODEL
MAKING WAS SO IMPORTANT.

[00:14:34.089]
WHAT'S NEXT?

[00:14:35.059]
TIME FOR THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:14:36.579]
SO WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:14:38.309]
WE KNOW THAT CHANGES IN
TRANSPORTATION ARE RESULTS

[00:14:40.699]
OF NEW INNOVATIONS AND INVENTIONS.

[00:14:42.969]
AND WE KNOW THAT INVENTIONS AND
INNOVATIONS RELY ON RESEARCH,

[00:14:46.789]
DESIGNING, MODEL BUILDING,
AND TESTING.

[00:14:49.419]
ALL PART OF THE ENGINEERING METHOD.

[00:14:51.499]
RIGHT, BUT WE REALLY HAVEN'T
RESEARCHED HOW YOU TEST YOUR

[00:14:54.099]
MODEL YET.

[00:14:55.039]
MAYBE THE NASA SCI FILES
KIDS' CLUB COULD HELP.

[00:14:57.919]
DO A SEARCH.

[00:14:58.679]
WILL DO.

[00:15:00.199]
AND, YES, IT LOOKS LIKE
COOPER ELEMENTARY HERE

[00:15:03.039]
IN HAMPTON IS WORKING WITH KINGS
CROSS EDUCATION ACTION ZONE

[00:15:07.079]
IN LONDON ON A DESIGN PROJECT.

[00:15:09.759]
LONDON, TEXAS, RIGHT?

[00:15:11.489]
NO, LONDON, ENGLAND.

[00:15:13.369]
BOTH SCHOOLS DESIGNED AND BUILT
THEIR OWN CARS OUT OF MOUSETRAPS,

[00:15:16.819]
AND NOW THEY'RE READY TO
DISCUSS THE TEST DATA.

[00:15:19.339]
HI, I'M BIANCA BAKER.

[00:15:20.729]
AND I'M KALI.

[00:15:22.349]
HELLO, GOOD MORNING.

[00:15:23.099]
I'M JARED, A FIFTH GRADER HERE AT
KINGS CROSS EDUCATION ACTION ZONE.

[00:15:28.129]
HOW'S THE VIDEOCONFERENCE GOING?

[00:15:31.029]
HI, BIANCA AND KALI.

[00:15:32.339]
I'M KIRSTY.

[00:15:33.129]
THE VIDEOCONFERENCE
IS VERY INTERESTING.

[00:15:36.149]
THIS IS OUR SECOND DESIGN
MEETING, AND MR. LOGAN

[00:15:39.509]
FROM NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER
IS HELPING US WITH THE CHALLENGE.

[00:15:43.459]
RIGHT NOW, WE ARE
REVIEWING OUR TEST RESULTS.

[00:15:46.049]
WHY DON'T YOU TWO JOIN US?

[00:15:48.399]
LOOKING AT THE TEST DATA, IT
LOOKS LIKE WE'VE MADE SOME

[00:15:50.659]
GREAT IMPROVEMENTS.

[00:15:51.859]
DOES ANYBODY HAVE ANY PROBLEMS
THAT I CAN HELP YOU WITH?

[00:15:54.769]
MR. LOGAN, THIS IS KIRSTY.

[00:15:57.239]
THE WHEELS ON OUR CAR
JUST SEEM TO SPIN,

[00:15:59.369]
AND THE CAR DOESN'T GO VERY FAR.

[00:16:01.699]
THIS IS WHERE THE REDESIGN PROCESS
CAN REALLY HELP IMPROVE YOUR MODEL.

[00:16:04.999]
THINK ABOUT REDESIGNING YOUR CAR

[00:16:06.299]
SO THAT THE WHEELS
GET BETTER TRACTION.

[00:16:08.099]
YOU MIGHT TRY TESTING DIFFERENT
MATERIALS FOR YOUR WHEELS.

[00:16:10.899]
YOU HAVE TO BALANCE THE
AMOUNT OF FRICTION YOU GET

[00:16:13.209]
WITH THE WEIGHT YOU
ADD TO YOUR CAR.

[00:16:15.159]
SOUNDS LIKE IT'S TIME FOR REDESIGN.

[00:16:17.739]
EXACTLY.

[00:16:18.689]
LET ME KNOW WHAT YOU COME UP WITH.

[00:16:20.179]
UNTIL NEXT WEEK, BE
SURE TO KEEP TRACK

[00:16:22.009]
OF ALL YOUR DATA AND
YOUR TRIAL NOTES.

[00:16:24.339]
WHAT IF WE ADDED BALLOONS
TO THE WHEELS?

[00:16:26.239]
WOULD IT ADD TOO MUCH WEIGHT?

[00:16:27.619]
I DON'T THINK SO.

[00:16:28.699]
ACTUALLY, I THINK RUBBER
BANDS MIGHT JUST WORK.

[00:16:32.039]
SOUNDS LIKE A COOL PROJECT.

[00:16:33.589]
BUT WHAT EXACTLY IS
A MOUSETRAP CAR?

[00:16:36.119]
IT IS A CHALLENGE TO BUILD
A CAR USING A MOUSETRAP

[00:16:39.519]
AS THE ONLY FORM OF PROPULSION.

[00:16:42.499]
OUR DESIGNS ARE BEING JUDGED ON
THE DISTANCE THE CAR TRAVELS.

[00:16:46.089]
HOW DID YOU BEGIN?

[00:16:47.529]
WE BEGAN BY FOLLOWING
THE DESIGN PROCESS.

[00:16:50.309]
OUR TEACHERS GAVE US A
MOUSETRAP CAR KIT LIKE THIS ONE

[00:16:53.859]
AND SOME OTHER MATERIALS
TO WORK WITH.

[00:16:56.009]
WE LOOKED OVER MATERIALS
AND BRAINSTORMED IDEAS.

[00:16:59.049]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:17:00.409]
WE DECIDED WE NEEDED TO DO
SOME RESEARCH ON ENERGY, WORK,

[00:17:04.229]
FORCE, AND SIMPLE MACHINES.

[00:17:06.249]
ONCE WE FELT THAT OUR
DESIGN WAS GOING TO WORK,

[00:17:09.059]
WE STARTED BUILDING THE MODEL.

[00:17:10.939]
BUT WE HAD A PROBLEM WHEN
OUR AXLES WOULDN'T TURN.

[00:17:13.839]
WE HAD TROUBLE WITH OUR AXLES TOO.

[00:17:16.519]
AFTER MORE RESEARCH, WE LEARNED
THAT THE AXLE NEEDED SANDING.

[00:17:21.769]
THIS HELPED REDUCE
THE AMOUNT OF FRICTION

[00:17:24.339]
SO THAT IT COULD SPIN MORE EASILY.

[00:17:26.889]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING NOW?

[00:17:28.359]
WE HAVE BEEN TESTING OUR CARS
TO SEE HOW FAR THEY WOULD GO.

[00:17:32.509]
THE FIRST TRIAL DIDN'T
GO VERY WELL.

[00:17:34.969]
THE CAR ONLY WENT 1 METER.

[00:17:36.919]
OUR SECOND AND THIRD
TRIALS WORKED MUCH BETTER.

[00:17:40.129]
WE DID HAVE A FEW TRIALS
THAT WENT OVER 2 METERS.

[00:17:43.039]
AFTER TEN TRIALS, WE
AVERAGED 1.4 METERS.

[00:17:47.149]
WE ARE HOPING THAT THE
RUBBER BANDS WILL HELP.

[00:17:50.159]
TESTING IS REALLY IMPORTANT
IN THE DESIGN PROCESS.

[00:17:53.279]
YES, IT IS.

[00:17:53.949]
BY CONDUCTING TESTS, WE CAN SEE
THE PROBLEM BEFORE RACE DAY.

[00:17:59.619]
OF COURSE, THE TRIALS THAT WERE

[00:18:01.999]
OVER 2 METERS WERE
DONE AT HOME ON CARPET.

[00:18:05.159]
THAT'S IT; THE CARPET
ADDED FRICTION.

[00:18:07.149]
IN THAT CASE, THE RUBBER BAND
SHOULD CREATE ENOUGH FRICTION

[00:18:11.069]
TO INCREASE THE DISTANCE.

[00:18:12.989]
PLEASE EXCUSE US, BUT WE HAVE
TO GET TO WORK RIGHT AWAY.

[00:18:16.709]
THANKS FOR ALL THE INFORMATION,
AND GOOD LUCK IN YOUR COMPETITION.

[00:18:19.959]
BE SURE TO POST YOUR RESULTS ON
THE SCI FILES KIDS' CLUB WEBSITE.

[00:18:23.139]
WE WANT TO KNOW HOW IT TURNS OUT.

[00:18:24.569]
WE WILL.

[00:18:25.179]
BYE FROM LONDON.

[00:18:26.989]
BYE.

[00:18:27.429]
BYE, AND GOOD LUCK
ON THE CHALLENGE.

[00:18:31.479]
OKAY, SO THEY RESEARCHED
THEIR DESIGN,

[00:18:34.069]
BUILT MODELS, TESTED THE CARS.

[00:18:36.639]
WHAT'S NEXT?

[00:18:37.749]
DR. D SAID THE NEXT STEP,
AFTER TESTING AND EVALUATION,

[00:18:40.959]
IS REDESIGN, IF NECESSARY.

[00:18:42.489]
WHICH IS EXACTLY WHAT
THE STUDENTS ARE DOING.

[00:18:45.429]
I THINK WE NEED TO DO MORE
RESEARCH ON THE REDESIGN PROCESS.

[00:18:47.949]
AND KEEP LOOKING FOR MR. GREGORY.

[00:18:51.139]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:18:52.409]
WILL THE NEW CONCEPT CAR BE THE
ANSWER TO THE DETECTIVES' PROBLEMS?

[00:18:56.079]
WHY CAN'T THE DETECTIVES USE
DR. D'S HOVERCRAFT TO GET

[00:18:58.619]
OUT OF THE TRAFFIC JAM?

[00:19:00.079]
WHERE SHOULD THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES GO NEXT?

[00:19:02.589]
STAY TUNED FOR MORE OF THE
CASE OF THE RADICAL RIDE.

[00:19:05.819]
[00:00:06.358]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK
FOR THE ANSWERS

[00:00:07.778]
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
WHAT IS HYPER-X?

[00:00:12.628]
WHAT IS A FAULT TREE?

[00:00:14.518]
[00:00:17.668]
DR. D, BIANCA AND KALI ARE DOING
RESEARCH ON THE REDESIGN PROCESS.

[00:00:21.478]
DID YOU DO ANY REDESIGN
WORK ON YOUR HOVERCRAFT?

[00:00:23.498]
OF COURSE.

[00:00:24.618]
IT'S ACTUALLY A VERY
IMPORTANT PART OF THE DESIGN

[00:00:26.688]
AND INVENTION PROCESS.

[00:00:28.038]
I REMEMBER FROM THE CASE
OF THE "WRIGHT" INVENTION

[00:00:29.728]
THAT REDESIGN IS CALLED
THE ITERATIVE PROCESS.

[00:00:32.278]
I WISH YOUR HOVERCRAFT WAS FINISHED
WITH THE ITERATIVE PROCESS.

[00:00:35.008]
WE SURE COULD USE IT RIGHT NOW.

[00:00:36.838]
IT WOULDN'T WORK VERY
WELL IN THIS SITUATION;

[00:00:38.808]
IT'S ELECTRICALLY POWERED.

[00:00:40.208]
YOU WOULDN'T GET VERY FAR
WITH AN EXTENSION CORD.

[00:00:42.468]
IT'S ONE OF THE REDESIGNS
I'M WORKING ON.

[00:00:44.348]
SO HOW IS YOUR PROJECT
COMING ALONG?

[00:00:46.458]
AFTER TESTING OUR MODELS FOR SOME
TIME, WE CAME UP WITH A DESIGN

[00:00:49.658]
FOR A PROTOTYPE, OR
A FULL-SIZED MODEL.

[00:00:52.128]
OUR TESTING HELPED US FIND
THE PROPER SIZE AND PATTERN

[00:00:54.678]
FOR THE HOLES ON THE BOTTOM.

[00:00:56.058]
WHEN WE REDESIGNED THE MODELS, THEY
KEPT GETTING BETTER AND BETTER.

[00:00:59.038]
THAT'S ITERATION.

[00:00:59.718]
I HELPED TEST THE AIRFLOW
FROM THE LEAF BLOWER.

[00:01:02.348]
I THINK WE'LL HAVE
PLENTY OF AIR PRESSURE.

[00:01:04.428]
THIS PLASTIC LID ON THE
BOTTOM, WHICH WAS JARED'S IDEA,

[00:01:06.698]
HELPS US OVERCOME
THE STARTING PROBLEM.

[00:01:08.608]
NOW IT'S TIME TO TEST
THE PROTOTYPE.

[00:01:10.608]
DON'T FORGET YOUR CRASH HELMET,
DR. D. AND YOUR ELBOW PADS.

[00:01:14.078]
AND WHILE WE'RE TALKING
ABOUT SAFETY,

[00:01:15.828]
LET'S PUT ON SOME EAR PROTECTION.

[00:01:17.318]
THIS LEAF BLOWER'S PRETTY LOUD.

[00:01:19.708]
[00:01:36.028]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:01:36.578]
THE RESEARCH WAS RIGHT ON TARGET.

[00:01:38.158]
IT REALLY WORKS.

[00:01:39.378]
THIS LOOKS LIKE FUN.

[00:01:40.558]
CAN I TRY TOO?

[00:01:41.568]
SURE, GO RIGHT AHEAD.

[00:01:42.998]
IS IT TIME NOW TO TELL
OTHERS ABOUT OUR SUCCESS?

[00:01:51.998]
[00:02:01.228]
IT'S PART OF THE DESIGN
PROCESS, ISN'T IT?

[00:02:03.448]
YOU'RE RIGHT, BUT WHAT DO YOU
THINK IS THE BEST WAY TO DO THAT?

[00:02:05.918]
WAIT A MINUTE, DR.
D. IT SEEMS TO ME

[00:02:07.918]
THAT WE STILL HAVE A MAJOR
PROBLEM WITH THE SYSTEM.

[00:02:09.578]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:02:10.838]
WELL, SHOULDN'T THERE BE A WAY TO
MOVE AROUND WITHOUT BEING PUSHED?

[00:02:14.348]
I GUESS YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:02:15.648]
AHA!

[00:02:16.278]
IT'S TIME TO START THE
PROCESS ALL OVER AGAIN!

[00:02:18.878]
OH, I SEE.

[00:02:20.298]
WE'VE IDENTIFIED A NEED.

[00:02:21.798]
NOW IT'S TIME TO BRAINSTORM.

[00:02:23.158]
HOW ABOUT WE USE A ROCKET ENGINE?

[00:02:25.008]
I LIKE THE IDEA OF A FAN.

[00:02:26.798]
LIKE THE SWAMP BOATS IN FLORIDA.

[00:02:28.498]
HOW ABOUT TWO FANS
MOUNTED ON BRACKETS?

[00:02:30.698]
SHOULDN'T WE GET RID
OF THESE POWER CORDS?

[00:02:32.718]
LET'S JUST HANDLE ONE
PROBLEM AT A TIME.

[00:02:35.198]
OKAY, DR. D. I VOTE
FOR THE TWO FANS.

[00:02:37.338]
NO, I LIKE THE ROCKET ENGINE.

[00:02:39.238]
I WOULD REALLY-- WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:02:40.948]
IT'S TIME FOR ME TO PICK A
SOLUTION, DO SOME RESEARCH,

[00:02:43.868]
COME UP WITH A PLAN, AND
DESIGN AND BUILD ANOTHER MODEL.

[00:02:46.658]
THERE'S A LOT OF TESTING TO DO
BEFORE YOU FINALLY REACH YOUR GOAL.

[00:02:49.798]
THIS ITERATIVE PROCESS OF
DESIGN, TESTING, AND EVALUATION

[00:02:52.928]
AND REDESIGN IS PRETTY COOL.

[00:02:54.728]
YOU BET.

[00:02:56.258]
HEY!

[00:02:58.068]
I JUST GOT AN EMAIL FROM
R.J. ABOUT THE HYPER-X.

[00:03:00.798]
THAT SOUNDS REALLY HIGH-TECH.

[00:03:02.268]
I'M SURE IT IS.

[00:03:03.458]
MR. JAMES TOLD R.J. THAT
THE HYPER-X IS IN THE MIDDLE

[00:03:05.638]
OF THE REDESIGN PROCESS RIGHT NOW.

[00:03:07.808]
HE'S ON HIS WAY TO MEETING WITH
MR. ROBINSON TO CHECK IT OUT.

[00:03:10.398]
I'M IMPRESSED.

[00:03:11.188]
FOR BEING STUCK IN TRAFFIC,

[00:03:12.328]
YOU GUYS ARE GETTING
A LOT OF WORK DONE.

[00:03:14.318]
YES, WE'RE GOOD AT MULTITASKING.

[00:03:16.538]
NOW IF ONLY THERE WAS A LIVE
BROADCAST OF THE CEREMONY

[00:03:18.818]
OVER THE INTERNET, THEN
WE MIGHT NOT MISS IT.

[00:03:22.398]
NOW I'M GETTING NERVOUS, JACOB.

[00:03:23.998]
HOPEFULLY, WE'LL STILL MAKE IT.

[00:03:30.298]
MR. ROBINSON?

[00:03:31.888]
HI, R.J. WHAT CAN I
HELP YOU WITH TODAY?

[00:03:33.048]
WE'RE WORKING ON A
SCHOOL ASSIGNMENT

[00:03:35.078]
OF WHAT TRANSPORTATION WILL
LOOK LIKE IN 100 YEARS.

[00:03:37.978]
WOW, THAT'S A TOUGH ASSIGNMENT.

[00:03:39.568]
WE LEARNED ALL ABOUT IDENTIFYING
PROBLEMS, CREATING SOLUTIONS,

[00:03:42.808]
BUILDING MODELS, AND TESTING AND
EVALUATING DATA, WHICH IS ALL PART

[00:03:45.978]
OF THE ENGINEERING METHOD.

[00:03:47.428]
SOUNDS LIKE YOU HAVE A REALLY
GOOD HANDLE ON THE PROCESS.

[00:03:49.848]
THANKS, BUT WE NEED TO
LEARN MORE ABOUT WHAT YOU DO

[00:03:52.358]
WHEN THE TEST RESULTS DON'T
TURN OUT AS YOU EXPECTED.

[00:03:55.038]
I CAN CERTAINLY TELL
YOU ABOUT THAT.

[00:03:56.658]
WE'VE BEEN WORKING ON A PROGRAM FOR
ABOUT EIGHT YEARS CALLED HYPER-X.

[00:03:59.758]
ALTHOUGH IT'S BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL,
WE HAVE HAD TEST RESULTS

[00:04:02.238]
THAT WERE NOT ALWAYS FAVORABLE.

[00:04:03.718]
WHAT'S THE HYPER-X PROGRAM?

[00:04:05.388]
WELL, IT'S A SERIES OF SMALL
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AIRCRAFT.

[00:04:08.068]
EACH ONE'S ABOUT THE SIZE OF
A SMALL CAR, AND IT'S DESIGNED

[00:04:10.778]
TO TEST A NEW TYPE OF PROPULSION
SYSTEM CALLED A SCRAMJET.

[00:04:13.878]
HOW DOES IT WORK?

[00:04:15.048]
FOR A SCRAMJET TO WORK, THE ENGINE
AND THE VEHICLE IT'S ATTACHED

[00:04:17.658]
TO MUST ALREADY BE FLYING AT A
PRETTY FAST SPEED, AROUND MACH 3.

[00:04:21.018]
MACH 3?

[00:04:22.298]
THAT'S THREE TIMES FASTER
THAN THE SPEED OF SOUND.

[00:04:25.058]
WE LEARNED IN THE CASE OF THE
BARKING DOG THAT SOUND TRAVELS

[00:04:27.558]
AT 330 METERS PER SECOND.

[00:04:30.788]
TIMES THREE?

[00:04:32.248]
THAT'S 990 METERS PER SECOND.

[00:04:35.098]
NOW, THAT'S FAST.

[00:04:36.308]
YES, IT IS.

[00:04:37.238]
THE ENGINE USES THE
SPEED OF THE AIRCRAFT

[00:04:39.118]
AND ITS SPECIAL SHAPE
TO COMPRESS THE AIR.

[00:04:41.658]
ONCE THE AIR IS COMPRESSED,
FUEL IS MIXED IN AND BURNED,

[00:04:44.328]
MUCH LIKE IN A CAR ENGINE BUT
WITH A LOT LESS MOVING PARTS.

[00:04:47.498]
THE FUEL-AIR MIXTURE IS
THEN EXPANDED OUT THE BACK

[00:04:49.848]
OF THE ENGINE, AND IT
PROPELS THE VEHICLE FORWARD.

[00:04:52.188]
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF
USING A SCRAMJET RATHER

[00:04:54.648]
THAN A REGULAR ENGINE?

[00:04:56.018]
WELL, IF YOU USE A SCRAMJET ON A
SPACECRAFT, YOU DON'T HAVE TO CARRY

[00:04:58.698]
AS MUCH OXYGEN ON BOARD AS YOU DO
WITH TODAY'S CONVENTIONAL ROCKETS.

[00:05:02.198]
THIS WOULD ALLOW THE VEHICLE TO BE
LIGHTER, SAFER, AND LESS EXPENSIVE.

[00:05:06.008]
IT CAN CARRY MORE CARGO
AND PAYLOAD TO SPACE.

[00:05:08.928]
COULD IT BE USED ON
A REGULAR AIRCRAFT?

[00:05:10.878]
YES, IF WE CAN SUCCESSFULLY
DEMONSTRATE THIS TECHNOLOGY,

[00:05:13.648]
IT COULD ALLOW US TO BUILD A
WHOLE NEW GENERATION OF AIRCRAFT.

[00:05:16.518]
WE COULD TAKE OFF FROM
THE UNITED STATES AND FLY

[00:05:18.248]
TO JAPAN IN TWO HOURS.

[00:05:19.638]
TODAY, THAT TRIP TAKES 14.

[00:05:21.408]
NOW, THAT'S THE PLANE
OF THE FUTURE.

[00:05:23.428]
NOW, YOU SAID THE
HYPER-X HAD PROBLEMS.

[00:05:25.828]
WHAT WERE THEY?

[00:05:26.888]
WELL, IN OUR FIRST FLIGHT
ATTEMPT, WE HAD A PROBLEM

[00:05:28.818]
WITH THE BOOSTER ROCKET
THAT'S SUPPOSED TO GET US

[00:05:30.428]
UP TO OUR TEST CONDITION AT MACH 7.

[00:05:32.748]
ABOUT 13 SECONDS INTO
THE FLIGHT, THE WINGS

[00:05:35.288]
AND TAILS BROKE OFF THE VEHICLE,
AND IT STARTED TO LOSE CONTROL.

[00:05:38.848]
AND WE HAD TO DESTROY IT.

[00:05:40.378]
WE WERE ALL VERY DISAPPOINTED.

[00:05:41.528]
THE SCRAMJET DIDN'T EVEN
GET A CHANCE TO WORK.

[00:05:43.648]
THAT MUST HAVE BEEN AWFUL.

[00:05:45.198]
WHAT DID YOU DO?

[00:05:46.178]
WE MADE A LIST OF EVERYTHING
THAT COULD HAVE GONE WRONG

[00:05:48.468]
AND WHAT MAY HAVE CAUSED IT.

[00:05:49.598]
THIS LIST IS CALLED A FAULT TREE.

[00:05:51.358]
WE STUDIED EACH BRANCH UNTIL
WE COULD ELIMINATE THAT BRANCH

[00:05:54.568]
AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO THE FAILURE.

[00:05:56.438]
DID YOU FIND THE PROBLEM?

[00:05:57.928]
WELL, THE BRANCHES THAT WERE LEFT

[00:05:59.018]
ON THE FAULT TREE WERE
INVESTIGATED FURTHER.

[00:06:01.458]
WE REDESIGNED SOME OF THE PARTS AND
CHANGED THE WAY WE FLY THE ROCKET.

[00:06:04.588]
AND AFTER THREE YEARS, WE
THINK WE'RE READY TO FLY AGAIN.

[00:06:07.208]
SOUNDS LIKE A COMPLICATED PROCESS.

[00:06:09.388]
IT IS, AND IT TAKES TIME.

[00:06:10.788]
BUT YOU REALLY HAVE
TO DO A THOROUGH JOB

[00:06:12.438]
WHEN TEST RESULTS AREN'T WHAT YOU
EXPECT TO PREVENT FUTURE PROBLEMS.

[00:06:15.978]
THANKS, MR. ROBINSON.

[00:06:16.908]
YOU'VE GIVEN ME A
LOT OF INFORMATION

[00:06:18.518]
ON THE REDESIGN PROCESS.

[00:06:20.308]
GOOD LUCK ON YOUR NEXT TEST FLIGHT.

[00:06:21.778]
THANK YOU, R.J. AND GOOD
LUCK ON YOUR ASSIGNMENT.

[00:06:24.138]
CALL IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS.

[00:06:25.248]
THANK YOU.

[00:06:26.548]
I HOPE THE TRAFFIC
CLEARS UP QUICKLY.

[00:06:29.538]
HOW MUCH TIME DO WE HAVE?

[00:06:31.408]
THE AUDITORIUM DOORS WILL
OPEN IN ABOUT 30 MINUTES.

[00:06:33.958]
AT LEAST WE'LL GET GOOD SEATS.

[00:06:35.548]
I'M NOT WORRIED ABOUT US.

[00:06:38.218]
GREAT!

[00:06:39.188]
IT LOOKS LIKE R.J. SPOKE
WITH THE HYPER-X PEOPLE.

[00:06:41.778]
DO THEY HAVE A SOLUTION
FOR THE TRAFFIC?

[00:06:43.798]
NO, BUT THEY WILL EVENTUALLY
CHANGE THE WAY WE TRAVEL.

[00:06:46.398]
AND THAT'S A GOOD THING.

[00:06:48.218]
NOW WE'VE LOOKED AT DESIGN,
TESTING, AND REDESIGN.

[00:06:51.588]
WHERE DO WE GO NEXT?

[00:06:52.798]
HOW ABOUT THE PROBLEM BOARD?

[00:06:54.148]
GREAT.

[00:06:54.618]
WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:06:55.428]
WE KNOW THAT TRANSPORTATION HAS
CHANGED RADICALLY OVER TIME.

[00:06:58.528]
RIGHT.

[00:06:59.478]
PLANES, TRAINS, AND EVEN CARS
LOOK AND OPERATE MORE EFFICIENTLY

[00:07:02.878]
THAN THEY DID 20 YEARS AGO.

[00:07:04.608]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE DESIGN AND
REDESIGNING PROCESS IS CRITICAL

[00:07:07.898]
TO MAKING THESE IMPROVEMENTS.

[00:07:09.728]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:07:11.108]
WE STILL NEED TO KNOW WHAT
TRANSPORTATION WILL LOOK LIKE 100

[00:07:13.748]
YEARS FROM NOW.

[00:07:14.708]
THAT IS OUR ASSIGNMENT.

[00:07:16.648]
BOY, IS IT TOUGH.

[00:07:17.978]
WITH EVERYTHING WE'VE
LEARNED SO FAR, WHO KNOWS?

[00:07:20.518]
WE MAY NOT EVEN USE
TRAINS IN THE FUTURE.

[00:07:22.838]
HOLD ON, KALI.

[00:07:23.608]
DON'T FORGET WHAT WE LEARNED
AT THE CHANNEL TUNNEL.

[00:07:26.028]
TRAINS HAVE MADE SOME BIG
IMPROVEMENTS OVER THE YEARS.

[00:07:28.838]
YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:07:29.438]
I GUESS I JUST HAVEN'T
RIDDEN ON A TRAIN IN A WHILE.

[00:07:32.258]
AS A MATTER OF FACT, I DID
SOME RESEARCH ON MAGLEV TRAINS.

[00:07:35.348]
I'LL TRY TO BRING IT UP.

[00:07:36.538]
I ALSO SAW IN TONY'S EMAIL THAT
A NASA SCI FILES KIDS' CLUB

[00:07:39.838]
IN DETROIT, MICHIGAN, IS DOING AN
EXPERIMENT WITH MAGLEV TECHNOLOGY.

[00:07:44.228]
AWESOME.

[00:07:44.718]
WE CAN CHECK IT OUT.

[00:07:46.258]
HERE IT IS.

[00:07:47.728]
HI, I'M JAMON.

[00:07:50.068]
AND I'M ANTOINETTE.

[00:07:51.598]
AND WE'RE IN MISS THOMAS' CLASS

[00:07:52.598]
AT GOLIGHTLY EDUCATIONAL
CENTER IN DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

[00:07:54.248]
WE'RE WORKING ON AN EXPERIMENT
USING MAGNETS WITH OUR MENTORS

[00:07:57.668]
FROM THE SOCIETY OF
WOMEN ENGINEERS.

[00:07:59.948]
WE SAW WENDY AND ROSIE'S
REPORT ON THE POSSIBILITY

[00:08:02.748]
OF A TRANSATLANTIC
TUNNEL, AND WE WANTED

[00:08:04.698]
TO KNOW HOW A MAGLEV TRAIN WORKS.

[00:08:06.888]
SO WE DID A LITTLE
RESEARCH AND DECIDED

[00:08:09.048]
TO INVESTIGATE MAGNETIC
FIELD STRENGTH.

[00:08:12.528]
WE PLACED FOUR MAGNETS
ON THE WOODEN DOWEL

[00:08:14.588]
WITH THE OPPOSITE POLES TOGETHER
SO THAT THE MAGNETS WOULD STICK.

[00:08:18.118]
THEN WE ADDED THE FIFTH MAGNET ON
TOP WITH THE SAME POLES TOGETHER

[00:08:22.038]
SO THAT IT WAS REPELLED
BY THE OTHER FOUR.

[00:08:24.828]
WE USED A METRIC RULER TO MEASURE
THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TOP MAGNET

[00:08:28.988]
AND THE ONE ON THE BOTTOM.

[00:08:30.538]
THEN WE ADDED TWO WASHERS AT
A TIME ONTO THE TOP MAGNET

[00:08:33.288]
AND MEASURED THE NEW DISTANCES.

[00:08:35.238]
THEN, AFTER TEN WASHERS, WE
BEGAN ADDING THEM FOUR AT A TIME.

[00:08:39.138]
AFTER EACH MEASUREMENT,
WE RECORDED THE DISTANCE

[00:08:41.688]
IN MILLIMETERS ON A CHART.

[00:08:43.468]
WE ALSO PUT THE DATA ON A GRAPH
THAT HAD THE NUMBER OF WASHERS

[00:08:46.938]
ON THE HORIZONTAL AXIS AND THE
DISTANCE ON THE VERTICAL AXIS.

[00:08:50.938]
WE LEARNED THAT AS YOU ADD MASS
TO THE TOP MAGNET, THE DISTANCES

[00:08:55.398]
BETWEEN THE MAGNETS DECREASE.

[00:08:57.318]
AND THE GRAPH HELPED US SEE THAT AS
THE MAGNETS COME CLOSER TOGETHER,

[00:09:00.618]
THAT THE MAGNETIC FORCE
BECOMES REALLY STRONG.

[00:09:03.628]
THAT'S WHY WE ADDED FOUR
WASHERS PER MEASUREMENT

[00:09:06.348]
WHEN THE MAGNETS GOT
CLOSER TOGETHER.

[00:09:08.758]
WE ALSO MADE OUR OWN MAGLEV TRAIN.

[00:09:12.488]
WE HOPE THAT YOU HAVE
ENJOYED OUR EXPERIMENT.

[00:09:15.068]
GOOD-BYE FROM GOLIGHTLY
EDUCATIONAL CENTER AND THE SOCIETY

[00:09:18.308]
OF WOMEN ENGINEERS
IN DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

[00:09:20.458]
IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO LEARN MORE

[00:09:21.618]
ABOUT HOW YOUR CLASS CAN GET
A MENTOR FROM THE SOCIETY

[00:09:24.588]
OF WOMEN ENGINEERS, VISIT
THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:09:28.298]
THAT WAS AWESOME.

[00:09:29.208]
I MAY HAVE BEEN A BIT HASTY IN
PREDICTING THE DEMISE OF THE TRAIN.

[00:09:32.978]
IT'S REALLY COOL TECHNOLOGY.

[00:09:34.608]
I JUST WISH DR. D AND THE GANG
WERE ON A MAGLEV TRAIN RIGHT NOW.

[00:09:39.358]
YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:09:40.318]
IT'S GOING TO BE TIGHT.

[00:09:41.938]
PLUS, I'M A LITTLE CONCERNED
ABOUT THE ASSIGNMENT.

[00:09:44.198]
REALLY?

[00:09:44.648]
WHAT WAS THE PROBLEM?

[00:09:45.858]
WELL, WE LEARNED A LOT ABOUT THE
ENGINEERING METHOD OF RESEARCH,

[00:09:49.138]
DESIGN, TESTING, AND REDESIGN.

[00:09:51.518]
BUT I'M NOT SURE THAT
WOULD REALLY HELP US FIGURE

[00:09:53.468]
OUT HOW TRANSPORTATION
WILL LOOK IN THE FUTURE.

[00:09:55.868]
TRUE, AND ON THE NASA
SCI FILES WEBSITE,

[00:09:58.178]
YOU CAN PLAY AN ONLINE
GAME TO LEARN

[00:09:59.648]
ABOUT THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION.

[00:10:01.758]
BUT WE DO HAVE A FEW IDEAS:
MAGLEV TRAINS, CONCEPT CARS.

[00:10:05.298]
AND WHAT ABOUT NASA'S HYPER-X?

[00:10:06.978]
THAT'S TRUE.

[00:10:08.038]
BUT I STILL THINK WE
NEED TO DO MORE RESEARCH.

[00:10:10.308]
WELL, NASA'S PROBABLY
THE BEST PLACE TO START.

[00:10:13.458]
DID SOMEONE SAY "NASA"?

[00:10:15.658]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:10:17.088]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES MAKE
IT TO THE AWARDS CEREMONY ON TIME?

[00:10:20.758]
HAVE THE DETECTIVES
DONE ENOUGH RESEARCH

[00:10:22.308]
ON THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION?

[00:10:24.448]
WILL THEY FIND MR. GREGORY?

[00:10:26.578]
STAY TUNED FOR THE
EXCITING CONCLUSION

[00:10:28.258]
OF THE CASE OF THE RADICAL RIDE.

[00:10:30.548]
[00:00:04.468]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:08.278]
HOW WILL PAV BENEFIT TRAVELERS?

[00:00:10.758]
HOW WILL TOURISM CHANGE
IN THE NEXT HUNDRED YEARS?

[00:00:14.178]
WHY DOES NASA WANT TO INSPIRE
THE NEXT GENERATION OF EXPLORERS?

[00:00:18.288]
[00:00:20.238]
HOW'S THE INTERNET
CONNECTION HOLDING UP?

[00:00:22.568]
GOOD.

[00:00:22.668]
AS LONG AS WE'RE NEAR A WIFI
NETWORK, WE'RE IN GREAT SHAPE.

[00:00:25.998]
WHY?

[00:00:27.288]
I'M THINKING OUR ONLY CHANCE
TO MAKE IT ON TIME IS JETPACKS.

[00:00:31.258]
JETPACKS?

[00:00:32.648]
JETPACKS.

[00:00:33.738]
THAT'S THE ANSWER.

[00:00:34.498]
LOOK IT UP.

[00:00:35.128]
HATE TO BURST YOUR BUBBLE, BUT THAT
TECHNOLOGY'S BEEN AROUND FOR YEARS,

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BUT IT NEVER BECAME
PRACTICAL OR SAFE.

[00:00:41.108]
DESPERATE TIMES CALL
FOR DESPERATE MEASURES.

[00:00:43.648]
JACOB, YOU'RE GOING TOO FAR.

[00:00:44.438]
BESIDES, BIANCA TOLD US THAT NASA
HAS SOME REALLY INTERESTING OPTIONS

[00:00:48.518]
FOR PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION.

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REALLY?

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HOW DOES IT WORK?

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I'M NOT SURE.

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BUT R.J.'S HEADED THERE NOW.

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I'M SURE HE CAN HELP US.

[00:00:58.458]
OH, HI.

[00:00:58.888]
YOU MUST BE R.J. I UNDERSTAND
THAT YOU WANT TO LEARN MORE

[00:01:01.078]
ABOUT PERSONAL AIR VEHICLES,
OR WE CALL THEM PAV FOR SHORT.

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YES, OUR CLASS ASSIGNMENT IS TO TRY

[00:01:07.348]
TO DETERMINE WHAT TRANSPORTATION
WILL LOOK LIKE IN 100 YEARS.

[00:01:10.528]
NOW, FROM WHAT I KNOW FROM THE PAV,

[00:01:11.828]
IT SOUNDS LIKE A PROJECT
OF THE FUTURE.

[00:01:14.188]
IS IT ACTUALLY A FLYING CAR?

[00:01:15.678]
THE BASIC IDEA BEHIND PAV IS
NOT SO MUCH TO MAKE A FLYING CAR

[00:01:19.178]
BUT TO MAKE AN AIR
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM WITH MANY

[00:01:21.228]
OF THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS
THAT WE REALLY LIKE ABOUT CARS.

[00:01:23.748]
SO HOW WILL PAV WORK?

[00:01:25.388]
FIRST, WE NEED AN AIRSPACE SYSTEM

[00:01:26.708]
THAT WORKS A LOT MORE
LIKE OUR HIGHWAY SYSTEM,

[00:01:28.928]
WITH SMALL AIRPLANES THAT
WORK A LOT MORE LIKE OUR CARS.

[00:01:31.688]
HOW DO YOU BUILD HIGHWAYS
IN THE SKY?

[00:01:33.548]
THERE ARE ALREADY 5,000 AIRPORTS,
AND MANY OF THEM ARE HARDLY USED.

[00:01:37.398]
THE SMALL AIRCRAFT TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM-- OR SAS FOR SHORT--

[00:01:40.708]
IS WORKING ON LOW-COST ELECTRONICS
IN ORDER TO GIVE EVEN THE SMALLEST

[00:01:44.628]
OF THESE AIRPORTS
ALL-WEATHER CAPABILITY.

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