Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of the Galactic Vacation

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THREE, TWO, ONE, BLASTOFF.

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GET READY FOR ANOTHER FUN-FILLED
JOURNEY ON THE NASA SCI FILES

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AS THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES TAKE OFF

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FOR AN OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD VACATION.

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HI, I'M ASTRONAUT BARBARA
MORGAN, AND I'M TRAINING HERE

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AT NASA'S JOHNSON SPACE
CENTER TO FLY INTO SPACE.

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I AM ALSO A TEACHER, AND NOT LONG
AGO, I WAS TEACHING MATH, SCIENCE,

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AND TECHNOLOGY TO THIRD AND
FOURTH GRADERS IN IDAHO.

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THAT'S WHY I'M HOPING
YOU'LL PAY CLOSE ATTENTION

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AS THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
USE ALL THREE OF THOSE SUBJECTS

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TO PLOT THEIR WAY THROUGH THE
CASE OF THE GALACTIC VACATION.

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COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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IN THE CASE OF THE
GALACTIC VACATION,

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YOU WILL BE ASKED THE
FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHAT ARE THE FIVE OUTER PLANETS?

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WHAT IS A LIGHT YEAR?

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WHAT IS PARALLAX?

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AND GUESS WHAT.

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WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON, YOU
KNOW YOU'RE GETTING CLOSER

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TO THE ANSWER.

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SINCE WE'RE LEARNING SO
MUCH ABOUT EARTH SCIENCE,

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I HAVE A GREAT ACTIVITY
FOR YOU GUYS.

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RJ?

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WHAT IS IT?

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DO WE GET TO GO TO MARS?

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WELL, THAT DEPENDS
ON YOUR IMAGINATION.

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I WANT YOU TO CREATE AN
OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD VACATION.

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BIANCA, ARE YOU WITH US?

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YOU MEAN TRAVEL BEYOND EARTH?

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LIKE IN SPACE?

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WE'LL HAVE TO TALK MORE
ABOUT THIS TOMORROW.

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SO WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO?

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I DON'T KNOW, BUT I
THINK I HAVE AN IDEA.

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INSTEAD OF JUST PRESENTING
ONE TRAVEL PLAN,

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WE COULD PRESENT THREE.

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WE CAN DIVIDE UP INTO TEAMS.

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THERE ARE SIX OF US.

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SORRY, BUT YOU'LL
HAVE TO COUNT ME OUT.

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WHY?

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I'M TAKING MY OWN OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD
VACATION TO PUERTO RICO.

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WHY ARE YOU GOING THERE?

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I'M DOING A SMALL INTERNSHIP
AT ARECIBO, YOU KNOW,

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THE LARGEST RADIO
TELESCOPE IN THE WORLD.

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BUT DON'T WORRY.

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YOU'LL BE HEARING FROM ME.

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MAYBE SHE CAN HELP US
WITH SOME RESEARCH.

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A PERFECT PLACE TO START:
MY "A" ENCYCLOPEDIA.

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"A"?

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YES, "A" FOR ASTRONAUT.

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NOW, LET'S SEE.

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THE FIRST PERSON TO SET FOOT

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ON THE MOON WAS NEIL
ARMSTRONG IN JULY OF 1969.

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I WANT TO BE THE FIRST
PERSON TO SET FOOT ON MARS.

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MARS?

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THAT'S FAR AWAY.

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WELL, TO BE EXACT, IT'S
56 MILLION KILOMETERS

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WHEN IT'S CLOSEST TO EARTH.

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LET'S PUT ALL OUR DESTINATIONS
ON THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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I THINK MARS MIGHT BE A COOL
PLACE TO GO BECAUSE I'VE READ

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THAT IT'S A LOT LIKE EARTH.

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WELL, I JUST HAPPEN TO HAVE MY
"M" ENCYCLOPEDIA, AND IT SAYS HERE

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THAT MARS IS A LOT
SMALLER THAN EARTH,

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BUT IT HAS MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES.

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INTERESTING.

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EVERYONE AGREE?

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WE'LL PUT MARS ON THE
PROBLEM BOARD UNDER "WE KNOW."

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WE KNOW THAT MARS WILL BE
ONE OF OUR DESTINATIONS.

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WHAT SHOULD BE OUR NEXT
TRAVEL DESTINATION?

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THE MOON.

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IT'S CLOSER TO EARTH
THAN ANY OTHER OBJECT.

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AND IF I'M GOING TO TRAVEL,
I'D LIKE TO STAY CLOSE TO HOME.

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WHY?

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IS THERE SOME SPECIAL REASON?

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I'VE FIGURED OUT THAT I CAN SEND
AND RECEIVE A STOCK REPORT TO

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AND FROM THE MOON IN 2.6 SECONDS.

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CAN YOU BELIEVE THAT?

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THAT'S NOT MUCH OF A TIME DELAY.

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DID YOU KNOW THAT IT ONLY TAKES
1.3 SECONDS FOR A SIGNAL TO GO

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FROM THE EARTH TO THE MOON?

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NOW, REALLY, TONY, DO YOU
THINK NASA ASTRONAUTS THINK

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ABOUT THE STOCK MARKET WHEN
THEY DECIDE TO GO INTO SPACE?

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NO, BUT MAYBE THEY SHOULD.

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WOW.

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WE JUST GOT A VIDEO POSTCARD
FROM BIANCA IN PUERTO RICO.

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CHECK IT OUT.

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HI, GUYS.

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I FINALLY MADE IT TO THE
BEAUTIFUL ISLAND OF PUERTO RICO.

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I HAVE A HISTORY QUESTION FOR YOU.

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DID YOU KNOW THAT CHRISTOPHER
COLUMBUS CLAIMED THIS CARIBBEAN

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ISLAND AS PUERTO RICO
FOR SPAIN IN 1493?

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PUERTO RICANS ARE NOW
CONSIDERED U.S. CITIZENS

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BECAUSE THE UNITED
STATES TOOK OVER IN 1898.

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THESE ARE THE STREETS
OF OLD SAN JUAN,

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OR VIEJO SAN JUAN,
AS I LEARNED TO SAY.

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I LOVE THESE COBBLESTONE STREETS
AND THE BRIGHTLY COLORED BUILDINGS.

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LOOK AT THE MAGNIFICENT
OLD SPANISH ARCHITECTURE.

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OLD SAN JUAN IS NOT VERY BIG,
BUT IT STILL HAS TWO FORTRESSES

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THAT PROTECTED THEM DURING WARTIME.

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THE HUGE CONCRETE WALLS TOOK
OVER 100 YEARS TO BE BUILT.

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PUERTO RICO HAS BEAUTIFUL BEACHES
THAT MAKE UP THE SHORELINE.

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THERE ARE ALSO QUITE A FEW
CHURCHES AND HUMONGOUS MANSIONS,

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LIKE CASABLANCA, ORIGINALLY BUILT
FOR PUERTO RICO'S FIRST GOVERNOR.

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YOU'LL NEVER GUESS WHO THAT WAS.

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PONCE DE LEON.

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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THE EXPLORER WHO WAS SEARCHING
FOR THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH.

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ISN'T THAT AWESOME?

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BIANCA LOOKS LIKE SHE'S
REALLY HAVING A GREAT TIME.

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YEAH, IT DOES.

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NOW, LET'S SEE.

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WE HAVE THE MOON, MARS,
AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

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MAYBE WE SHOULD OFFER OUR CLIENTS
A REALLY ADVENTUROUS TRIP BEYOND

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OUR SOLAR SYSTEM.

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WE COULD GO TO ANOTHER STAR
IN OUR OWN MILKY WAY GALAXY.

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LET'S PUT THAT AS OUR
THIRD DESTINATION.

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GOOD MORNING.

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I'M TED TUNE WITH KIDS'
SCIENCE NEWS NETWORK.

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OUR TRAVEL CORRESPONDENT, I.M.
LISSNING, IS FILING A LIVE REPORT

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FROM THE ROYAL SOLAR SYSTEM SPACE
CRUISE SHIP, THE SOLAR PRINCESS.

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I.M.?

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TED, THIS WILL BE THE
VACATION OF A LIFETIME.

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THE SHIP IS MAGNIFICENT AND
HAS EVERYTHING YOU COULD WANT.

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BUT I DON'T SEE ANY FURNITURE,
I.M. WHERE DO YOU SIT DOWN?

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OH, TED, GET WITH THE PROGRAM.

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WE'LL BE IN ZERO GRAVITY, SO
THERE WON'T BE ANY "DOWN" TO SIT.

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BESIDES, ALL OF THE
FURNITURE IS STOWED

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IN THE WALLS AND DEPLOYS FOR USE.

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SOUNDS GREAT, I.M. AND WHAT'S MORE,

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YOU CAN HAVE WATER BALLOON
FIGHTS WITHOUT THE BALLOON.

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IN ZERO "G," WATER
MAKES A NATURAL SPHERE.

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WATCH.

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WAY TO GO, I.M. MAYBE YOU SHOULD
HOLD OFF ON THAT WATER FIGHT

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UNTIL YOU ACTUALLY GET INTO SPACE.

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WELL, THAT'S ALL FOR NOW.

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I'M TED TUNE FOR KSNN.

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POOR I.M. I BET THE COST OF
THAT HOTEL WILL BE BIG BUCKS.

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NEXT, I THINK WE NEED
TO KNOW THE MODE

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OF TRANSPORTATION FOR EACH PLACE.

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DO YOU MEAN HOW ARE
WE GOING TO GET THERE?

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YES.

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NASA'S ALREADY LANDED ON THE MOON,

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SO WE KNOW WE CAN USE A
SATURN 5 ROCKET TO GET THERE.

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I THINK WE'RE GONNA NEED A
REALLY BIG ROCKET TO GO TO MARS.

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UM, I'M NOT SURE ABOUT THAT.

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MAYBE WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FIRST.

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I CAN'T MAKE IT, BUT YOU MIGHT WANT

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TO GO SEE DR. D. I'M
SURE HE CAN HELP US OUT.

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I'LL EMAIL HIM, LET HIM
KNOW THAT WE'RE ON OUR WAY.

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THEN I CAN PRINT OFF
A COUPLE ACTION PLANS

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SO WE CAN ORGANIZE
OUR INVESTIGATION.

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GO TO THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE
TO PRINT OFF YOUR OWN ACTION PLAN.

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HI, DR. D. HI, KIDS.

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I GOT YOUR EMAIL.

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YOU MUST BE WORKING
ON SOMETHING EXCITING.

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WE'RE PLANNING A TRIP TO THE STARS.

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REALLY?

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WELL, IT'S JUST A SCHOOL PROJECT
TO DESIGN A VACATION IN SPACE,

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BUT WE WANT TO MAKE IT AS
SCIENTIFICALLY CORRECT AS POSSIBLE.

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WE NEED TO KNOW THE DISTANCES
BETWEEN OUR DESTINATIONS AND EARTH.

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WHERE ARE YOU PLANNING TO GO
ON YOUR IMAGINARY JOURNEY?

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THE FIRST PLACE IS THE MOON.

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WELL, LET'S SEE.

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THE MOON IS ABOUT
400,000 KILOMETERS AWAY.

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SO IF THERE WAS A ROAD TO THE
MOON, AND YOU WANTED YOUR PARENTS

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TO DRIVE YOU THERE,
HOW LONG WOULD IT TAKE?

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A COUPLE OF DAYS,
MAYBE A WEEK OR TWO.

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IF YOU DRIVE THE SPEED LIMIT
WHICH, ON THE INTERSTATES,

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IS ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS PER
HOUR, IT WOULD TAKE 4,000 HOURS

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OR MORE THAN 165 DAYS.

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THAT'S ALMOST SIX MONTHS.

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AND THAT'S WITHOUT TAKING
ANY BREAKS FOR SLEEPING,

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NOT TO MENTION THE LACK OF
GAS STATIONS ALONG THE WAY.

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SO HOW DID THE ASTRONAUTS DO IT?

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WELL, IT ONLY TOOK THEM ABOUT THREE
DAYS 'CAUSE THEY WERE TRAVELING

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AT THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS
PER HOUR.

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WHAT ELSE MIGHT YOU WANT TO VISIT?

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WE WERE THINKING ABOUT MARS.

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BY CAR, IT WOULD TAKE YOU 64
YEARS WHEN MARS IS AT ITS CLOSEST.

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THAT'S A LONG TIME.

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I THINK I'D GET BORED.

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MARS IS ACTUALLY A
VERY GOOD CHOICE.

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WHY IS THAT?

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WELL, YOU WOULDN'T WANT TO GO
TO THE OTHER INNER PLANETS.

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MERCURY, THE PLANET CLOSEST TO THE
SUN, HAS A ROCKY CRATERED SURFACE

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THAT IS ALMOST 430 DEGREES
CELSIUS IN THE DAYTIME.

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OUCH.

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THAT'S REALLY HOT.

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DOESN'T WATER BOIL AT
100 DEGREES CELSIUS?

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YES, AND A VERY HOT PIZZA
OVEN IS ABOUT 430 DEGREES.

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BECAUSE MERCURY DOESN'T HAVE
AN ATMOSPHERE TO RETAIN HEAT,

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AT NIGHT, IT CAN COOL TO
ABOUT -173 DEGREES CELSIUS.

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WOW, I'M GLAD WE'RE
NOT GOING THERE.

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THE NEXT PLANET OUT
FROM THE SUN IS VENUS.

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ITS SURFACE IS COVERED
WITH LAVA FLOWS.

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ISN'T IT ALSO COMPLETELY
COVERED WITH CLOUDS?

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YES, ITS MOSTLY CARBON DIOXIDE
ATMOSPHERE IS VERY DENSE.

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ON THE SURFACE, IT'S
HOT ENOUGH TO MELT LEAD.

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ISN'T JUPITER THE NEXT
PLANET AFTER MARS?

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IT IS.

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JUPITER IS OVER 11 TIMES
THE DIAMETER OF THE EARTH.

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IT'S MOSTLY MADE OF
HYDROGEN AND HELIUM.

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IT DOESN'T EVEN HAVE
A SOLID SURFACE.

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SATURN, URANUS, AND NEPTUNE
ARE ALSO LARGER THAN THE EARTH.

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AND THEY ARE SIMILAR TO
JUPITER IN THAT THERE IS NO WAY

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TO WALK ON THEIR SURFACE.

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BUT, DR. D, YOU HAVEN'T
MENTIONED PLUTO.

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THAT'S MY FAVORITE PLANET.

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PLUTO IS VERY DIFFERENT
THAN THE OTHER PLANETS

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IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM.

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IT'S SMALL, EVEN SMALLER
THAN OUR MOON.

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SOME ASTRONOMERS THINK WE
SHOULDN'T CALL IT A PLANET.

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I WOULDN'T LIKE THAT.

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WELL, PLUTO IS 15,000 TIMES FURTHER
AWAY FROM THE EARTH THAN OUR MOON,

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AND IT'S VERY, VERY COLD,

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BUT COMPARED TO THE NEAREST
STAR, PLUTO IS CLOSE.

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WHAT'S THE NEAREST STAR TO EARTH?

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IT'S THE SUN.

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OKAY, DR. D, WHAT'S
THE NEXT NEAREST STAR?

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IT'S CALLED PROXIMA CENTAURI,
AND IT'S 4.2 LIGHT YEARS AWAY.

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WHAT'S A LIGHT YEAR?

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LET ME EXPLAIN.

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CATHERINE, HOW FAR DO YOU
LIVE FROM YOUR GRANDPARENTS?

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ABOUT TWO HOURS.

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YOU JUST DESCRIBED A
DISTANCE WITH A TIME,

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THE TIME IT TAKES TO GET THERE.

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LIGHT TRAVELS AT 300,000
KILOMETERS PER SECOND,

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SO IT GOES ABOUT 10 TRILLION
KILOMETERS IN A YEAR.

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THAT'S WHAT WE CALL A LIGHT YEAR.

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SO IF PROXIMA CENTAURI
IS 4.2 LIGHT YEARS AWAY,

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THEN IT WOULD TAKE US 4.2 YEARS
TO GET THERE IF WE WERE TRAVELING

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AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT.

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YES, BUT WE HAVEN'T EVEN COME
CLOSE TO TRAVELING AT LIGHT SPEED

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WHICH IS THE ULTIMATE SPEED LIMIT.

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IF YOU DROVE YOUR CAR TO
PROXIMA CENTAURI, IT WOULD TAKE

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OVER 45 MILLION YEARS.

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EVEN OUR FASTEST SPACE
PROBE WOULD TAKE

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OVER 60,000 YEARS TO GET THERE.

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WOW, I HAD NO IDEA
SPACE WAS SO BIG.

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THANKS, DR. D. YOU'RE WELCOME.

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I HAVE WORK IN MY
OFFICE THAT I HAVE TO DO.

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YOU CAN START YOUR RESEARCH HERE.

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I'LL SEE YOU LATER.

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BYE, DR. D. BYE.

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I CAN'T DO RESEARCH NOW.

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MY BRAIN IS WAY TOO
FULL OF INFORMATION.

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LET'S CALL BIANCA.

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HEY, GUYS.

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I'M AT MY COUSIN'S SCHOOL,

[00:11:10.066]
THE ANTONIO GONZALEZ
SUAREZ BILINGUAL SCHOOL

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IN A-ASCO, PUERTO RICO.

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THEY'RE DOING AN EXPERIMENT
IN THEIR TEACHER,

[00:11:17.626]
MISS ALICE ACEVEDO'S SCIENCE
CLASS AND LEARNING HOW

[00:11:22.676]
TO MEASURE DISTANCES IN SPACE.

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COOL, DR. D JUST TOLD US ABOUT
THE GREAT DISTANCES IN SPACE.

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CAN WE TAKE A CLOSER LOOK?

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SURE, I'LL LET KIM AND
AIDA TELL YOU ALL ABOUT IT.

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LAS PUEDA DECIR A MIS AMIGOS QUE
ESTAN HACIENDO ESTE EXPERIMENTO.

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SI, COMO NO.

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HOLA, AMIGOS.

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MI NOMBRE ES KIMBERLY.

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OH, PERDONAME.

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I'M SORRY.

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I'M KIMBERLY.

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AND I'M AIDA CORTES.

[00:11:41.556]
WE'RE HERE TODAY WITH OUR MENTORS
BRENDA FUENTES, ALEXIS ALICEA,

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CARMEN GARCIA, AND JEDELLY CLAUDIA

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FROM THE SOCIETY OF
WOMEN ENGINEERS.

[00:11:52.966]
THEY ARE ASSISTING US
WITH A PARALLAX EXPERIMENT

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TO HELP US UNDERSTAND HOW
ASTRONOMERS MEASURE DISTANCES

[00:12:01.236]
IN SPACE.

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EXCUSE ME.

[00:12:01.836]
WE NEED TO LISTEN TO MY
TEACHER FOR A MINUTE.

[00:12:03.976]
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OKAY, I'M BACK.

[00:12:13.466]
WHAT'S PARALLAX?

[00:12:15.386]
IT'S THE APPARENT CHANGE IN
THE POSITION OF AN OBJECT.

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TRY THIS.

[00:12:19.466]
HOLD YOUR THUMB OUT IN FRONT
OF YOU, AND CLOSE ONE EYE.

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THEN CLOSE THE OTHER EYE.

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LOOKS LIKE MY THUMB IS MOVING.

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THAT'S NEAT.

[00:12:28.046]
EVEN THOUGH YOUR THUMB
REALLY DIDN'T MOVE,

[00:12:29.736]
IT LOOKED LIKE IT DID,
AND THAT'S PARALLAX.

[00:12:32.326]
SO HOW DOES THE EXPERIMENT WORK?

[00:12:34.376]
FIRST, WE LAY OUT OUR BASELINE
OF ROPE TEN METERS LONG.

[00:12:37.136]
ONE END IS MARKED "A,"
AND THE OTHER END IS "B."

[00:12:40.686]
THEN WE PLACE AN OBJECT NOT MORE

[00:12:42.246]
THAN 25 METERS AWAY
FROM THE BASELINE.

[00:12:44.246]
I KNOW THIS IS A PROTRACTOR,
BUT HOW IS IT GOING

[00:12:47.546]
TO HELP YOU MEASURE DISTANCE?

[00:12:48.416]
YOU SIT ON THE BASELINE
AT POINT "A" AND MAKE SURE

[00:12:51.756]
THAT THE PROTRACTOR IS
PARALLEL WITH THE ROPE.

[00:12:54.686]
WHY'D YOU PUT THE
PENCIL ON THE VERTEX?

[00:12:56.676]
PUTTING IT THERE HELPS YOU LINE
THE OBJECT UP AS YOU LOOK AT IT.

[00:13:00.386]
WHAT COMES NEXT?

[00:13:01.476]
NOW MOVE ANOTHER PENCIL AROUND
THE OUTER EDGE OF THE PROTRACTOR

[00:13:06.106]
UNTIL IT LINES UP WITH THE OBJECT.

[00:13:08.456]
HOW DO YOU READ THE PROTRACTOR?

[00:13:10.196]
YOUR PARTNER WILL ACTUALLY READ
IT FOR YOU AND RECORD THE ANGLE.

[00:13:14.166]
NEXT, WE MOVE TO THE OTHER
END AND REPEAT THE STEPS.

[00:13:17.546]
NOTICE HOW THE FLAGPOLE SEEMS
TO HAVE CHANGED ITS POSITION

[00:13:21.616]
AND APPEARS AT A DIFFERENT ANGLE.

[00:13:23.686]
THEN WHAT DO YOU DO WITH YOUR DATA?

[00:13:25.416]
PLOT IT ON GRAPH PAPER.

[00:13:27.006]
DRAW A 10-CENTIMETER BASELINE
AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAPER,

[00:13:29.946]
AND THEN DRAW IN YOUR ANGLES.

[00:13:32.956]
DO THE TWO LINES INTERSECTING
MEAN ANYTHING?

[00:13:34.846]
YES, IT IS TELLING US THE DISTANCE

[00:13:36.886]
THAT THE OBJECT IS
FROM THE BASELINE.

[00:13:39.286]
HOW DO YOU DETERMINE THE DISTANCE?

[00:13:41.296]
DRAW A PERPENDICULAR LINE
FROM THE POINT OF INTERSECTION

[00:13:44.276]
TO THE BASELINE AND
THEN MEASURE IT.

[00:13:46.076]
WHAT'S THE SCALE?

[00:13:48.056]
WE USED A SCALE THAT
MEANS ONE CENTIMETER

[00:13:50.406]
ON THE GRAPH PAPER
EQUALS ONE METER OUTSIDE.

[00:13:53.096]
I GET IT.

[00:13:54.136]
SO IF THE LINE MEASURES
15 CENTIMETERS,

[00:13:56.956]
THE DISTANCE FROM THE
OBJECT IS 15 METERS.

[00:13:59.966]
ASTRONOMERS ARE ABLE TO SEE AN
APPARENT SHIFT IN THE NEARBY STARS

[00:14:03.256]
AS THE EARTH REVOLVES
AROUND THE SUN.

[00:14:05.556]
THAT'S REALLY INTERESTING.

[00:14:06.676]
AND THANKS TO THE
SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS

[00:14:09.806]
FOR PROVIDING US WITH MENTORS.

[00:14:11.916]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES
WEBSITE TO LEARN HOW

[00:14:14.166]
TO GET YOUR OWN CLASSROOM MENTORS.

[00:14:15.506]
THANKS, KIM AND AIDA.

[00:14:17.946]
I'VE GOT TO GO TO MY NEXT MEETING.

[00:14:21.276]
QUE HORA ES?

[00:14:21.876]
IT'S 3:00 P.M. I'D BETTER RUN.

[00:14:23.386]
ADIOS, AMIGAS.

[00:14:24.576]
ADIOS.

[00:14:26.196]
WITH PLANETS AND STARS SO
FAR APART, IT SURE IS GOOD

[00:14:28.506]
TO HAVE A WAY TO MEASURE
THE DISTANCE.

[00:14:30.146]
IT LOOKS LIKE YOU'RE GONNA
HAVE TO TRAVEL A LONG WAYS

[00:14:32.396]
IN SPACE JUST TO GET TO MARS.

[00:14:34.476]
WE BETTER TALK TO SOMEONE ABOUT
WHAT IT'S LIKE TO LIVE IN SPACE.

[00:14:37.476]
EMAIL NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER
AND SEE IF THERE'S ANY POSSIBLE WAY

[00:14:40.526]
THAT WE CAN TALK TO THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION CREW.

[00:14:43.596]
YEAH, RIGHT.

[00:14:44.366]
GOOD LUCK.

[00:14:45.446]
YOU NEVER KNOW.

[00:14:46.406]
NASA DOES WANT TO INSPIRE THE NEXT
GENERATION OF YOUNG EXPLORERS,

[00:14:49.286]
AND WE ARE THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:14:51.366]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:14:53.896]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:14:55.276]
WHICH DESTINATION IS IDEAL FOR
AN OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD VACATION?

[00:14:58.746]
WILL DISTANCE BE A DECIDING FACTOR?

[00:15:01.116]
WHAT ELSE SHOULD THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES CONSIDER BEFORE

[00:15:03.306]
CHOOSING A DESTINATION?

[00:15:05.456]

[00:00:01.476]
IN THIS EPISODE OF
THE GALACTIC VACATION,

[00:00:04.666]
BE PREPARED TO ANSWER
THESE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

[00:00:06.806]
HOW DOES GRAVITY MOST
AFFECT THE I.S.S. CREW?

[00:00:09.586]
HOW ARE THE PHASES
OF THE MOON CREATED?

[00:00:12.636]
AND WHAT CAUSES THE
SEASONS ON MARS?

[00:00:15.906]
WOW, I NEVER THOUGHT
IT'D REALLY HAPPEN.

[00:00:21.276]
HOPE THEY GOT MY MESSAGE
TO GET HERE QUICKLY.

[00:00:24.186]
HI, JACOB.

[00:00:25.116]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:00:25.726]
YOU WILL NEVER GUESS WHO WE
ARE GOING TO TALK TO TODAY.

[00:00:27.816]
IS BIANCA CALLING TODAY?

[00:00:29.896]
NO.

[00:00:30.486]
BETTER THAN THAT.

[00:00:31.466]
BETTER NOT LET BIANCA
HEAR YOU SAY THAT.

[00:00:33.246]
I THINK EVEN SHE WOULD
AGREE WITH ME.

[00:00:35.196]
OKAY, SO WHO IS IT?

[00:00:37.336]
THE CREW ON BOARD THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

[00:00:40.906]
NO WAY.

[00:00:42.176]
YES, I CAME THROUGH AGAIN.

[00:00:44.466]
HE'S GOING TO BE HARD TO LIVE WITH.

[00:00:46.366]
THE EMAIL SAID WE WERE
TO DIAL THEM UP AT...

[00:00:48.966]
WE NEED TO CALL NOW.

[00:00:50.016]
HI, TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:00:52.446]
GREETINGS FROM INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION.

[00:00:54.696]
I'M KEN BOWERSOX, AND ON
MY LEFT IS DON PETTIT,

[00:00:57.986]
AND TO MY RIGHT, NIKOLAI BUDARIN.

[00:01:00.486]
HELLO.

[00:01:01.276]
UH, GREETINGS FROM THE TREE
HOUSE, SIR-- I MEAN, SIRS.

[00:01:05.636]
NO ONE'S GOING TO BELIEVE
WE'RE TALKING TO YOU.

[00:01:08.366]
I HOPE I REMEMBERED TO TAPE THIS.

[00:01:10.956]
CAN YOU TELL ME HOW LIVING IN SPACE
IS DIFFERENT FROM LIVING ON EARTH?

[00:01:14.596]
LIVING ON SPACE STATION, WE ARE
WEIGHTLESS, AND SO ALL THE EFFECTS

[00:01:18.936]
THAT YOU SEE OF GRAVITY ON
EARTH, YOU DON'T SEE HERE

[00:01:24.826]
ON SPACE STATION, SO
THINGS WILL FLOAT OFF.

[00:01:26.856]
YOU HAVE TO KEEP ALL YOUR
LITTLE TINY PARTS CORRALLED.

[00:01:30.406]
YOU SET SOMETHING DOWN ON A
SURFACE, IT'LL FLOAT AWAY.

[00:01:34.156]
COMMANDER, CAN YOU TELL ME

[00:01:35.326]
IF YOU'VE BEEN SLEEPING
ANY DIFFERENTLY?

[00:01:36.516]
NO, NOT REALLY.

[00:01:37.656]
HERE IN ORBIT, I SLEEP PRETTY MUCH
THE SAME AS I DO DOWN ON EARTH.

[00:01:42.806]
I DREAM, AND I SLEEP
VERY COMFORTABLY

[00:01:46.006]
AND ALMOST THE SAME
AMOUNT EVERY NIGHT.

[00:01:47.906]
UM, HOW DO YOU USE THE BATHROOM?

[00:01:50.826]
THE BATHROOM HERE ON SPACE
STATION IS NOT THAT MUCH DIFFERENT

[00:01:55.046]
THAN WHAT YOU'D FIND ON THE
GROUND, EXCEPT WE USE FANS

[00:01:59.686]
AND MOVING AIR TO REPLACE
MANY OF THE FUNCTIONS

[00:02:03.816]
THAT GRAVITY PROVIDES.

[00:02:04.956]
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

[00:02:07.726]
THAT WAS AWESOME.

[00:02:09.326]
I THINK WE'RE READY TO START
PLANNING OUR TRIP TO THE MOON.

[00:02:12.216]
EMAIL THE OTHERS AND LET THEM KNOW
THAT I'M GOING TO TALK TO DR. PRIOR

[00:02:14.926]
WITH NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER.

[00:02:16.506]
OKAY, I'LL ALSO PRINT
OFF A GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET

[00:02:21.016]
FROM THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE
FOR YOU TO TAKE WITH YOU.

[00:02:29.766]
WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE AN ASTRONAUT?

[00:02:32.566]
YEAH, MAYBE.

[00:02:33.996]
SAY, AREN'T YOU ONE OF
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES?

[00:02:35.936]
SURE AM.

[00:02:36.766]
AND YOU MUST BE MR.
PRIOR FROM NASA LANGLEY.

[00:02:38.996]
YES, I AM, AND I UNDERSTAND
FROM YOUR EMAIL THAT YOU WANT

[00:02:41.706]
TO KNOW MORE ABOUT THE MOON.

[00:02:43.356]
YES, I WAS LOOKING AT
THE MOON THE OTHER NIGHT,

[00:02:45.426]
AND I WAS WONDERING WHY
IT HAD DIFFERENT SHAPES.

[00:02:47.646]
THE DIFFERENT SHAPES ARE
CALLED THE PHASES OF THE MOON.

[00:02:50.216]
LET'S STEP OVER HERE, AND
I'LL SHOW YOU WHAT I MEAN.

[00:02:52.646]
[00:02:54.006]
WHAT DO YOU DO WITH THE LAMP?

[00:02:55.726]
THE LAMP REPRESENTS THE SUN.

[00:02:58.476]
THINK OF THIS BALL AS THE MOON.

[00:03:00.016]
AND YOU'RE THE EARTH.

[00:03:01.266]
OKAY.

[00:03:01.826]
NOW, HOLD THE BALL IN FRONT
OF YOU AND TOWARDS THE SUN.

[00:03:05.546]
WHAT DO YOU SEE THERE?

[00:03:06.916]
THE SIDE THAT I'M
LOOKING AT IS DARK.

[00:03:08.616]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:03:09.066]
THAT'S CALLED THE NEW MOON PHASE.

[00:03:11.346]
NOW, TURN TO THE LEFT A QUARTER
TURN, AND KEEP HOLDING THE MOON

[00:03:16.176]
IN FRONT OF YOU, AND
TELL ME WHAT YOU SEE.

[00:03:18.216]
NOW HALF THE SIDE THAT
I'M FACING IS LIT.

[00:03:20.346]
THAT'S CALLED FIRST QUARTER.

[00:03:22.166]
KEEP GOING.

[00:03:24.386]
OKAY, NOW THE WHOLE THING IS LIT.

[00:03:26.186]
THIS MUST BE A FULL MOON.

[00:03:27.576]
KEEP GOING.

[00:03:29.066]
[00:03:30.436]
NOW ONLY HALF IS LIT,
BUT IT'S THE OTHER SIDE.

[00:03:32.726]
YES, THAT'S CALLED THE
MOON'S THIRD QUARTER PHASE.

[00:03:35.746]
OKAY, I GET IT.

[00:03:36.746]
SO THE PHASES OF THE
MOON ARE CREATED

[00:03:38.406]
WHEN THE MOON REVOLVES
AROUND THE EARTH.

[00:03:39.676]
THE SAME SIDE OF THE MOON
IS ALWAYS FACING THE EARTH,

[00:03:42.506]
AND AS IT REVOLVES AROUND
THE EARTH, DIFFERENT PORTIONS

[00:03:45.246]
OF THE SURFACE ARE
ILLUMINATED BY THE SUN.

[00:03:47.816]
THOSE ARE THE LUNAR PHASES.

[00:03:49.596]
WHY DO WE ONLY SEE
ONE SIDE OF THE MOON?

[00:03:51.486]
THE MOON ROTATES ON ITS
AXIS ONCE EVERY 27.3 DAYS.

[00:03:55.686]
IT TURNS OUT, IT'S ALSO
27.3 DAYS THAT IT TAKES

[00:03:58.856]
TO REVOLVE AROUND THE EARTH.

[00:04:00.116]
THAT'S THE WHY THE SAME SIDE OF THE
MOON IS ALWAYS FACING THE EARTH.

[00:04:04.256]
HOW OLD IS THE MOON?

[00:04:05.176]
THE MOON IS A LOT
OLDER THAN YOU AND ME.

[00:04:07.426]
IT'S ABOUT 4 1/2 BILLION YEARS.

[00:04:09.766]
IT'S ROUGHLY THE AGE OF THE EARTH,

[00:04:11.386]
BUT THAT'S WHERE THE
SIMILARITIES END.

[00:04:13.726]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:04:14.626]
WELL, THERE'S NO ATMOSPHERE
ON THE MOON.

[00:04:16.906]
AND THE GRAVITY'S MUCH LESS.

[00:04:18.736]
IT'S ONLY ABOUT 1/6 THE
GRAVITY OF THE EARTH

[00:04:21.026]
AT THE SURFACE OF THE MOON.

[00:04:22.506]
SO IF I WEIGH 90 POUNDS ON THE
EARTH, THEN I WOULD WEIGH...

[00:04:27.516]
[00:04:29.066]
15 POUNDS ON THE MOON.

[00:04:30.256]
COOL.

[00:04:30.806]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND THE SURFACE OF
THE MOON IS VERY DIFFERENT TOO.

[00:04:34.096]
SO WHAT ARE THOSE BIG CIRCLES THAT
I SEE WHEN I LOOK AT THE MOON?

[00:04:36.616]
THOSE CIRCLES ARE CRATERS FROM
THE METEORS AND THE ASTEROIDS

[00:04:40.036]
THAT HAVE IMPACTED ON
THE MOON OVER THE YEARS.

[00:04:41.746]
THERE'S NO WATER OR WEATHER
EROSION TO HELP GET RID OF THEM,

[00:04:44.636]
SO THEY'RE ALL STILL THERE.

[00:04:46.086]
SO WHAT'S THE SURFACE LIKE?

[00:04:47.086]
THE SURFACE IS GENERALLY
GRAY IN COLOR AND SANDY.

[00:04:50.416]
IT FEELS VERY MUCH
LIKE THIS CONCOCTION.

[00:04:54.566]
[00:04:56.426]
IT FEELS LIKE DUST.

[00:04:59.926]
YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:05:00.276]
THERE WAS A REAL CONCERN
EARLY IN THE MOON PROGRAM

[00:05:03.266]
THAT IT MIGHT BE LIKE QUICKSAND
AND THE ASTRONAUTS COULD SINK

[00:05:05.566]
IN IT, BUT OF COURSE,
THAT DID NOT HAPPEN.

[00:05:07.526]
GOOD THING THEY DIDN'T.

[00:05:08.826]
DOES THE MOON AFFECT
THE EARTH AT ALL?

[00:05:10.256]
OH, YES, THE MOON
AFFECTS THE TIDES.

[00:05:12.176]
AND IF WE WERE ON THE BEACH...

[00:05:13.956]
HOW DID THAT HAPPEN?

[00:05:16.676]
I DON'T EVEN WANT TO ASK.

[00:05:18.296]
THE MOON'S GRAVITATIONAL
PULL DEPENDS ON THE DISTANCE.

[00:05:21.546]
IT'S GREATER ON THE
OCEANS CLOSEST TO THE MOON

[00:05:23.756]
THAN ON THE CENTER OF THE EARTH.

[00:05:25.576]
THIS TENDS TO PULL THE
OCEANS INTO A BIG BULGE.

[00:05:28.826]
ANYTHING ELSE?

[00:05:30.046]
ACTUALLY, THE MOON IS
INCREASING THE LENGTH OF OUR DAY

[00:05:32.696]
BY .0016 SECONDS EVERY CENTURY.

[00:05:36.466]
WE COULD MEASURE THAT?

[00:05:38.826]
WOW, I'M IMPRESSED.

[00:05:40.276]
HOW DOES IT LENGTHEN THE DAY?

[00:05:41.926]
THE EARTH'S TIDES ACT LIKE A BREAK
TO GRADUALLY REDUCE THE SPEED

[00:05:45.976]
OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION.

[00:05:47.546]
THAT'S SO INTERESTING.

[00:05:48.676]
THANKS, MR. PRIOR.

[00:05:49.526]
YOU'VE GIVEN ME A LOT
OF USEFUL INFORMATION.

[00:05:51.716]
NOW I WONDER HOW WE'RE GONNA
GET BACK TO THE MUSEUM.

[00:05:58.356]
WE'RE LEARNING ALL
ABOUT THE MOON AND MARS.

[00:06:00.866]
THE MOON IS A REALLY COOL PLACE.

[00:06:02.366]
THERE'S A LOT LESS GRAVITY THERE.

[00:06:03.446]
AND THAT'S GONNA MAKE
THINGS SO MUCH EASIER TO DO.

[00:06:05.696]
YOU THINK SO?

[00:06:07.686]
YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED
HOW DIFFICULT LIVING

[00:06:09.616]
IN AN ALIEN ENVIRONMENT CAN BE.

[00:06:11.366]
HOW IS THAT?

[00:06:12.376]
THERE ARE A LOT OF THINGS
YOU MIGHT NOT THINK OF.

[00:06:14.656]
HAVE YOU EVER GONE
CAMPING IN THE MOUNTAINS?

[00:06:16.826]
THAT'S AN ALIEN ENVIRONMENT?

[00:06:18.496]
WELL, NOT QUITE THE SAME
THING, BUT YOU DO HAVE

[00:06:20.856]
TO THINK A LITTLE DIFFERENTLY.

[00:06:22.526]
FOR EXAMPLE, ON A 10,000-FOOT
MOUNTAIN, THE AIR PRESSURE IS LOW,

[00:06:25.926]
AND WATER BOILS AT 90 DEGREES
CELSIUS INSTEAD OF 100 DEGREES,

[00:06:29.756]
SO FOOD DOESN'T COOK AS QUICKLY.

[00:06:31.486]
OH, I GET IT.

[00:06:32.886]
SO ON THE MOON WHERE THERE
ISN'T ANY ATMOSPHERE,

[00:06:35.276]
THE WATER WOULD BOIL AT
AN EVEN LOWER TEMPERATURE.

[00:06:38.446]
[00:06:39.806]
WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:06:40.696]
IF THERE ISN'T ANY
ATMOSPHERE, THEN WE WOULD HAVE

[00:06:42.906]
TO BRING OUR OWN OXYGEN SUPPLY.

[00:06:44.456]
ACTUALLY, YOU COULDN'T
JUST BRING AN OXYGEN MASK.

[00:06:47.036]
YOU WOULD HAVE TO
HAVE A SPACE SUIT.

[00:06:48.956]
I HAVE ONE IN MY CLOSET.

[00:06:50.876]
[00:06:52.806]
WHY WOULD YOU NEED THAT?

[00:06:54.126]
A SPACE SUIT PROTECTS YOU
FROM TEMPERATURE EXTREMES.

[00:06:56.886]
ON THE MOON, IT'S ABOUT 130
DEGREES CELSIUS IN THE DAYTIME

[00:07:00.516]
AND -170 CELSIUS AT NIGHT.

[00:07:03.556]
MORE IMPORTANTLY, BECAUSE
THERE IS NO AIR ON THE MOON,

[00:07:06.956]
YOUR BLOOD WOULD BOIL
WITHOUT A SPACE SUIT.

[00:07:08.786]
OH, I SEE YOU FOUND IT.

[00:07:11.226]
OKAY, YOU SOLD ME
ON THE SPACE SUIT.

[00:07:12.996]
IS THERE ANYTHING ELSE?

[00:07:14.206]
WELL, NOW YOU WILL FIND THAT TASKS
ARE TOUGHER WITH THE SPACE SUIT.

[00:07:17.156]
I'LL GIVE YOU A FEW
SIMPLE THINGS TO DO.

[00:07:20.666]
EVEN EASY TASKS BECOME DIFFICULT.

[00:07:29.666]
[00:07:35.486]
LET'S TRY SOMETHING ELSE, AND
SUPPOSE YOU'RE ON A PLANET

[00:07:37.866]
WHERE THE GRAVITATIONAL
FORCE IS VERY STRONG.

[00:07:40.256]
FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU
COULD STAND ON JUPITER,

[00:07:42.666]
YOU'D WEIGH 2 1/2 TIMES
YOUR EARTH WEIGHT.

[00:07:45.196]
NOW, I'LL CUT YOU SOME SLACK

[00:07:46.346]
AND JUST MAKE YOU WEIGH 1
1/2 TIMES YOUR NORMAL WEIGHT.

[00:07:49.956]
30 POUNDS...

[00:07:51.736]
AND FOUR MORE HERE...

[00:07:55.546]
[00:07:58.446]
AND HERE.

[00:08:01.266]
THANKS A LOT.

[00:08:02.406]
NOW IT'S REALLY HARD TO MOVE.

[00:08:04.046]
IMAGINE LIVING ON A WORLD LIKE THE
MOON WHERE IT'S DARK FOR TWO WEEKS

[00:08:07.266]
AT A TIME AND THEN
LIGHT FOR TWO WEEKS.

[00:08:09.106]
IT'D BE PRETTY HARD GETTING USED
TO GOING TO SLEEP WHEN IT'S LIGHT

[00:08:11.646]
FOR THAT LONG OF A TIME.

[00:08:12.816]
THAT'D BE A LOT EASIER TO LIVE
WITH THAN WEARING THESE WEIGHTS.

[00:08:15.486]
SO WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED
ABOUT MARS?

[00:08:17.476]
WELL, I HAVEN'T DONE A LOT
OF RESEARCH ON MARS YET.

[00:08:20.416]
WHY DON'T YOU GO AND
SEE DR. BOBBY BRAUN

[00:08:22.146]
WITH NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER?

[00:08:23.846]
HE'S DONE A LOT OF
RESEARCH ON MARS.

[00:08:25.986]
THANKS, DR. D. THAT'S
WHERE I'M HEADED NEXT.

[00:08:28.316]
SEE YOU LATER, GUYS.

[00:08:29.226]
OH, HI, DR. BRAUN.

[00:08:32.636]
HI, RJ, I HEAR YOU WANT
TO LEARN ABOUT MARS.

[00:08:36.146]
YES, WE'RE TRYING TO PLAN THE
ULTIMATE FUTURE TRAVEL TRIP.

[00:08:40.066]
ONE OF THE PLACES THAT WE WANTED
TO STOP ON OUR CRUISE WAS MARS.

[00:08:42.796]
MARS IS AN EXCELLENT CHOICE
BECAUSE OF ALL THE PLANETS

[00:08:45.396]
IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM, MARS
IS THE MOST LIKE THE EARTH.

[00:08:47.996]
HOW IS IT LIKE EARTH?

[00:08:49.406]
JUST LIKE EARTH, MARS HAS A SOLID
SURFACE WITH MOUNTAINS, VALLEYS,

[00:08:53.086]
VOLCANOES, AND EVEN CRATERS.

[00:08:55.246]
MARS EVEN HAS THE
LARGEST KNOWN VOLCANO

[00:08:57.126]
AND CANYON IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

[00:08:59.226]
WOW, THOSE'LL MAKE GREAT TOURIST
ATTRACTIONS FOR OUR TRAVELERS.

[00:09:02.716]
ISN'T MARS SMALLER THAN EARTH?

[00:09:04.216]
YES, IT'S ABOUT HALF THE
DIAMETER OF THE EARTH,

[00:09:06.626]
BUT IT HAS THE SAME LAND AREA

[00:09:08.176]
SINCE EARTH IS COVERED
LARGELY BY OCEANS.

[00:09:10.406]
IS THERE WATER ON MARS?

[00:09:11.756]
THERE'S EVIDENCE THAT A VAST
AMOUNT OF LIQUID WATER FLOWED

[00:09:14.376]
ACROSS MARS' SURFACE IN THE PAST,

[00:09:16.706]
BUT THERE'S NO LIQUID
WATER ON THE SURFACE TODAY.

[00:09:19.326]
HOWEVER, THERE IS FROZEN
WATER BENEATH THE SURFACE.

[00:09:22.586]
DOES MARS HAVE SEASONS JUST
LIKE WE DO HERE ON EARTH?

[00:09:25.606]
YES, JUST LIKE THE EARTH,
MARS IS TILTED ON ITS AXIS.

[00:09:28.846]
IT'S THIS TILT THAT CAUSES
THE DIFFERENT SEASONS.

[00:09:31.366]
ASTRONOMERS HAVE EVEN NOTICED
THAT THE POLAR ICE CAPS SHRINK

[00:09:34.556]
IN THE MARTIAN SUMMERS AND GET
LARGER DURING THE MARTIAN WINTERS.

[00:09:37.766]
WHAT'S THE ATMOSPHERE LIKE ON MARS?

[00:09:39.866]
NOW, THAT'S VERY DIFFERENT
FROM EARTH'S.

[00:09:41.956]
MARS' ATMOSPHERE IS VERY THIN AND
HAS ONLY ABOUT 1/200 OF THE AMOUNT

[00:09:45.766]
OF GAS THAT WE HAVE ON THE EARTH,
AND IT'S MOSTLY CARBON DIOXIDE.

[00:09:49.676]
YES, AND THE EARTH'S
ATMOSPHERE IS 21% OXYGEN,

[00:09:52.816]
78% NITROGEN, AND 1% TRACE GASES.

[00:09:56.516]
SO I GUESS WE HAVE TO BRING
OXYGEN FOR OUR TRAVELERS.

[00:09:59.126]
YES, OR YOU COULD MAKE OXYGEN

[00:10:00.786]
FROM THE WATER BURIED
BENEATH THE SURFACE OF MARS.

[00:10:03.186]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:10:04.116]
WATER IS H2O: TWO PART
HYDROGEN, AND ONE PART OXYGEN.

[00:10:08.246]
RIGHT.

[00:10:08.886]
AND BECAUSE MARS IS 1 1/2
TIMES FARTHER FROM THE SUN

[00:10:11.776]
THAN THE EARTH, YOU BETTER
MAKE SURE THAT YOU'RE OUTFITTED

[00:10:14.016]
TO WITHSTAND THE COLD TEMPERATURES.

[00:10:15.786]
I'M WONDERING IF THAT'S GOING TO
BE A PROBLEM, 'CAUSE I'VE READ

[00:10:18.266]
THAT THE SPACE SUITS
AND THE BACKPACKS

[00:10:19.846]
THAT THE APOLLO ASTRONAUTS
WORE WERE ALMOST 200 POUNDS.

[00:10:23.136]
FORTUNATELY, THE GRAVITY ON MARS
IS LESS THAN THAT OF THE EARTH.

[00:10:26.466]
WE LEARNED FROM MR. PRIOR
THAT THE MOON'S GRAVITY IS 1/6

[00:10:29.176]
THAN THAT OF THE EARTH.

[00:10:30.416]
IS MARS LESS THAN THAT?

[00:10:31.786]
NO, ACTUALLY, MARS' GRAVITY IS
ABOUT 1/3 THAT OF THE EARTH.

[00:10:35.236]
TO COMPARE IN LIKE
DENOMINATORS, FIRST YOU HAVE

[00:10:37.326]
TO FIND A COMMON DENOMINATOR.

[00:10:39.166]
FOR EXAMPLE, WITH THE
FRACTIONS 1/6 AND 1/3,

[00:10:41.796]
THE COMMON DENOMINATOR IS 6.

[00:10:44.146]
THEN YOU MULTIPLY 1/3 BY
2/2, WHICH IS ACTUALLY 1.

[00:10:47.686]
THEN YOU GET 2/6.

[00:10:49.036]
THEN IT'S EASY TO SEE THAT
2/6 IS GREATER THAN 1/6.

[00:10:52.356]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:10:53.136]
I HAVE AN IDEA.

[00:10:54.026]
LET'S GO SEE HOW MUCH YOU WOULD
WEIGH ON EARTH AND ON MARS.

[00:10:57.366]
[00:10:58.566]
IT LOOKS LIKE YOU WEIGH 100
POUNDS HERE ON THE EARTH,

[00:11:00.826]
AND THE SPACE SUIT'S 200 POUNDS,
SO WHAT WOULD THAT BE ON MARS?

[00:11:04.246]
I KNOW YOU WOULDN'T
WEIGH 300 POUNDS,

[00:11:06.446]
'CAUSE THEN YOU COULDN'T
WALK AROUND.

[00:11:07.866]
WELL, THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:11:08.676]
IT WOULD 1/3 OF 300 POUNDS.

[00:11:10.476]
THAT'S 100 POUNDS.

[00:11:12.006]
THAT'S THE SAME AS
I WEIGH ON EARTH.

[00:11:14.256]
OH, THAT'S TOO BAD.

[00:11:15.916]
I WAS HOPING THAT IF I WEIGHED
LESS, I COULD JUMP HIGHER.

[00:11:19.206]
THEN I'D BE A GREAT
BASKETBALL PLAYER.

[00:11:21.086]
RIGHT, BUT IF YOU HAD AN
INDOOR BASKETBALL COURT

[00:11:23.436]
AND DIDN'T NEED THE SPACE
SUIT, YOU'D WEIGH A LOT LESS.

[00:11:25.856]
I CAN SEE IT NOW.

[00:11:27.116]
BASKETBALL CAMP ON MARS: WHERE
YOU'RE GUARANTEED A SLAM DUNK.

[00:11:31.136]
THERE YOU ARE.

[00:11:33.616]
I'VE BEEN WAITING FOR
YOU GUYS TO GET HERE.

[00:11:38.336]
WHAT'S THE HURRY?

[00:11:39.476]
BIANCA'S READY TO GIVE US
ANOTHER VIDEO POSTCARD.

[00:11:42.576]
QUE PASA?

[00:11:43.216]
IN OTHER WORDS, WHAT'S UP?

[00:11:45.376]
I'M BACK AGAIN, THIS TIME,
IN LOIZA, PUERTO RICO,

[00:11:49.286]
AND PART OF THE PUERTO RICAN
TRADITION IS THE DANCING.

[00:11:55.576]
TAKE A LOOK.

[00:11:58.026]
THIS IS CARNIVAL RUMBA.

[00:12:00.316]
CHECK THEM OUT.

[00:12:01.406]
THEY'RE CALLED THE HAPPY DANCERS.

[00:12:03.156]
THEY TOLD ME THE REASON
THEY'RE CALLED THIS IS

[00:12:05.466]
BECAUSE WHEN YOU DANCE,
YOU'RE HAPPY.

[00:12:08.696]
DON'T YOU LOVE THEIR
COLORFUL COSTUMES?

[00:12:13.786]
BUT THEY WEREN'T THE ONLY
ONES PERFORMING TONIGHT.

[00:12:16.596]
TAINO INDIANS, AFRICANS, AND ALSO
SPANIARDS BROUGHT THEIR DANCE

[00:12:20.576]
TO PUERTO RICO.

[00:12:21.906]
MEET MY NEW FRIENDS,
AND WATCH CLOSELY

[00:12:23.536]
AS THEY USE THEIR FANCY FOOTWORK

[00:12:27.556]
TO PROUDLY EXPRESS THEIR
HERITAGE AND THEIR HISTORY.

[00:12:33.546]
BIANCA, DANCE.

[00:12:34.026]
I GUESS IT'S TIME TO BAMBA.

[00:12:39.036]
ALL RIGHT, I'M READY TO GO.

[00:12:41.096]
I THINK WE HAVE ENOUGH INFORMATION

[00:12:42.416]
TO PLAN OUR OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD
VACATION.

[00:12:44.636]
I THINK WE NEED TO GO
TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:12:46.996]
WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:12:47.976]
WE KNOW THAT LIVING IN SPACE IS
A LOT HARDER THAN LIVING HERE

[00:12:50.266]
ON EARTH AND THAT IT WILL
DEFINITELY CHANGE OUR SLEEPING

[00:12:52.736]
AND EATING HABITS.

[00:12:53.746]
WE KNOW THAT GRAVITY IS
DIFFERENT ON THE MOON AND ON MARS.

[00:12:56.736]
WE LEARNED HOW TO MEASURE
DISTANCES IN SPACE.

[00:12:59.116]
WE LEARNED HOW FAR AWAY
OUR DESTINATIONS ARE.

[00:13:01.516]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:13:03.936]
HOW ARE WE GOING TO GET THERE?

[00:13:05.456]
DR. D TALKED TO US ABOUT
HOW LONG IT WOULD TAKE

[00:13:07.396]
TO TRAVEL TO THE MOON AND MARS.

[00:13:09.276]
MAYBE WE NEED TO ASK
MORE ABOUT SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:13:11.656]
LET'S CALL HIM UP.

[00:13:14.256]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:15.326]
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF GOING
TO THE MOON INSTEAD OF MARS?

[00:13:18.186]
WHY WOULD MARS MAKE A GOOD
CHOICE FOR A VACATION?

[00:13:21.136]
HOW WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
TRAVEL TO THEIR DESTINATION?

[00:13:24.156]

[00:00:01.476]
ARE YOU READY TO ANSWER
THESE QUESTIONS?

[00:00:05.166]
WHAT IS ACCELERATION?

[00:00:07.856]
WHY DO YOU NEED TO
EXERCISE IN SPACE?

[00:00:11.266]
WHAT IS PLASMA?

[00:00:13.806]
DO YOU SEE DR. D YET?

[00:00:15.596]
I WONDER WHY HE ASKED
US TO MEET HIM HERE

[00:00:17.546]
AT BUSCH GARDENS, WILLIAMSBURG.

[00:00:18.946]
THERE HE IS.

[00:00:20.406]
HI, KIDS.

[00:00:21.516]
WELCOME TO YOUR ASTRONAUT
TRAINING PROGRAM.

[00:00:24.186]
ASTRONAUT TRAINING?

[00:00:25.836]
I THOUGHT WE WERE HERE
TO RIDE ROLLER-COASTERS.

[00:00:28.366]
THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT.

[00:00:29.776]
I WANT YOU TO BE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE
THE THRILL OF SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:00:33.286]
AND THE BEST WAY TO DO IT HERE
ON EARTH IS ON A ROLLER-COASTER.

[00:00:37.186]
WHAT DO ROLLER-COASTERS HAVE
TO DO WITH SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:00:40.056]
I KNOW THAT ROLLER-COASTERS
GO FAST, BUT NOT NEARLY

[00:00:42.576]
AS FAST AS ROCKET SHIPS.

[00:00:44.196]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:00:45.186]
BUT IT TURNS OUT THE THRILL
OF SPACE TRAVEL DOESN'T COME

[00:00:47.676]
FROM GOING AT HIGH SPEEDS;
IT COMES FROM ACCELERATIONS.

[00:00:51.076]
WE'VE LEARNED BEFORE THAT
ACCELERATION IS A CHANGE

[00:00:53.286]
IN SPEED OR DIRECTION.

[00:00:54.896]
PRECISELY.

[00:00:55.986]
THE IMPORTANT POINT IS THAT FORCES
ARE NEEDED TO CAUSE ACCELERATIONS.

[00:01:00.156]
REMEMBER THE LAW OF INERTIA?

[00:01:02.066]
I REMEMBER.

[00:01:03.086]
IT STATES THAT OBJECTS
AT REST STAY AT REST,

[00:01:08.986]
AND OBJECTS IN MOTION
REMAIN IN MOTION.

[00:01:14.236]
VERY GOOD.

[00:01:14.466]
LET'S GET THIS BOWLING
BALL ROLLING.

[00:01:16.836]
WHAT IF I HIT IT FROM THE SIDE?

[00:01:22.456]
I WOULD GUESS THAT IT
WOULDN'T CHANGE SPEED.

[00:01:25.166]
I'M NOT SURE WHAT IT WOULD DO.

[00:01:27.076]
LET'S TRY IT.

[00:01:29.056]
IT CHANGED DIRECTION
WITHOUT CHANGING SPEED.

[00:01:32.126]
THE SAME THING HAPPENS
TO A ROLLER-COASTER

[00:01:34.046]
AT THE BOTTOM OF A HILL.

[00:01:35.136]
IT HAS INERTIA AND WANTS TO
MAINTAIN ITS DOWNWARD MOTION,

[00:01:38.856]
BUT THE TRACK PUSHES
THE CAR PERPENDICULAR

[00:01:41.266]
TO ITS MOTION AND SENDS IT UPHILL.

[00:01:43.366]
WHAT DOES THE PUSH OF THE
TRACK DO TO THE PASSENGERS?

[00:01:46.036]
IT MAKES THEM FEEL HEAVY.

[00:01:47.806]
THE FASTER THE COASTER IS
GOING OR THE TIGHTER THE TURN,

[00:01:50.726]
THE HEAVIER THEY WILL FEEL.

[00:01:52.456]
HOW HEAVY WILL YOU FEEL
ON A ROLLER-COASTER?

[00:01:54.616]
HERE ON THE ALPENGEIST, YOU
FEEL ABOUT FOUR TIMES HEAVIER

[00:01:58.096]
THAN NORMAL AT A BOTTOM
OF A COUPLE OF THE HILLS.

[00:02:00.626]
IT TURNS OUT THE SPACE SHUTTLE
ASTRONAUTS ONLY FEEL THREE TIMES

[00:02:04.086]
HEAVIER THAN NORMAL WHEN
THE SHUTTLE IS TAKING OFF.

[00:02:06.176]
SO YOU WERE RIGHT.

[00:02:06.986]
WE ARE GOING TO BE IN
TRAINING TO BE ASTRONAUTS.

[00:02:08.896]
THE DIFFERENT IS ON THE
ALPENGEIST, YOU FEEL HEAVY

[00:02:12.316]
FOR ONLY A FEW SECONDS AT A
TIME, BUT ON THE SPACE SHUTTLE,

[00:02:15.556]
YOU FEEL HEAVY FOR
ABOUT EIGHT MINUTES.

[00:02:17.866]
DON'T ASTRONAUTS ALSO
FEEL WEIGHTLESS?

[00:02:20.276]
WILL WE BE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE
THAT ON THE ALPENGEIST?

[00:02:23.116]
YOU BET.

[00:02:24.106]
ONCE THE ENGINES ARE CUT OFF
AFTER ABOUT EIGHT MINUTES

[00:02:26.486]
AND THE SHUTTLE GOES INTO ORBIT,
THE ASTRONAUTS ARE WEIGHTLESS.

[00:02:29.616]
WEIGHTLESSNESS IS EXPERIENCED WHEN
ONLY GRAVITY ACTS ON AN OBJECT.

[00:02:33.466]
IT'S CALLED FREE FALL.

[00:02:34.266]
LET ME SHOW YOU.

[00:02:35.506]
WHEN I JUMP OFF THIS BENCH,
THE POINTS OF MY HAT WILL FLOAT

[00:02:39.506]
AS IF THEY'RE WEIGHTLESS,
AND THIS SPRING HANGING

[00:02:42.206]
FROM MY HAND WILL COLLAPSE.

[00:02:43.766]
WOW, DR. D. WHAT YOU GO THROUGH
TO SHOW US HOW SCIENCE WORKS.

[00:02:50.476]
SO WHERE ON THE COASTER RIDE
ARE WE GOING TO BE FALLING?

[00:02:53.016]
FREE FALL IS NOT ALWAYS DOWN.

[00:02:54.766]
REMEMBER, IT'S WHEN
ONLY GRAVITY ACTS.

[00:02:57.056]
SO WHEN I THROW THIS KOOSH BALL,
WATCH WHICH PATH IT FOLLOWS.

[00:03:01.436]
[00:03:02.866]
I'VE SEEN THAT BEFORE
WITH THE VOMIT COMET

[00:03:04.696]
WHEN WE WERE LEARNING
ABOUT HABITATS.

[00:03:06.906]
I THINK IT'S CALLED A PARABOLA.

[00:03:08.996]
VERY GOOD.

[00:03:09.936]
THE COASTER GOES OVER A PARABOLIC
HILL AND TWISTS AT THE SAME TIME.

[00:03:13.926]
FOR A FEW SECONDS,
YOU'RE WEIGHTLESS.

[00:03:15.476]
THIS IS GOING TO BE EXCITING.

[00:03:16.756]
CAN WE GO ON THE RIDE NOW?

[00:03:18.896]
ONE MORE THING: YOU CAN
TELL HOW HEAVY YOU FEEL

[00:03:21.676]
BY WATCHING THIS ACCELEROMETER.

[00:03:24.086]
WHEN YOU FEEL THREE TIMES AS HEAVY
AS NORMAL, THIS MASS WILL BE PULLED

[00:03:27.236]
DOWN TO THIS POINT RIGHT HERE.

[00:03:29.576]
EINSTEIN TOLD US THAT BEING HEAVY
ON A ROLLER-COASTER AND BEING HEAVY

[00:03:33.286]
ON A BIG PLANET ARE THE SAME THING.

[00:03:35.066]
SO I GUESS WE'RE PREPARING
FOR BOTH SPACE TRAVEL

[00:03:37.246]
AND VISITING AN ALIEN PLANET.

[00:03:38.936]
LET'S GO ON THE RIDE.

[00:03:40.566]
I'M READY TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:03:42.446]
OKAY-- IT'S GOOD TO EXPERIENCE THE
PHYSICS AND NOT JUST TALK ABOUT IT.

[00:03:46.456]
DON'T FORGET TO WATCH THE
ACCELEROMETER AND TRY TO FIGURE

[00:03:49.166]
OUT WHERE YOU ARE WHEN
YOU FEEL THE HEAVIEST.

[00:03:51.376]
COME ON; LET'S GO.

[00:03:53.606]
READY?

[00:03:53.776]
HERE WE GO!

[00:03:54.596]
THAT WAS SO GREAT.

[00:04:03.596]
[00:04:10.146]
I FELT HEAVY AT THE
BOTTOM OF THE HILLS.

[00:04:12.386]
I NOTICED THE ACCELEROMETER
READ MORE THAN THREE A NUMBER

[00:04:14.716]
OF TIMES, BUT I LOST COUNT.

[00:04:17.036]
I NOTICED I FELT WEIGHTLESS
A FEW TIMES.

[00:04:19.446]
I HAD NO IDEA WHERE I WAS ON
THE RIDE, BUT IT WAS EXCITING.

[00:04:23.556]
THANKS.

[00:04:23.786]
DR. D. NOW WE HAVE SOME
PRACTICAL SPACE TRAVEL EXPERIENCE.

[00:04:27.496]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:04:28.056]
YOU'LL BE GREAT ASTRONAUTS.

[00:04:29.596]
OH, I'VE GOT TO RUN.

[00:04:30.486]
SEE YOU LATER.

[00:04:31.216]
BYE, DR. D. THANKS.

[00:04:33.236]
THAT WAS SO MUCH FUN.

[00:04:34.426]
WISH IT WAS THAT EASY
TO GO INTO SPACE.

[00:04:37.186]
OKAY, LET'S ORGANIZE
WHAT WE'VE LEARNED.

[00:04:39.816]
LET ME GET THE LAPTOP, AND THEN
WE CAN FILL OUT THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:04:42.866]
GO TO THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE,
WHERE YOU'LL FIND LOTS OF TOOLS

[00:04:45.626]
TO HELP IN YOUR OWN INVESTIGATION.

[00:04:47.306]
WE LEARNED THAT ACCELERATION OCCURS
WHEN YOU CHANGE SPEED OR DIRECTION.

[00:04:50.636]
WE ALSO LEARNED THAT SOMETIMES
YOU FEEL LIGHTER OR HEAVIER

[00:04:53.386]
ON A ROLLER-COASTER,
DEPENDING ON THE SITUATION.

[00:04:55.736]
SO WHERE DO WE GO NEXT?

[00:04:57.156]
WE JUST LEARNED THAT
IT'S NOT AS EASY

[00:04:58.636]
AS WE THOUGHT TO GO INTO SPACE.

[00:05:00.656]
WHY DON'T WE LEARN MORE
ABOUT SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:05:02.236]
I THINK WE SHOULD LEARN MORE
ABOUT FUTURE SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:05:05.706]
WHY DON'T YOU DO A SEARCH?

[00:05:07.056]
I'LL GO TO THE NASA
HOME PAGE: WWW.NASA.GOV.

[00:05:11.976]
I'LL PUT IN "FUTURE SPACE TRAVEL."

[00:05:14.826]
WOW, NASA'S MARSHALL SPACE
FLIGHT CENTER HAS AN EXHIBIT

[00:05:18.726]
CALLED STARSHIP 2040.

[00:05:20.816]
HERE'S A LIST OF WHERE
THEY'LL BE EXHIBITING.

[00:05:23.176]
LOOK, THERE'S AN EXHIBIT
IN NEW YORK NEXT WEEKEND.

[00:05:25.936]
MY MOM AND I ARE GOING UP.

[00:05:27.186]
MAYBE WE CAN GO AND TALK TO THEM.

[00:05:30.106]
HELLO, MR. WANG.

[00:05:30.966]
HI, I'M CATHERINE.

[00:05:31.886]
MY FRIENDS AND I ARE
DESIGNING A TRAVEL BROCHURE

[00:05:34.206]
FOR A TRIP INTO SPACE.

[00:05:35.026]
BUT WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT FUTURE SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:05:38.636]
WELL, CATHERINE, YOU'VE
COME TO THE RIGHT PLACE.

[00:05:40.356]
WELCOME TO STARSHIP 2040.

[00:05:42.406]
THANKS.

[00:05:43.346]
DO YOU REALLY THINK THERE
WILL BE TOURISTS IN SPACE?

[00:05:45.396]
YES, AND PROBABLY IN YOUR LIFETIME.

[00:05:47.866]
EVERY DAY, SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS,

[00:05:49.666]
AND HIGHLY TRAINED
PEOPLE ARE WORKING

[00:05:51.196]
TO MAKE SPACE TRAVEL A REALITY.

[00:05:52.666]
IN THE NEXT 40 YEARS, WE'RE
LOOKING AT VACATIONING, WORKING,

[00:05:56.356]
AND EVEN LIVING IN SPACE.

[00:05:57.556]
WOW, THAT WOULD BE AWESOME.

[00:05:59.946]
SO HOW DO YOU TRAVEL IN SPACE?

[00:06:01.306]
WITH SYSTEMS LIKE THIS.

[00:06:02.956]
THIS IS A NAVIGATION AND
VEHICLE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM.

[00:06:05.806]
CREW WOULD NEED TO ACCESS
INFORMATION LIKE THIS

[00:06:07.936]
THROUGHOUT THE SHIP.

[00:06:08.626]
THAT MAKES SENSE.

[00:06:12.696]
THIS ISN'T WHAT I
THINK IT IS, IS IT?

[00:06:14.826]
YES, IT IS, BUT IT IS MODIFIED.

[00:06:16.686]
IT'S MORE THAN LIKELY THAT YOUR
SHIP WON'T HAVE ANY GRAVITY,

[00:06:19.726]
SO THEREFORE, THE BATHROOMS
WILL HAVE TO BE CHANGED

[00:06:21.956]
SO YOU CAN WASH YOUR HANDS, BRUSH
YOUR TEETH, OR EVEN TAKE A SHOWER.

[00:06:25.636]
IS THIS THE TOILET?

[00:06:27.546]
YES, AND YOU MUST REMEMBER
THE PHRASE "ALWAYS BUCKLE UP."

[00:06:30.286]
THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT IN
USING THE BATHROOM IN SPACE,

[00:06:32.886]
BECAUSE IF YOU DON'T, A
REALLY BIG MESS CAN HAPPEN.

[00:06:36.726]
WE DON'T WANT THAT.

[00:06:37.666]
USING THE BATHROOM
WILL BE KIND OF WEIRD.

[00:06:39.506]
YES, AND OF COURSE AFTER YOU
FINISH USING THE REST ROOM,

[00:06:41.596]
YOU NEED TO WASH YOUR HANDS SO
YOU CAN USE THIS WASHING FACILITY.

[00:06:45.396]
[00:06:47.146]
WHY ARE THERE CHAIRS
ON THE CEILING?

[00:06:48.926]
THAT'S SIMPLE.

[00:06:49.756]
WHEN TRAVELING IN LOW GRAVITY,
EVERY FLOOR CAN BE A CEILING

[00:06:52.816]
AND EVERY WALL CAN BE A FLOOR.

[00:06:54.286]
YOU FLOAT FROM DECK TO DECK.

[00:06:55.496]
I WOULD HAVE A GREAT
TIME FLOATING AROUND,

[00:06:57.736]
BUT WHAT ELSE CAN YOU DO FOR FUN?

[00:06:59.146]
WELL, YOU HAVE YOUR OWN
PERSONAL ENTERTAINMENT CENTER.

[00:07:01.356]
YOU CAN WATCH MOVIES, PLAY GAMES,
OR EVEN SURF THE SPACE 'NET--

[00:07:04.746]
OR ONE DAY, YOU CAN EVEN TALK
TO YOUR FRIENDS FACE-TO-FACE.

[00:07:07.526]
THAT SOUNDS LIKE MY KIND OF TRAVEL.

[00:07:09.386]
WE LEARNED IN THE CASE

[00:07:10.116]
OF THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE HOW
IMPORTANT IT IS TO EXERCISE.

[00:07:12.966]
DO YOU HAVE ANY EXERCISE
EQUIPMENT FOR SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:07:16.256]
WE SURE DO.

[00:07:16.876]
WITHOUT GRAVITY, THE
HUMAN BODY GETS LAZY.

[00:07:19.166]
TODAY'S FITTEST ASTRONAUTS
EVEN HAVE TO EXERCISE

[00:07:21.276]
AT LEAST TWO HOURS
TO STAY IN SHAPE.

[00:07:23.106]
WE HAVE A STAIR STEPPER, A
CLIMBING WALL, AND A TREADMILL

[00:07:26.066]
THAT YOU CAN STAY IN SHAPE
WITH WHILE YOU'RE IN SPACE.

[00:07:28.496]
HOW DO YOU EAT WHILE
TRAVELING IN SPACE?

[00:07:30.756]
WELL, THE STARSHIP HAS
A SELF-SERVING KITCHEN.

[00:07:33.056]
YOU PRESELECT YOUR MEALS
BEFORE YOU GO ON YOUR TRIP,

[00:07:35.146]
AND ONCE YOU'RE HUNGRY,
YOU DIAL THEM UP.

[00:07:37.276]
AND THEY'RE PREPARED JUST
THE WAY YOU LIKE THEM.

[00:07:39.296]
WOW, THIS TRIP WILL BE SO COOL.

[00:07:40.886]
I CAN'T WAIT TILL THE YEAR 2040.

[00:07:43.136]
THANKS, MR. WANG,
FOR ALL YOUR HELP.

[00:07:44.886]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:07:45.446]
SEND ME A COPY OF YOUR TRAVEL
BROCHURE WHEN YOU'RE DONE.

[00:07:47.586]
WE MIGHT JUST WANT
TO USE IT ONE DAY.

[00:07:49.136]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING, JACOB?

[00:07:53.526]
I WAS JUST INVESTIGATING
A PROPULSION SYSTEM

[00:07:55.576]
FOR OUR SPACE TRAVEL
OUT OF THE GALAXY.

[00:07:57.536]
WITH A BALLOON AND A STRING?

[00:07:59.156]
I WAS JUST STARTING WITH THE
BASICS, INVESTIGATING THE PROBLEM.

[00:08:01.946]
I JUST GOT AN EMAIL FROM
CATHERINE IN NEW YORK.

[00:08:05.346]
SHE SAYS WE SHOULD TALK TO
DR. FRANKLIN CHANG-DIAZ.

[00:08:08.946]
HE'S AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:08:11.396]
I.M. LISSNING IS ON
HER SPACE CRUISE

[00:08:13.166]
AND FILES THIS LIVE
REPORT FROM SPACE.

[00:08:16.226]
I.M.?

[00:08:17.056]
TED, WE'VE BEGUN OUR
THREE-HOUR TOUR TO NEPTUNE.

[00:08:20.446]
SOON WE'LL BE SWIMMING AND
WINDSURFING ON A WHOLE NEW PLANET.

[00:08:24.236]
UM, I.M., THE SURFACE OF NEPTUNE
IS ABOUT -200 DEGREES CELSIUS

[00:08:29.066]
AND IS MADE OF FROZEN
METHANE AND AMMONIA.

[00:08:31.146]
IF YOU GO SWIMMING, YOU
WON'T BE GOING VERY FAST,

[00:08:34.626]
BUT IF YOU GO WINDSURFING,
YOU'LL BE GOING VERY FAST;

[00:08:37.486]
WINDS ON NEPTUNE HAVE BEEN
CLOCKED AT 2,000 MILES PER HOUR.

[00:08:40.826]
WHAT?

[00:08:42.036]
THAT'S NOT WHAT THE BROCHURE SAYS!

[00:08:43.876]
AND UNLESS YOU HAVE A PLASMA DRIVE,

[00:08:45.876]
IT TAKES ABOUT 15
YEARS TO GET THERE.

[00:08:48.386]
15 YEARS.

[00:08:50.916]
WELL, IT'S A GOOD THING THEY
HAVE AN ALL-YOU-CAN-EAT BUFFET.

[00:08:53.986]
I'M HEADING FOR LUNCH, TED.

[00:08:56.156]
SPEAKING OF PLASMA DRIVES,

[00:08:57.836]
NASA ASTRONAUT FRANKLIN
CHANG-DIAZ IS WORKING ON JUST

[00:09:01.296]
SUCH A PROPULSION SYSTEM.

[00:09:02.906]
PLASMA DRIVES WILL REPLACE
TODAY'S CHEMICAL FUEL ROCKETS

[00:09:05.986]
AND MAKE SPACE TRAVEL
FASTER THAN EVER.

[00:09:09.276]
HE SOUNDS LIKE A MAN
WE NEED TO TALK TO.

[00:09:11.226]
SURELY HE CAN HELP ME OUT WITH
MY TEST PROPULSION SYSTEM.

[00:09:13.796]
LET'S TRY AND DIAL HIM UP.

[00:09:17.336]
HI, I UNDERSTAND YOU'D LIKE TO
KNOW MORE ABOUT PROPULSION SYSTEMS.

[00:09:20.916]
YES, WE'RE TRYING TO DESIGN
AN OUT-OF-THIS-WORLD VACATION

[00:09:24.036]
AND REALIZE BECAUSE OF THE GREAT
DISTANCES IN SPACE, WE MIGHT NEED

[00:09:27.306]
TO GET THERE A DIFFERENT WAY.

[00:09:28.866]
HOW DO WE CURRENTLY
TRAVEL TO SPACE?

[00:09:30.776]
WE USE CHEMICAL ROCKETS THAT
PRODUCE A JET OF EXHAUST GASES,

[00:09:35.426]
AND THESE GASES PROPEL
THE SHIP FORWARD.

[00:09:38.366]
HOW LONG WOULD IT TAKE A
SPACESHIP TO REACH MARS?

[00:09:40.656]
ABOUT TEN MONTHS.

[00:09:42.166]
TEN MONTHS IS NOT THAT LONG.

[00:09:43.436]
WHY AREN'T CHEMICAL
ROCKETS GOOD ENOUGH?

[00:09:46.166]
TO AN ASTRONAUT, TEN MONTHS
IN SPACE IS A LONG TIME.

[00:09:49.746]
PERSISTENT RADIATION OF SPACE
WILL WEAKEN YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM

[00:09:55.266]
AND ALSO DAMAGE YOUR
BONES, SO YOU WOULD LIKE

[00:09:58.566]
TO GO THERE AS FAST AS YOU CAN.

[00:10:00.776]
YES, WE LEARNED A LITTLE
ABOUT PHYSIOLOGICAL LOSSES

[00:10:03.046]
FROM BETH SHEPERD IN OUR LAST CASE.

[00:10:05.306]
WHAT WILL THE PROPULSION
SYSTEMS IN THE FUTURE BE LIKE?

[00:10:07.836]
INSTEAD OF USING THE HEAT
FROM A CHEMICAL REACTION,

[00:10:11.726]
THE FUTURE ROCKETS WILL USE
SOMETHING CALLED A PLASMA.

[00:10:15.266]
WHAT'S PLASMA?

[00:10:16.536]
PLASMA IS A GAS WHICH HAS BEEN
SUPERHEATED TO MILLIONS OF DEGREES.

[00:10:21.116]
IT IS EVEN HOTTER THAN
THE INTERIOR OF OUR SUN.

[00:10:24.786]
THAT'S HOT.

[00:10:25.486]
HOW WILL THE ROCKET NOT BURN UP
WITH SUCH A HIGH TEMPERATURE?

[00:10:28.616]
SINCE THERE IS NO KNOWN MATERIAL
THAT CAN TAKE THOSE TEMPERATURES,

[00:10:32.856]
WE WILL NOT USE MATERIALS.

[00:10:34.546]
WE ARE GOING TO USE AN
INVISIBLE FORCE FIELD

[00:10:38.286]
THAT WILL HOLD THIS
PLASMA AND PREVENT IT

[00:10:40.786]
FROM TOUCHING ANY
SURROUNDING MATERIAL.

[00:10:43.426]
HOW WILL IT WORK?

[00:10:44.586]
THE MAGNETIC FIELD IS LIKE AN
INVISIBLE TUBE THAT WILL CONTAIN

[00:10:48.956]
AND GUIDE THE PLASMA TO
PROVIDE A MUCH HOTTER EXHAUST.

[00:10:53.336]
WHERE WILL YOU GET THE
ENERGY TO HEAT THE PLASMA?

[00:10:55.346]
WE WILL GET THE ENERGY
FROM ELECTRICITY GENERATED

[00:10:58.976]
BY AN ONBOARD NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.

[00:11:02.086]
WILL PLASMA ROCKETS BE USED TO
TRAVEL OUTSIDE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM?

[00:11:05.856]
EVENTUALLY PLASMA ROCKETS WILL
BECOME EVEN MORE POWERFUL,

[00:11:09.496]
WHERE THE ENERGY OF THE
PLASMA WILL BE GENERATED

[00:11:13.166]
BY AN INTERNAL SOURCE:

[00:11:15.326]
A THERMONUCLEAR REACTION
CALLED FUSION.

[00:11:18.406]
I'VE HEARD OF FUSION.

[00:11:19.476]
IT SOUNDS FAST.

[00:11:20.976]
FUSION ROCKETS WILL BE SO FAST
THAT IT WILL BE POSSIBLE FOR PEOPLE

[00:11:25.526]
TO TRAVEL TO THE FARTHEST REACHES
OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND BE ABLE

[00:11:29.676]
TO RETURN TO THEIR FAMILIES
WITHIN A COUPLE OF YEARS.

[00:11:32.556]
HOW LONG BEFORE WE HAVE
THIS TYPE OF SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:11:34.806]
IT IS HARD TO TELL.

[00:11:36.186]
ONE NEVER KNOWS ABOUT PROGRESS.

[00:11:38.536]
IT COULD BE AS LONG AS 50 YEARS,
BUT THEN AGAIN, IT COULD BE LESS.

[00:11:43.576]
WHY SO LONG?

[00:11:44.866]
DEVELOPING NEW TECHNOLOGY
TAKES TIME, AND WE DO WANT

[00:11:48.636]
TO MAKE SURE IT'S SAFE.

[00:11:50.156]
I KNOW NASA IS VERY CAUTIOUS
AND ALWAYS PUTS SAFETY FIRST.

[00:11:53.576]
THANKS, DR. CHANG-DIAZ,
FOR GIVING US A LOT

[00:11:55.406]
TO LOOK FORWARD TO IN THE FUTURE.

[00:11:56.776]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:11:57.756]
AND DON'T FORGET TO HAVE
FUN DESIGNING YOUR VACATION,

[00:12:01.786]
AND BE SURE TO CALL IF
YOU NEED ANYTHING ELSE.

[00:12:05.456]
WOW, THAT WAS COOL.

[00:12:07.266]
WE NEED TO GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD
AND ORGANIZE OUR INFORMATION.

[00:12:10.256]
WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:12:12.396]
WE'VE LEARNED THAT SPACE
TRAVEL WILL BE A LOT DIFFERENT

[00:12:14.506]
THAN TODAY'S TRAVEL.

[00:12:15.816]
AND WE KNOW FROM DR.
CHANG-DIAZ THAT IT'S GOING

[00:12:17.846]
TO TAKE A PROPULSION SYSTEM
UNLIKE ANY WE CURRENTLY HAVE

[00:12:20.206]
TO GO BEYOND OUR GALAXY.

[00:12:21.576]
I THINK WE NEED TO KNOW
MORE ABOUT OUR GALAXY.

[00:12:25.506]
WAIT, GUYS.

[00:12:26.346]
HERE'S BIANCA FROM PUERTO RICO.

[00:12:30.876]
HI, GUYS.

[00:12:32.616]
I'M UP HERE-- ON TOP OF THE YOKAHU
TOWER-- 1,575 FEET IN THE AIR,

[00:12:39.076]
OVERLOOKING THE NATIONAL
CARIBBEAN RAIN FOREST, EL YUNQUE.

[00:12:42.776]
THIS IS THE ONLY RAIN FOREST IN
THE U.S. NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM.

[00:12:45.776]
ACCORDING TO THE ANCIENT
TAINO INDIAN LEGEND,

[00:12:49.706]
THE GOOD SPIRIT YUQUIYU PROTECTS
PUERTO RICO AND ITS PEOPLE

[00:12:53.676]
FROM HIS MIGHTY MOUNTAINTOP THRONE.

[00:12:55.196]
CAN YOU BELIEVE THAT MORE
THAN 100 BILLION GALLONS

[00:12:58.606]
OF RAIN FALLS HERE EVERY YEAR?

[00:12:59.656]
THAT'S WHY THERE'S SO MANY
RUSHING STREAMS, RIVERS,

[00:13:00.956]
AND THERE'S EVEN WATERFALLS
LIKE THIS ONE.

[00:13:02.196]
THERE ARE THESE BEAUTIFUL
IMPATIENS FLOWERS AND ALL

[00:13:04.266]
OF THESE VINES EVERYWHERE,
AND THEY EVEN HAVE

[00:13:06.746]
OVER 240 DIFFERENT
SPECIES OF TREES.

[00:13:10.076]
I FINALLY MADE IT TO
THE DIEGO WATERFALL.

[00:13:13.886]
ISN'T IT GREAT?

[00:13:15.476]
BUT I THINK IT'S TIME
FOR ME TO TAKE A SWIM.

[00:13:19.686]
BY THE WAY, MY NEXT STOP
IS MY ARECIBO INTERNSHIP.

[00:13:28.236]
BIANCA IS SO LUCKY.

[00:13:30.226]
SHE'S ACTUALLY VISITING THE LARGEST
RADIO TELESCOPE IN THE WORLD.

[00:13:34.606]
MAYBE SHE CAN DO SOME
RESEARCH FOR US.

[00:13:36.976]
I'VE HEARD THE ARECIBO LOOKS
FOR EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE.

[00:13:39.496]
DO YOU MEAN ALIENS?

[00:13:41.576]
THEY USE RADIO TELESCOPES
TO LISTEN FOR THEM.

[00:13:43.576]
I THINK WE SHOULD ASK BIANCA

[00:13:45.266]
TO RESEARCH THE OUT-OF-THE-GALAXY
STOP ON SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:13:48.426]
GREAT, EMAIL HER AND LET HER KNOW.

[00:13:51.446]
WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:52.756]
WILL SPACE TRAVEL BECOME
COMMON IN YOUR LIFETIME?

[00:13:55.716]
ARE PLASMA ROCKETS THE ANSWER
TO FUTURE SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:13:58.666]
WHICH DESTINATION WILL THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES CHOOSE?

[00:14:00.976]
[00:00:01.516]
IN THE LAST EPISODE OF
THE GALACTIC VACATION,

[00:00:04.826]
TRY TO ANSWER THE
FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:06.826]
WHAT IS A RADIO TELESCOPE?

[00:00:09.006]
HOW DO WE LOOK FOR
LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE?

[00:00:10.806]
OH, HI, BIANCA.

[00:00:13.506]
HI, DR. D. WELCOME TO PUERTO RICO.

[00:00:16.846]
THANKS FOR INVITING ME TO COME
LOOK THROUGH YOUR TELESCOPE.

[00:00:19.646]
GLAD TO HAVE YOU.

[00:00:20.256]
HOW DOES IT WORK?

[00:00:21.246]
THIS IS A REFLECTING TELESCOPE.

[00:00:23.636]
IT HAS AN EIGHT-INCH MIRROR
THAT GATHERS A LOT OF LIGHT

[00:00:26.456]
AND MAKES DIM OBJECTS VISIBLE.

[00:00:28.196]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:00:29.286]
SO WE CAN SEE THE
PLANETS AND STARS.

[00:00:31.646]
YES.

[00:00:32.546]
DID YOU KNOW THAT AT THE
ARECIBO RADIO TELESCOPE IN 1992,

[00:00:36.046]
THE VERY FIRST PLANETS OUTSIDE OF
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM WERE DISCOVERED.

[00:00:39.696]
SINCE THEN, WE'VE
DISCOVERED OVER 100

[00:00:41.486]
OF WHAT WE CALL EXTRA-SOLAR
PLANETS.

[00:00:43.606]
YOU MEAN THERE ARE OTHER
PLANETS NOT IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM?

[00:00:47.566]
WHY DIDN'T WE FIND THEM SOONER?

[00:00:49.216]
PLANETS ARE MUCH SMALLER
THAN STARS.

[00:00:51.396]
AND BECAUSE THEY DON'T
PRODUCE THEIR OWN LIGHT

[00:00:54.046]
AND THEY'RE LIGHT YEARS
AWAY, THEY'RE VERY DIM

[00:00:56.406]
AND DIFFICULT TO DETECT.

[00:00:58.226]
DO YOU THINK ANY OF
THE PLANETS HAVE LIFE?

[00:01:00.546]
WE DON'T KNOW YET,
BUT A LOT DEPENDS

[00:01:02.606]
ON WHAT KIND OF STAR THEY ORBIT.

[00:01:04.426]
STARS ALL LOOK THE SAME TO ME,

[00:01:06.096]
EXCEPT SOME ARE BRIGHTER
THAN OTHERS.

[00:01:08.016]
TAKE A LOOK.

[00:01:08.456]
I'VE GOT THE STAR
BETELGEUSE IN THE TELESCOPE.

[00:01:10.766]
BEETLEJUICE-- ISN'T THAT A MOVIE?

[00:01:15.176]
BETELGEUSE IS A GIANT STAR.

[00:01:17.596]
IT'S DYING, AND IN ITS OLD
AGE, IT EXPANDED TO MORE

[00:01:20.606]
THAN 500 TIMES THE SIZE OF
THE SUN, WHICH IS LARGER

[00:01:24.016]
THAN THE ORBIT OF MARS.

[00:01:25.506]
I GUESS THAT IF THERE WERE LIFE
ON ANY PLANETS AROUND BETELGEUSE,

[00:01:29.116]
IT WOULDN'T HAVE SURVIVED.

[00:01:30.236]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:01:31.196]
WE DON'T EXPECT TO FIND
LIFE AROUND GIANT STARS.

[00:01:34.286]
DO YOU KNOW THAT STARS
COME IN DIFFERENT COLORS?

[00:01:36.406]
STARS HAVE COLORS?

[00:01:38.576]
I GUESS BETELGEUSE
DID LOOK A LITTLE RED.

[00:01:40.556]
HERE, CHECK OUT THIS
STAR CALLED RIGEL.

[00:01:43.896]
[00:01:48.776]
IT LOOKS BLUE; DOES THE
COLOR MEAN ANYTHING?

[00:01:51.716]
YES, THE COLOR INDICATES
TEMPERATURE.

[00:01:53.866]
BLUE STARS ARE HOT, AND
RED STARS ARE COOLER.

[00:01:56.596]
THAT'S DIFFERENT.

[00:01:58.026]
USUALLY BLUE IS COLD
AND RED IS HOT.

[00:02:00.946]
ISN'T OUR SUN YELLOW?

[00:02:02.566]
YES, OUR SUN, A DWARF
STAR, IS NOT TOO HOT;

[00:02:06.516]
IT'S NOT TOO COLD; IT'S JUST RIGHT.

[00:02:10.216]
VERY FUNNY, DR. D. IN ORDER
TO HAVE LIFE AS WE KNOW IT,

[00:02:13.626]
A PLANET MUST BE JUST THE
RIGHT DISTANCE FROM A STAR

[00:02:16.346]
SO LIQUID WATER CAN EXIST.

[00:02:17.636]
IT'S CALLED THE HABITABLE ZONE.

[00:02:19.536]
IF A STAR IS TOO HOT, THERE'LL BE
TOO MUCH ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION.

[00:02:24.196]
I KNOW ABOUT THAT.

[00:02:25.196]
IT'S WHAT CAUSES YOU
TO GET SUNBURNED.

[00:02:27.196]
LUCKILY, I KNOW ABOUT U.V.
RAYS, AND I'M WEARING LOTS

[00:02:29.866]
OF SUNSCREEN WHILE
HERE IN PUERTO RICO.

[00:02:32.016]
YES, AND HOTTER STARS
DON'T LIVE VERY LONG,

[00:02:34.076]
SO THERE MIGHT NOT BE TIME ENOUGH

[00:02:35.656]
FOR CONDITIONS NECESSARY
FOR LIFE TO DEVELOP.

[00:02:38.306]
SO DOES THAT MEAN THERE
WILL ONLY BE LIFE ON PLANETS

[00:02:40.706]
THAT HAVE STARS EXACTLY LIKE OURS?

[00:02:43.406]
THEY DON'T HAVE TO BE EXACTLY
THE SAME AS OURS, JUST SIMILAR.

[00:02:46.496]
THEY CAN BE A LITTLE
HOTTER OR A LITTLE COLDER.

[00:02:48.716]
HERE, TAKE A LOOK AT THIS.

[00:02:55.016]
IT LOOKS LIKE A BLUE CLOUD.

[00:02:57.226]
IT'S CALLED THE ORION NEBULA.

[00:02:59.346]
IT'S A GLOWING CLOUD OF HYDROGEN
GAS 1,500 LIGHT YEARS FROM EARTH.

[00:03:03.586]
RIGHT NOW, STARS ARE FORMING
JUST BEHIND THIS GLOWING CLOUD.

[00:03:06.966]
IF A STAR WERE BORN RIGHT
NOW, WE WOULDN'T KNOW

[00:03:09.176]
ABOUT IT FOR 1,500 YEARS.

[00:03:11.676]
YOU'VE BEEN PAYING ATTENTION.

[00:03:13.226]
LET ME SHOW YOU SOMETHING
REALLY SPECTACULAR.

[00:03:15.856]
IT JUST LOOKS LIKE A
FUZZY PATCH OF LIGHT.

[00:03:22.746]
IT'S CALLED THE WHIRLPOOL GALAXY.

[00:03:24.476]
IT DOESN'T LOOK VERY BRIGHT,
BECAUSE IT IS SO FAR AWAY.

[00:03:27.906]
HOW FAR AWAY IS IT?

[00:03:29.276]
WE DON'T HAVE AN EXACT DISTANCE,
BUT WE ESTIMATE IT'D BE BETWEEN 15

[00:03:33.496]
AND 37 MILLION LIGHT YEARS.

[00:03:35.766]
IT HAS ABOUT 100 BILLION
STARS IN IT.

[00:03:38.906]
THAT'S AMAZING.

[00:03:39.536]
WITH 100 BILLION STARS, THERE'S GOT
TO BE A LOT OF "JUST RIGHT" STARS,

[00:03:43.936]
AND AT LEAST ONE MUST HAVE
A PLANET WITH LIFE ON IT.

[00:03:47.126]
WELL, IF THERE ISN'T, THERE
ARE HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS

[00:03:50.306]
OF OTHER GALAXIES
THAT MIGHT HAVE LIFE.

[00:03:52.826]
WOW, TRILLIONS OF GALAXIES
WITH BILLIONS OF STARS.

[00:03:56.446]
MY MIND HURTS.

[00:03:58.316]
THANKS, DR. D. ANYTIME.

[00:04:00.826]
SEE YOU LATER.

[00:04:01.646]
BYE.

[00:04:02.996]
[00:04:04.346]
MI NOMBRE ES BIANCA BAKER,
REPORTING HERE FOR MY INTERNSHIP.

[00:04:07.856]
YOU CAN PROCEED.

[00:04:09.066]
I'M AT THE ARECIBO OBSERVATORY.

[00:04:13.376]
LET ME TELL YOU A LITTLE
BIT ABOUT ITS HISTORY.

[00:04:15.386]
THE OBSERVATORY BEGAN
OPERATING IN 1963.

[00:04:18.796]
IT HAS A 20-ACRE RADAR DISH

[00:04:20.606]
AND A 1,000-TON PLATFORM
SUSPENDED ABOVE IT.

[00:04:23.066]
I'M GOING ON A TOUR LATER.

[00:04:24.786]
DO YOU WANT TO COME ALONG?

[00:04:26.986]
HI, BIANCA, WELCOME TO ARECIBO.

[00:04:28.876]
I'M DR. JOSE ALONSO.

[00:04:30.216]
NICE TO MEET YOU.

[00:04:31.706]
THIS PLACE IS SO HUGE.

[00:04:33.146]
I CAN'T WAIT TO SEE EVERYTHING.

[00:04:34.946]
WHERE DO WE START?

[00:04:35.946]
I HAVE A PERFECT SPOT WHERE YOU CAN
HAVE A GREAT LOOK AT THE TELESCOPE.

[00:04:41.626]
[00:04:45.256]
WOW, THIS IS AMAZING.

[00:04:47.036]
I CAN'T BELIEVE I'M 550
FEET ABOVE THE DISH.

[00:04:51.616]
BUT I HAVE A QUESTION: IS A REGULAR
TELESCOPE LIKE A RADIO TELESCOPE?

[00:04:56.336]
THE DIFFERENCE IS THAT REGULAR
TELESCOPES GATHER LIGHT,

[00:05:00.036]
AND RADIO TELESCOPE
GATHERS RADIO WAVES.

[00:05:02.816]
WHERE DO THE SIGNALS COME FROM?

[00:05:04.566]
MOST OBJECTS IN THE UNIVERSE,
LIKE GALAXIES, PULSARS, QUASARS,

[00:05:07.806]
THEY EMIT RADIO WAVES.

[00:05:09.726]
HOW DOES THE RADIO TELESCOPE WORK?

[00:05:12.016]
RADIO SIGNALS WHICH ARE COMING FROM
THE SKY, THEY WILL BE REFLECTED

[00:05:15.986]
FROM THE VERY LARGE
REFLECTOR UNDERNEATH.

[00:05:18.046]
THEN THEY WILL COME UP AND BE
GATHERED INTO SPECIAL RECEIVERS

[00:05:21.846]
THAT WILL TRANSFORM THEM
INTO AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL.

[00:05:25.006]
THAT SIGNAL WILL THEN BE
SENT TO THE CONTROL ROOM,

[00:05:28.306]
WHERE SCIENTISTS WILL
BE ABLE TO SEE THEM.

[00:05:30.776]
WHY ELECTRICAL SIGNALS?

[00:05:32.546]
SO THAT THE SIGNALS
CAN BE MONITORED

[00:05:34.286]
BY THESE SPECIAL COMPUTERS.

[00:05:36.016]
HERE'S AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE
SIGNAL MIGHT BE DISPLAYED.

[00:05:39.706]
IT LOOKS LIKE A GRAPH.

[00:05:41.916]
[00:05:43.886]
BIANCA, I WANT YOU
TO MEET TAPASI GHOSH.

[00:05:46.396]
SHE'S ONE OF OUR ASTRONOMERS.

[00:05:48.166]
HI, BIANCA.

[00:05:48.886]
HELLO.

[00:05:49.696]
PUERTO RICO IS AN ISLAND IN THE
CARIBBEAN, SO WHY WOULD THEY CHOOSE

[00:05:52.536]
TO BUILD A LARGE TELESCOPE HERE?

[00:05:55.006]
I HAVE SOME WORK TO DO.

[00:05:56.136]
I'LL SEE YOU LATER, BIANCA.

[00:05:57.446]
BYE.

[00:05:58.396]
DO YOU KNOW WE CAN FIT 16
FOOTBALL FIELDS IN THIS AREA?

[00:06:02.236]
16 FOOTBALL FIELDS?

[00:06:03.936]
THEY HAD TO FIND A HUGE
SINKHOLE TO PUT IT IN.

[00:06:06.846]
ALSO, DO YOU THINK YOU CAN MOVE
A 1,000-FOOT TELESCOPE AROUND?

[00:06:10.026]
I WOULDN'T EVEN WANT TO TRY.

[00:06:11.846]
WE KNEW WE COULDN'T MOVE
SUCH A LARGE TELESCOPE,

[00:06:14.666]
SO IT HAD TO BE PUT IN
A PLACE WHERE IT POINTS

[00:06:17.546]
IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION.

[00:06:18.746]
WHERE DOES IT NEED TO POINT?

[00:06:20.246]
IT POINTS UPWARDS, BUT ONE OF THE
MAIN PURPOSES OF THIS TELESCOPE IS

[00:06:24.246]
TO OBSERVE PLANETS, AND FROM NEAR
THE EQUATOR, YOU CAN OBSERVE THEM

[00:06:28.566]
ACROSS THE SKY FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:06:30.716]
I UNDERSTAND NOW, BUT
WHERE ARE WE GOING NEXT?

[00:06:33.546]
I'M GOING TO TAKE
YOU UNDER THE DISH,

[00:06:35.256]
AND THEN WE COME BACK
TO THE CONTROL ROOM.

[00:06:38.176]
I CAN'T BELIEVE THAT WE'RE
UNDERNEATH THE TELESCOPE.

[00:06:42.566]
BUT I CAN SEE THE SKY THROUGH IT.

[00:06:44.296]
WHY ARE THERE HOLES IN THE DISH?

[00:06:46.006]
DON'T THE HOLES LET THE
RADIO WAVES LEAK THROUGH?

[00:06:48.796]
NO, IT'S LIKE BOUNCING A
BALL OFF A TENNIS RACKET.

[00:06:52.616]
IF THE BALL WAS SMALLER, THEN
IT COULD GO THROUGH THE HOLE.

[00:06:55.976]
LIKEWISE, RADIO SIGNAL,
BEING OF LONGER WAVELENGTH,

[00:06:59.656]
BOUNCES OFF THE DISH,
BUT OPTICAL SIGNAL WON'T.

[00:07:02.836]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:07:03.426]
WE LEARNED ABOUT THE
WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT IN THE CASE

[00:07:05.866]
OF THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT.

[00:07:07.436]
BIANCA, LET ME TAKE YOU
TO THE CONTROL ROOM NOW.

[00:07:09.936]
YOU WILL MEET OUR
DIRECTOR, AND HE'S GOING

[00:07:12.006]
TO TELL YOU ABOUT ALIEN RESEARCH.

[00:07:14.60