Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of The Ocean Odyssey

[00:00:12.688]
HI, I'M VANNA WHITE FROM
AMERICA'S FAVORITE GAME SHOW,

[00:00:15.758]
WHEEL OF FORTUNE, WHERE PEOPLE GET
TO SOLVE PUZZLES FOR BIG PRIZES.

[00:00:20.538]
LOOK AT THIS.

[00:00:24.488]
ANOTHER PROBLEM SOLVED.

[00:00:26.318]
SPEAKING OF SOLUTIONS, STAY TUNED

[00:00:28.338]
AS THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
USE MATH, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY,

[00:00:31.978]
AND A FEW VOWELS AND CONSONANTS
TO SOLVE THEIR LATEST MYSTERY

[00:00:35.488]
IN THE NEXT EXCITING EPISODE
OF THE NASA SCI FILES:

[00:00:39.528]
THE CASE OF THE OCEAN ODYSSEY.

[00:00:42.918]
COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

[00:00:51.038]
NASA SCI FILES.

[00:00:52.378]
DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

[00:01:01.378]
[00:01:22.798]
NASA SCI FILES.

[00:01:23.188]
NASA SCI FILES.

[00:01:23.698]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK
FOR THE ANSWERS

[00:01:24.948]
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
WHAT IS A TIDE?

[00:01:29.068]
HOW ARE OCEANS FORMED?

[00:01:31.318]
WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON,
THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

[00:01:34.268]
[00:01:49.618]
ARE YOU SURE WE'RE
IN THE RIGHT PLACE?

[00:01:52.028]
I THINK SO.

[00:01:53.268]
KALI TOLD US TO MEET HER
AT THESE COORDINATES.

[00:01:55.618]
THIS IS A NICE SPOT: PEACEFUL,
REMOTE, ALMOST IDYLLIC,

[00:01:59.798]
PERFECT FOR OUR PICNIC, EXCEPT FOR
THAT GROUP OF PEOPLE OVER THERE.

[00:02:05.448]
OF COURSE, YOUR GPS
MIGHT HAVE BEEN WRONG.

[00:02:07.988]
THAT'S WHY I BROUGHT THIS COMPASS.

[00:02:10.468]
LET'S SEE.

[00:02:11.028]
JUDGING BY THE SUN'S POSITION...

[00:02:13.928]
[00:02:16.918]
HEY, JACOB, THAT'S KALI
AND HER FRIENDS OVER THERE.

[00:02:20.858]
EXACTLY.

[00:02:22.098]
WE SHOULD MEET THEM
RIGHT OVER THERE.

[00:02:24.228]
[00:02:27.488]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:02:28.338]
GLAD YOU COULD MAKE IT.

[00:02:29.268]
WHY DON'T YOU START
CLEANING UP OVER THERE?

[00:02:31.238]
I THOUGHT WE WERE SUPPOSED
TO BE HAVING A PICNIC.

[00:02:33.388]
YEAH, ALL THAT PADDLING
MADE ME HUNGRY.

[00:02:35.478]
SORRY, GUYS.

[00:02:36.148]
WE HAVE TO CLEAN UP FIRST.

[00:02:36.918]
THEN WE CAN EAT.

[00:02:38.438]
THEN WE'LL JUST HAVE
TO CLEAN UP AGAIN.

[00:02:39.668]
YEAH, BUT THE TEAM THAT PICKS

[00:02:40.988]
UP THE MOST TRASH GETS
LUNCH AND DESSERT.

[00:02:43.798]
I KNEW THERE HAD TO BE A CATCH.

[00:02:46.088]
[MUSIC]

[00:02:55.088]
[00:02:59.808]
WHOA.

[00:03:00.048]
THIS IS INTERESTING.

[00:03:01.568]
HEY, GUYS.

[00:03:03.168]
HEY, GUYS!

[00:03:05.108]
COME HERE!

[00:03:07.028]
[00:03:10.618]
THIS IS REALLY STRANGE.

[00:03:12.068]
NOW, LET'S REVIEW THE FACTS.

[00:03:13.508]
WE FOUND 11 PAIRS OF IDENTICAL
SHOES ON THE BEACH COVERED

[00:03:16.848]
IN WHAT WE BELIEVE
TO BE AN OILY GOO.

[00:03:18.938]
YOU MEAN "OILY SUBSTANCE."

[00:03:20.638]
RIGHT, AN OILY SUBSTANCE.

[00:03:22.408]
THEN WE FOUND GLOBS OF THE OILY
SUBSTANCE ALL OVER THE BEACH.

[00:03:25.968]
SOUNDS LIKE WE HAVE
OURSELVES ANOTHER MYSTERY.

[00:03:28.018]
EXACTLY.

[00:03:28.468]
I SAY WE TAKE A FEW PAIRS BACK

[00:03:30.618]
TO THE TREE HOUSE
FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

[00:03:32.788]
HOPEFULLY WE CAN FIGURE OUT THIS
MYSTERY AND CLEAN UP THE BEACH.

[00:03:36.218]
AND WE MIGHT EVEN SCORE A COOL
NEW PAIR OF SHOES IN THE PROCESS.

[00:03:39.748]
[00:03:41.708]
SO THEY'RE A LITTLE WATERLOGGED.

[00:03:43.428]
THEY'RE STILL STYLISH.

[00:03:45.078]
KIND OF RETRO.

[00:03:52.448]
[00:04:05.328]
WHAT ARE THOSE?

[00:04:06.908]
WE FOUND ALL THESE SHOES WHEN
WE WERE CLEANING UP THE BEACH.

[00:04:10.758]
WHAT'S ALL THE BLACK STUFF ON THEM?

[00:04:12.908]
WE'RE NOT SURE.

[00:04:14.608]
BUT I GOT MY DAD TO CHECK THEM
OUT, AND HE AGREES WITH ME:

[00:04:17.988]
OILY GLOBS OF SOME KIND.

[00:04:21.228]
THIS IS TED TUNE.

[00:04:25.848]
WE ARE RECEIVING A LOT OF
CALLS ABOUT SHOES ON THE BEACH,

[00:04:28.558]
AND THEY'RE COVERED
WITH OILY GLOBS.

[00:04:30.868]
I.M. LISSNING IS REPORTING
LIVE FROM THE OCEANFRONT.

[00:04:33.608]
TED, SHOES ARE WASHING UP
EVERYWHERE HERE ON THE BEACH,

[00:04:36.918]
BUT WE THINK WE KNOW THE SOURCE.

[00:04:39.158]
A SHIP THAT JUST DOCKED

[00:04:40.708]
IN THE HARBOR REPORTS LOSING A
CONTAINER OFF THE COAST OF VIRGINIA

[00:04:44.498]
IN A STORM A FEW DAYS AGO.

[00:04:46.848]
ISN'T IT UNUSUAL TO
LOSE A CONTAINER?

[00:04:49.388]
APPARENTLY NOT.

[00:04:50.698]
OVER 10,000 CONTAINERS THE SIZE

[00:04:52.708]
OF SEMITRAILERS ARE LOST
WORLDWIDE EACH YEAR.

[00:04:56.438]
HAVE THERE BEEN ANY
REPORTS OF OIL SPILLS?

[00:04:58.708]
NO, TED, WE HAVE NO
REPORTS OF ANY SPILLS.

[00:05:01.368]
IF YOU HAVE ANY LEADS ABOUT WHERE
THE OIL MIGHT HAVE COME FROM,

[00:05:04.148]
PLEASE CONTACT KSNN.

[00:05:06.508]
SEE?

[00:05:06.908]
I KNEW THAT IT WAS OIL.

[00:05:08.158]
SO IF THE CONTAINER FELL OVERBOARD,
HOW DID THE SHOES GET ON THE BEACH?

[00:05:12.028]
THAT'S EASY.

[00:05:12.958]
I WOULD SAY IF THE SHOES
WERE LOST OFF THE COAST,

[00:05:15.048]
THEN THE TIDE MUST HAVE
CARRIED THEM INTO THE BEACH.

[00:05:17.008]
SOUNDS LIKE A GOOD HYPOTHESIS,

[00:05:19.368]
BUT WE NEED TO CHECK A
LITTLE MORE CAREFULLY.

[00:05:21.448]
REMEMBER, IT'S ALWAYS IMPORTANT

[00:05:22.908]
TO DO RESEARCH BEFORE
JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS.

[00:05:26.108]
WHY DO YOU LOOK AT
ME WHEN YOU SAY THAT?

[00:05:28.938]
I JUST FOUND A TIDAL CHART, AND
IT SAYS THAT IT WAS HIGH TIDE

[00:05:31.748]
WHEN WE FOUND THE SHOES.

[00:05:33.028]
I'M SURE THAT'S WHAT
CARRIED THEM IN.

[00:05:34.438]
WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:05:35.388]
THIS IS STRANGE.

[00:05:37.008]
LOOK AT THIS SHOE.

[00:05:38.338]
I BOUGHT THIS SAME
STYLE TWO YEARS AGO.

[00:05:41.098]
IF THEY JUST FELL OFF THE SHIP,
WOULDN'T THEY BE THE LATEST STYLE?

[00:05:44.418]
I THINK WE NEED TO BRING
UP THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:05:46.718]
GOOD THINKING.

[00:05:48.048]
OKAY, SO WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:05:49.578]
WE KNOW THAT THERE ARE
TENNIS SHOES COVERED

[00:05:50.918]
IN OIL WASHING UP ON THE BEACH.

[00:05:52.898]
AND THAT A CARGO SHIP
LOST A CONTAINER

[00:05:54.558]
OF SHOES OFF THE COAST
JUST A FEW DAYS AGO.

[00:05:57.058]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT THE SHOES WERE
FOUND WHEN THE TIDE WAS HIGH.

[00:05:59.948]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:06:01.858]
WE KNOW THE TIDES BROUGHT
THE SHOES ONTO THE BEACH.

[00:06:04.538]
WE NEED TO SPEAK TO
SOMEONE ABOUT TIDES.

[00:06:06.518]
MAYBE DR. D CAN HELP US
FIND AN EXPERT ON TIDES.

[00:06:08.718]
KALI, CAN YOU EMAIL HIM?

[00:06:10.148]
PRINT OUT OUR GET-UP-AND-GO
SHEETS FROM THE WEBSITE TOO.

[00:06:13.398]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE
FOR LOTS OF GREAT TOOLS TO HELP YOU

[00:06:16.778]
IN YOUR OWN INVESTIGATIONS.

[00:06:18.358]
WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:06:19.698]
WE'VE GOT A CALL COMING
IN FROM TONY.

[00:06:21.978]
ISN'T HE SOMEPLACE IN FLORIDA?

[00:06:24.558]
HI, GUYS.

[00:06:25.698]
GUESS WHERE I AM.

[00:06:27.768]
I'M STAYING IN JULES
UNDERWATER HOTEL,

[00:06:29.678]
THE WORLD'S ONLY UNDERWATER HOTEL.

[00:06:31.658]
WHAT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT?

[00:06:33.478]
RIGHT NOW, I'M 6.4 METERS
BELOW THE SURFACE TRAINING

[00:06:36.228]
FOR MY FUTURE FINANCIAL ADVENTURES.

[00:06:38.188]
I'LL BET IT HAS SOMETHING
TO DO WITH SUNKEN TREASURE.

[00:06:41.128]
HOW DID YOU KNOW?

[00:06:42.288]
UNDERWATER?

[00:06:43.648]
MONEY?

[00:06:44.628]
IT HAD TO BE SUNKEN TREASURE.

[00:06:46.668]
MY TREASURE HUNT IS
GOING TO TAKE MANY DAYS,

[00:06:48.828]
SO I'M TRAINING THE SAME WAY
NASA TRAINS THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:06:51.028]
FOR LONG-TERM SPACE FLIGHTS.

[00:06:52.778]
WOW, THAT'S REALLY COOL.

[00:06:54.748]
THE CONFINEMENT, SEPARATION, AND
BOREDOM OF SPACE TRAVEL ARE SIMILAR

[00:06:58.068]
TO BEING HERE IN THIS
UNDERWATER HABITAT.

[00:06:59.808]
I LEARNED AT SPACE CAMP THAT
YOU MIGHT BECOME MORE IRRITABLE

[00:07:02.948]
AND SENSITIVE TO CERTAIN
NOISES AND ODORS

[00:07:04.808]
AFTER YOU'VE BEEN CONFINED.

[00:07:06.708]
THEY ALSO SAY I'LL
HAVE CHANGES IN MOOD,

[00:07:08.528]
BUT I DOUBT THAT'LL AFFECT ME.

[00:07:10.558]
MIND OVER MATTER.

[00:07:11.698]
RIGHT; ANYWAYS, WHILE YOU'VE
BEEN GONE, WE FOUND A LOT

[00:07:14.868]
OF TENNIS SHOES ON THE BEACH, AND
THEY SEEM TO HAVE OIL ON THEM.

[00:07:18.048]
WE NEED TO DO SOME MORE RESEARCH.

[00:07:19.598]
KEEP CHECKING IN, OKAY?

[00:07:21.208]
BYE, TONY.

[00:07:21.928]
OKAY, I'LL TALK TO YOU SOON; BYE.

[00:07:24.778]
LOOK; AN EMAIL FROM DR.
D. HE WANTS A COUPLE OF US

[00:07:27.628]
TO GO MEET DR. HOFMANN AT WATER
COUNTRY U.S.A. IN WILLIAMSBURG.

[00:07:31.348]
DR. HOFMANN'S AN OCEANOGRAPHER
DOING RESEARCH AT THE PARK.

[00:07:35.178]
THEN HE WANTS US TO COME SEE
HIM AT THE PIER ON DOCK 21-DD.

[00:07:38.788]
RESEARCH AT WATER COUNTRY U.S.A.?

[00:07:40.648]
I FEEL LIKE I'M AT THE OCEAN.

[00:07:48.348]
EXCEPT HERE, THE WAVES
ARE MAN-MADE.

[00:07:51.438]
HI, JACOB AND CATHERINE.

[00:07:52.738]
I'M DR. HOFMANN FROM
OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY.

[00:07:55.428]
HI.

[00:07:56.338]
THIS IS A GREAT PLACE
TO DO RESEARCH.

[00:07:58.478]
WE'VE BEEN WONDERING,
WHAT IS A TIDE EXACTLY?

[00:08:00.668]
A TIDE IS THE REGULAR RISE AND FALL
OF THE SURFACE OF THE OCEAN DUE

[00:08:04.788]
TO THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE OF THE
SUN AND THE MOON ON OUR EARTH.

[00:08:08.508]
WE LEARNED THAT GRAVITY IS A FORCE
THAT EXISTS BETWEEN ALL OBJECTS.

[00:08:11.488]
AND IT MAKES OBJECTS FALL TO EARTH.

[00:08:12.728]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND THE BIGGER THE
OBJECTS, AND THE CLOSER THEY ARE

[00:08:16.338]
TO ONE ANOTHER, THE STRONGER
THE GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION

[00:08:18.998]
BETWEEN THEM.

[00:08:19.618]
THE SUN IS MUCH LARGER THAN
THE EARTH AND THE MOON,

[00:08:21.678]
BUT A LOT FARTHER AWAY FROM
THE EARTH THAN THE MOON.

[00:08:23.978]
SO WHICH ONE CAUSES THE TIDES?

[00:08:25.598]
THEY BOTH DO, BUT THE
MOON PLAYS A BIGGER ROLE,

[00:08:27.798]
BEING ABOUT TWICE AS
STRONG AS THE SUN.

[00:08:30.248]
AS THE TWO OF THEM CREATE
A GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

[00:08:32.668]
ON THE EARTH'S OCEANS,
IT CAUSES THE WATER

[00:08:34.718]
TO MOVE UPWARDS TOWARDS
THE SUN AND THE MOON.

[00:08:36.538]
AND THE EARTH'S GRAVITY
HOLDS THE WATER DOWN.

[00:08:39.268]
RIGHT, BUT THE TIDAL FORCES PULL
WATER SIDEWAYS ALONG THE SURFACE

[00:08:42.738]
OF THE EARTH, AND THIS
TUG OF WAR CREATES A BULGE

[00:08:45.568]
IN THE SURFACE OF THE OCEAN.

[00:08:47.128]
IF THE MOON'S INFLUENCE IS
STRONGER THAN THE SUN'S,

[00:08:49.508]
THEN IS THE BULGE
BIGGER BENEATH THE MOON?

[00:08:51.578]
YES, AND DUE TO THE
ROTATIONAL MOTION

[00:08:53.658]
OF THE EARTH-MOON-SUN
SYSTEM, THERE IS ALSO A BULGE

[00:08:56.928]
ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE EARTH
AWAY FROM THE SUN AND THE MOON.

[00:09:00.478]
THESE BULGES OF WATER ARE LARGE
WAVES THAT WE CALL HIGH TIDES.

[00:09:04.718]
SO IF THE WATER BULGES ON OPPOSITE
SIDES, THEN IT MUST DRAW WATER AWAY

[00:09:08.758]
FROM THE AREA BETWEEN THE BULGES.

[00:09:10.318]
VERY GOOD, AND THAT IS
WHERE LOW TIDES OCCUR.

[00:09:12.508]
HOW OFTEN DO WE HAVE
HIGH AND LOW TIDES?

[00:09:14.438]
MANY COASTAL LOCATIONS, SUCH AS
THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC COAST,

[00:09:18.458]
EXPERIENCE TWO HIGH AND
TWO LOW TIDES EACH DAY.

[00:09:22.078]
BUT SOME AREAS, SUCH AS THE GULF
OF MEXICO, ONLY HAVE ONE OF EACH.

[00:09:26.048]
DO THE TIDES IN A PARTICULAR PLACE
ALWAYS OCCUR AT THE SAME TIME?

[00:09:29.208]
NO, BUT THE ANSWER'S A
LITTLE BIT COMPLICATED.

[00:09:31.378]
ON AVERAGE, HIGH TIDES OCCUR
EVERY 12 HOURS AND 24 MINUTES.

[00:09:35.798]
THE EARTH SPINS ON ITS
AXIS EVERY 24 HOURS,

[00:09:38.978]
SO IF YOU DIVIDE 24
BY 2, YOU GET 12.

[00:09:43.038]
THE EXTRA 24 MINUTES IS BECAUSE OF
THE MOON'S ORBIT ABOUT THE EARTH.

[00:09:47.448]
WOULD HIGH TIDES HELP
BRING OBJECTS FLOATING

[00:09:49.498]
IN THE WATER ONTO THE SHORE?

[00:09:50.898]
TIDES DO NOT TYPICALLY
HAVE MUCH OF A ROLE

[00:09:52.908]
IN TRANSPORTING OBJECTS
IN THE OCEAN.

[00:09:54.908]
YOU CAN THINK OF TIDES AS A BIG
SLOSHING MOTION WHERE OBJECTS GO

[00:09:58.348]
AS FAR IN ONE DIRECTION
AS IN THE OTHER.

[00:10:00.998]
HERE, LET'S CHECK IT OUT.

[00:10:03.288]
[00:10:04.578]
THAT WAS COOL, BUT
WHAT ABOUT THE WAVES?

[00:10:12.578]
JACOB, CAN YOU GET IN THE POOL?

[00:10:15.118]
CAN I?

[00:10:16.598]
[00:10:17.788]
SEE THE WAVES AROUND JACOB?

[00:10:19.228]
THEY LOOK LIKE THEY'RE
MOVING THE WATER FORWARD,

[00:10:21.168]
BUT ACTUALLY, THEY AREN'T.

[00:10:23.108]
HOW IS IT THAT I STAY
IN THE SAME PLACE?

[00:10:25.578]
EACH PARTICLE OF WATER IN A
WAVE MOVES AROUND IN A CIRCLE.

[00:10:29.388]
ENERGY MOVES FORWARD, WHILE WATER
PARTICLES REMAIN IN THE SAME PLACE,

[00:10:33.538]
SO AN OBJECT FLOATING ON
THE WATER WILL RISE AND FALL

[00:10:36.158]
AS THE WAVE PASSES, BUT THE
OBJECT WILL NOT MOVE FORWARD.

[00:10:39.898]
I THINK WE DEFINITELY NEED
MORE RESEARCH ABOUT WAVES.

[00:10:42.948]
ME TOO.

[00:10:43.248]
THANKS, DR. HOFMANN.

[00:10:45.608]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:10:46.348]
ENJOY THE WAVE POOL.

[00:10:48.358]
[00:10:50.428]
YOU BETTER STOP RESEARCHING
THE WAVES

[00:10:51.928]
IF YOU WANT TO GET THERE ON TIME.

[00:10:53.598]
BIANCA DOES NOT LIKE TO BE LATE.

[00:10:59.008]
WE'RE GETTING CLOSE.

[00:11:01.568]
ISN'T IT 21-DD?

[00:11:03.988]
THERE IT IS.

[00:11:06.538]
"DD" FOR DR. D?

[00:11:07.208]
HE HAS HIS OWN BOAT DOCK?

[00:11:09.398]
I'M OVER HERE.

[00:11:13.398]
WELCOME TO THE MAURY,
TIDEWATER COMMUNITY COLLEGE'S

[00:11:15.868]
RESEARCH VESSEL.

[00:11:17.088]
[MUSIC]

[00:11:26.088]
[00:11:32.108]
DR. D, WE LEARNED
ABOUT WAVES AND TIDES,

[00:11:34.188]
BUT WE NEED TO KNOW
MORE ABOUT OCEANS.

[00:11:35.878]
LET'S START AT THE VERY BEGINNING.

[00:11:37.478]
YOU KNOW HOW OCEANS FORMED?

[00:11:38.928]
YOU MEAN THEY WEREN'T ALWAYS HERE?

[00:11:41.148]
NO, NOT ALWAYS.

[00:11:42.288]
WHEN THE EARTH BEGAN ABOUT
4.6 BILLION YEARS AGO,

[00:11:45.228]
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS HELPED
TO FORM AN ATMOSPHERE

[00:11:47.338]
THAT INCLUDED WATER VAPOR.

[00:11:48.688]
SO WERE THE OCEANS
CREATED WHEN IT RAINED?

[00:11:51.048]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:11:51.808]
ABOUT 3.8 BILLION YEARS AGO, THE
LOWER AREAS OF THE EARTH'S CRUST,

[00:11:55.158]
CALLED BASINS, FILLED
WITH RAINWATER.

[00:11:57.408]
IF THE OCEAN IS MADE FROM
RAINWATER, WHY IS IT SALTY?

[00:12:00.728]
WELL, IN THE BEGINNING,
IT WASN'T VERY SALTY.

[00:12:03.048]
SO HOW DID IT GET THAT WAY?

[00:12:04.478]
ONE WAY IS FROM FRESHWATER RIVERS.

[00:12:06.338]
AS THEY FLOW TOWARDS THE
OCEANS, RIVERS DISSOLVE MINERALS

[00:12:08.968]
SUCH AS SALT FROM THE LAND,
ADDING SALT TO THE OCEAN.

[00:12:11.418]
BUT HOW CAN THE OCEAN BE
MORE SALTY THAN THE RIVERS?

[00:12:13.998]
WHEN WATER EVAPORATES
FROM THE OCEANS,

[00:12:15.518]
IT TAKES ALMOST PURE WATER
AWAY, LEAVING THE SALT BEHIND.

[00:12:18.748]
THEN FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS,
THE RIVERS CARRIED SALT

[00:12:20.878]
INTO THE OCEANS, AND
EVAPORATION LEAVES IT THERE.

[00:12:23.988]
DO THE OCEANS CONTINUE
TO GET SALTIER?

[00:12:25.878]
NO, AND THEY'RE NOT GETTING
ANY LESS SALTY EITHER.

[00:12:28.588]
WE SAY SALTINESS, OR SALINITY,
HAS REACHED EQUILIBRIUM.

[00:12:31.878]
WHY IS THE SALINITY OF
SEAWATER SO IMPORTANT?

[00:12:34.268]
ONE REASON IS THAT IT'S A MAJOR
FACTOR IN CREATING OCEAN CURRENTS.

[00:12:37.408]
LET'S DO AN EXPERIMENT.

[00:12:38.338]
I'M GOING TO POUR SALTY
WATER INTO FRESHWATER.

[00:12:41.798]
LET'S SEE WHAT HAPPENS.

[00:12:43.548]
[00:12:46.948]
THE SALTY WATER WENT TO THE BOTTOM.

[00:12:48.328]
WHY IS THAT?

[00:12:50.598]
SALTY WATER SINKS TO THE BOTTOM

[00:12:52.048]
BECAUSE IT'S DENSER
THAN FRESHWATER.

[00:12:53.908]
A GALLON OF SALT WATER WEIGHS
MORE THAN A GALLON OF FRESHWATER.

[00:12:57.278]
JACOB, TEST IT OUT.

[00:12:59.178]
[00:13:00.888]
THEY BOTH FEEL THE SAME.

[00:13:02.598]
SALT WATER FROM THE OCEAN IS ONLY
ABOUT 3% HEAVIER THAN FRESHWATER.

[00:13:06.328]
BUT EVEN A SMALL DIFFERENCE

[00:13:07.458]
IN DENSITY MAKES A REAL
DIFFERENCE IN CURRENTS.

[00:13:09.728]
IS THERE ANYTHING
OTHER THAN SALINITY

[00:13:11.728]
THAT DETERMINES THE
DENSITY OF WATER?

[00:13:13.928]
YES, THE TEMPERATURE DOES.

[00:13:14.948]
I THINK WE'RE GONNA
HAVE TO LEARN MORE

[00:13:16.618]
ABOUT HOW DENSITY MAKES CURRENTS.

[00:13:17.998]
I HAVE A FRIEND NAMED DR.
MARTENS WHO CAN HELP YOU.

[00:13:21.218]
HE'S DOING RESEARCH

[00:13:22.078]
IN AN UNDERWATER LABORATORY
CALLED AQUARIUS.

[00:13:24.178]
I'LL GIVE YOU HIS
CONTACT INFORMATION.

[00:13:25.718]
THANKS, DR. D. WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:27.728]
DID THE TENNIS SHOES COME FROM
THE RECENTLY LOST CONTAINER?

[00:13:30.788]
WHERE DID THE OIL GLOBS COME FROM?

[00:13:32.368]
HOW DID THE TENNIS
SHOES GET TO THE BEACH?

[00:13:35.228]
DON'T MISS THE NEXT EXCITING
CHAPTER OF THE NASA SCI FILES.

[00:13:38.918]
[00:00:00.334]
IN THIS SEGMENT OF THE CASE OF THE
OCEAN ODYSSEY, LOOK FOR THE ANSWERS

[00:00:03.424]
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:05.104]
HOW DO COLD TEMPERATURES
MAKE WATER DENSER?

[00:00:08.104]
HOW ARE SURFACE CURRENTS CREATED?

[00:00:10.574]
HOW DO YOU FIND THE
SPEED OF A MOVING OBJECT?

[00:00:15.084]
[00:00:18.924]
GOOD MORNING, KALI.

[00:00:20.124]
YOU'RE OFF TO AN EARLY START.

[00:00:21.274]
I SURE AM.

[00:00:23.174]
I WAS DOING SOME RESEARCH TRYING TO
FIGURE OUT HOW THOSE SHOES WASHED

[00:00:26.144]
ONTO OUR BEACH, BUT I'M NOT
SURE WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW NEXT.

[00:00:29.774]
WE HAVE A LOT OF INFORMATION
ABOUT TIDES,

[00:00:31.664]
AND DR. D TOLD US
HOW OCEANS FORMED.

[00:00:34.384]
SPEAKING OF OCEANS, I
WONDER HOW TONY'S DOING

[00:00:36.454]
IN HIS UNDERWATER HABITAT.

[00:00:38.094]
LET'S CALL HIM.

[00:00:39.544]
HI, EVERYONE.

[00:00:43.784]
TODAY, I STARTED MY DAY WITH A SWIM

[00:00:45.334]
AROUND THE HOTEL EXPLORING
UNDERWATER.

[00:00:47.244]
THEN I CAME IN FOR SOMETHING
TO EAT, AND I WATCHED A VIDEO.

[00:00:50.194]
THIS IS A PIECE OF CAKE.

[00:00:51.444]
I'M NOT SHOWING A SINGLE
SIGN OF IRRITATION.

[00:00:53.354]
THAT'S GREAT, TONY.

[00:00:54.914]
DR. D TOLD US ABOUT AN UNDERWATER
RESEARCH LAB CALLED AQUARIUS.

[00:00:58.974]
I'VE BEEN TO THEIR WEBSITE.

[00:00:59.734]
IT'S A-- IT'S A REALLY COOL LAB.

[00:01:01.234]
IT'D BE GREAT TO TALK TO
SOME OF THE SCIENTISTS--

[00:01:03.174]
I DON'T MEAN TO BE
RUDE, BUT I NEED TO GO.

[00:01:05.284]
TALK TO YOU LATER.

[00:01:06.814]
SEE YOU LATER, TONY.

[00:01:07.354]
THAT WAS STRANGE.

[00:01:10.944]
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

[00:01:11.814]
I'M TAKING NOTES FOR MY I.O.I.

[00:01:14.254]
REPORT.

[00:01:14.724]
I.O.I.

[00:01:15.364]
REPORT?

[00:01:15.714]
WHAT'S THAT?

[00:01:16.674]
INCIDENTS OF IRRITATION.

[00:01:18.374]
TONY'S DEFINITELY SHOWING
SYMPTOMS OF ISOLATION.

[00:01:21.154]
WELL, IT'S DIFFICULT
TO TELL WITH TONY.

[00:01:22.824]
HE COULD'VE HAD A BAD DAY
WITH THE STOCK MARKET.

[00:01:24.904]
I HAVE THE CONTACT IN HERE
SOMEWHERE FOR THE AQUARIUS EXPERT.

[00:01:29.624]
HERE IT IS.

[00:01:30.954]
CAN YOU DIAL HIM UP?

[00:01:32.634]
SURE.

[00:01:33.644]
HI, I'M DR. MARTENS.

[00:01:39.564]
GLAD YOU FOUND ME.

[00:01:40.964]
HI, DR. MARTENS.

[00:01:42.014]
DR. D TOLD US THAT THE DENSITY OF
WATER DEPENDS UPON ITS TEMPERATURE

[00:01:44.944]
AND SALINITY, BUT HOW DOES
TEMPERATURE MAKE THE WATER

[00:01:47.534]
MORE DENSE?

[00:01:48.704]
COLD WATER MOLECULES ARE
PACKED TOGETHER MORE TIGHTLY

[00:01:51.054]
THAN WARM ONES, MAKING
COLD WATER DENSER.

[00:01:53.764]
SO DO THE DENSITY CURRENTS FORM
NEAR THE NORTH AND SOUTH POLES?

[00:01:57.554]
EXACTLY; THE COLD AIR AT THE
POLES COOLS THE SURFACE WATER,

[00:02:00.824]
MAKING IT DENSER AND
CAUSING IT TO SINK.

[00:02:03.094]
WHAT ABOUT SALINITY?

[00:02:04.424]
WHEN ICE FORMS IN POLAR
WATERS, IT LEAVES BEHIND SALT,

[00:02:07.764]
WHICH INCREASES THE SALINITY
OF SURROUNDING WATER.

[00:02:09.904]
THE HIGHER SALT CONTENT
MAKES THE POLAR WATER DENSER.

[00:02:13.154]
I LEARNED THAT EVAPORATION
ALSO MAKES WATER SALTIER.

[00:02:16.384]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:02:16.834]
IN AREAS SUCH AS THE MEDITERRANEAN
SEA WHERE THERE IS LITTLE RAINFALL

[00:02:20.034]
AND LOTS OF HEAT,
EVAPORATION REMOVES FRESHWATER

[00:02:23.374]
AND LEAVES EXTREMELY SALTY WATER.

[00:02:25.394]
WHERE DOES THE DENSER WATER GO?

[00:02:27.074]
THE DENSER POLAR WATER SINKS

[00:02:28.594]
AND CREATES THE THERMOHALINE
CIRCULATION.

[00:02:30.694]
THERMOHALINE?

[00:02:31.904]
YES: THERMO FOR TEMPERATURE,
AND HALINE FOR SALINITY.

[00:02:35.534]
THE COLD, SALTY WATER MASSES

[00:02:36.984]
THAT CREATE THIS CIRCULATION
FORM IN ONLY TWO PLACES.

[00:02:40.554]
THE WATER MASS SINKING OFF
GREENLAND IS CALLED THE NORTH

[00:02:43.774]
ATLANTIC DEEP WATER, OR NADW.

[00:02:45.434]
THE WATER MASS SINKING OFF
ANTARCTICA IS CALLED THE ANTARCTIC

[00:02:49.544]
BOTTOM WATER, OR AABW.

[00:02:50.304]
WELL, WHERE DO THESE
CURRENTS END UP?

[00:02:53.404]
THEY BOTH SINK DOWN SEVERAL
KILOMETERS WHILE SPREADING

[00:02:56.604]
OUT HORIZONTALLY AND MOVING ALONG
THE BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.

[00:03:00.194]
THEY EVENTUALLY MIX WHILE
CIRCULATING AROUND ANTARCTICA.

[00:03:03.434]
THEN THEY MOVE INTO THE DEEP INDIAN
OCEAN AND FINALLY INTO THE PACIFIC.

[00:03:07.324]
SO THE WATER FROM THE POLES MAY ONE
DAY END UP ON A BEACH IN HAWAII?

[00:03:11.074]
I GUESS YOU CAN LOOK
AT IT LIKE THAT.

[00:03:12.854]
WHAT GOES DOWN MUST COME UP.

[00:03:14.914]
IT TAKES THE AVERAGE
WATER MOLECULE 1,000 YEARS

[00:03:17.394]
TO MAKE THE COMPLETE CYCLE.

[00:03:18.854]
WOW, THAT'S A LONG TIME.

[00:03:21.174]
YES, WE CALL THE CYCLE
THE GLOBAL CONVEYOR BELT,

[00:03:23.464]
AND IT HAS A LARGE
IMPACT ON CLIMATE.

[00:03:25.874]
I WENT SWIMMING ONCE, AND
THE WATER WAS REALLY COLD.

[00:03:28.924]
MY MOM SAID IT WAS AN
UPWELLING, BUT WHAT'S THAT?

[00:03:31.944]
THE COASTAL UPWELLING THAT
YOU EXPERIENCED IS DIFFERENT

[00:03:34.294]
FROM THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION.

[00:03:36.294]
IT ONLY BRINGS UP COLD WATER
FROM A FEW HUNDRED METERS DEEP.

[00:03:39.174]
IT'S ALSO NOT AS COLD
AS THE AABW OR NADW.

[00:03:43.044]
COASTAL UPWELLING IS
GENERALLY CAUSED BY WIND.

[00:03:45.444]
IS UPWELLING IMPORTANT?

[00:03:47.034]
GOOD QUESTION.

[00:03:48.294]
UPWELLING BRINGS LOTS OF
NUTRIENTS UP FROM DEEP WATER.

[00:03:51.484]
WE ARE RESEARCHING THE IMPACT
OF NITROGEN, A CRUCIAL NUTRIENT,

[00:03:54.854]
ON FLORIDA KEYS' REEFS.

[00:03:56.274]
HOW DOES UPWELLING AFFECT THE REEF?

[00:03:58.084]
IT APPEARS THAT THERE HAVE BEEN
MAJOR CHANGES IN THE HEALTH

[00:04:00.434]
AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF
CORAL REEFS HERE IN THE KEYS

[00:04:03.034]
AND THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

[00:04:04.214]
BY OBSERVING THE NITROGEN
COMPOSITION OF SPONGES,

[00:04:06.924]
WE CAN DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE
OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES.

[00:04:09.934]
WOW, YOU'VE GIVEN US
A LOT TO THINK ABOUT.

[00:04:12.094]
THANKS, DR. MARTENS.

[00:04:13.444]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:04:14.084]
GOOD LUCK ON YOUR PROJECT.

[00:04:16.174]
THAT WAS VERY INTERESTING.

[00:04:17.814]
DENSITY CURRENTS MIGHT BE THE
KEY TO SOLVING THIS MYSTERY.

[00:04:20.914]
REMEMBER THE LONGSHORE CURRENTS
WE LEARNED ABOUT IN THE CASE

[00:04:23.474]
OF THE DISAPPEARING DIRT?

[00:04:24.944]
THEY MOVE LARGE AMOUNTS OF
SAND FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.

[00:04:27.484]
IF THEY CAN MOVE SAND,
THEY CAN SURELY MOVE SHOES.

[00:04:30.694]
THAT SOUNDS LIKE OUR
NEW HYPOTHESIS.

[00:04:32.944]
IF THE CONTAINER FELL OVERBOARD
AND WAS CAUGHT IN AN UPWELLING,

[00:04:35.684]
THEN THE LONGSHORE CURRENTS
BROUGHT THE TENNIS SHOES

[00:04:37.654]
TO THE BEACH.

[00:04:38.614]
THAT'S TRUE, AND THE CONTAINER
WAS LOST NOT FAR FROM THE BEACH.

[00:04:41.614]
HELLO.

[00:04:44.024]
DR. TEXTBOOK HERE.

[00:04:47.514]
DID YOU KNOW THAT THE
GULF STREAM ONCE HELPED

[00:04:52.524]
TO SOLVE A POSTAL PROBLEM?

[00:04:54.444]
WELL, IT SEEMS THAT
DURING COLONIAL TIMES,

[00:04:58.204]
THE COLONISTS CONSTANTLY COMPLAINED

[00:05:00.554]
OF THEIR SNAIL MAIL TAKING TWO
WEEKS LONGER COMING FROM ENGLAND

[00:05:04.334]
THAN GOING TO ENGLAND.

[00:05:06.194]
WELL, THE POSTAL AUTHORITIES

[00:05:08.024]
IN ENGLAND CONTACTED THE
DEPUTY POSTMASTER GENERAL,

[00:05:11.144]
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, A MAN
WHO I CAN GREATLY RELATE TO.

[00:05:14.854]
IT SEEMS THAT WILY OLD BEN HAD A
COUSIN WHO WAS A SEAFARING CAPTAIN.

[00:05:19.514]
HIS NAME WAS TIMOTHY FOLGER,
AND TIM TOLD COUSIN BEN

[00:05:22.674]
ABOUT A STRONG SURFACE
CURRENT THAT COMES FROM FLORIDA

[00:05:25.864]
UP THE EAST COAST OF AMERICA.

[00:05:28.744]
WHEN SHIPS SAILED TO
ENGLAND, THEY WENT NORTH

[00:05:31.254]
AND SAILED IN THE STREAM.

[00:05:33.084]
THE SWIFT CURRENT
HELPED THEM SAIL FASTER

[00:05:35.344]
AND DELIVER THE MAIL QUICKER.

[00:05:36.984]
BUT SHIPS SAILING FROM
ENGLAND HEADED SOUTH,

[00:05:39.834]
SAILING AGAINST THE STREAM
WHICH SLOWED THEM DOWN.

[00:05:42.754]
NOW, MR. FRANKLIN DECIDED TO DRAW
A MORE DETAILED MAP OF THE CURRENT

[00:05:46.874]
AND NAMED IT THE GULF
STREAM BECAUSE IT FLOWED

[00:05:49.394]
OUT OF THE GULF OF MEXICO.

[00:05:51.444]
WHEN SETTLERS FROM HERE
AT JAMESTOWN SETTLEMENT

[00:05:54.634]
IN 1607 WOULD SEND MAIL TO ENGLAND,

[00:05:57.104]
THEY WOULD USE SHIPS MUCH LIKE
THIS REPLICA OF THE SUSAN CONSTANT.

[00:06:02.164]
MANY OF YOU HAVE HEARD THE SAYING,
"SENDING A MESSAGE IN A BOTTLE."

[00:06:06.594]
WELL, I'M GOING TO SEND
MY OWN MESSAGE IN A BOTTLE

[00:06:09.064]
TO MY AUNT WHO LIVES IN ENGLAND.

[00:06:10.824]
I HAVE THIS $100 BILL.

[00:06:13.374]
I'M GOING TO WRITE HER
NAME ON THE FRONT OF IT.

[00:06:16.154]
AND I'M GOING TO PLACE
IT INTO THE BOTTLE.

[00:06:18.944]
IF THE WIND CURRENTS AND THE
OCEAN SPEEDS ARE CORRECT,

[00:06:21.354]
SHE CAN EXPECT HER OWN BEN
FRANKLIN TO ARRIVE IN TIME

[00:06:24.144]
TO BUY ME A GIFT FOR MY BIRTHDAY.

[00:06:26.454]
HERE WE GO!

[00:06:27.384]
[MUSIC]

[00:06:36.384]
[00:06:40.444]
NOT A VERY GOOD IDEA.

[00:06:41.874]
WHOA!

[00:06:43.984]
[00:06:45.034]
DR. TEXTBOOK JUST
MENTIONED SURFACE CURRENTS.

[00:06:48.174]
I THINK THAT'S OUR
NEXT INVESTIGATION.

[00:06:50.604]
WE NEED TO OPEN THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:06:52.394]
GOOD IDEA; WE NEED TO UPDATE AND
BE CURRENT WITH OUR INFORMATION.

[00:06:56.294]
OKAY, WE KNOW THAT OLD SHOES
AND OIL GLOBS HAVE WASHED

[00:06:59.364]
UP ON THE BEACHES AROUND OUR AREA.

[00:07:01.674]
WE KNOW THAT TIDES DON'T
CARRY ITEMS LONG DISTANCES.

[00:07:04.154]
AND WE KNOW THAT DENSITY
CURRENTS ARE CYCLES

[00:07:06.944]
THAT CAUSE GLOBAL CIRCULATIONS
OF THE OCEAN'S WATER.

[00:07:10.074]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:07:11.744]
WELL, THE LOST CARGO FELL
OVERBOARD ONLY A SHORT DISTANCE

[00:07:14.664]
FROM VIRGINIA.

[00:07:15.924]
AND IF THE TIDES DIDN'T
CARRY THE SHOES TO THE BEACH,

[00:07:18.434]
THEN MAYBE IT WAS SOME OTHER
TYPE OF SURFACE CURRENT,

[00:07:20.754]
LIKE A LONGSHORE CURRENT.

[00:07:22.274]
I THINK WE NEED TO KNOW
MORE ABOUT SURFACE CURRENTS.

[00:07:24.744]
AND WE ALSO NEED TO
KNOW MORE ABOUT OIL.

[00:07:26.444]
DID I HEAR YOU SAY
SOMETHING ABOUT OIL?

[00:07:28.834]
HOW DID YOU JUST POP IN?

[00:07:30.504]
SOMEONE MUST HAVE DIALED ME UP.

[00:07:32.434]
I AGREE WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
BLACK GOLD-- OH, I MEAN, OIL--

[00:07:37.604]
AND, UH, HOW YOU FIND IT AND
GET IT OUT OF THE GROUND.

[00:07:40.124]
I SEE THAT YOUR MIND IS
STILL FOCUSED...ON MONEY.

[00:07:42.804]
HOW IS IT GOING DOWN
THERE IN YOUR HABITAT?

[00:07:45.964]
IT'S GREAT DOWN HERE.

[00:07:46.884]
REALLY.

[00:07:47.494]
THERE'S A LOT OF COOL THINGS
TO LOOK AT UNDERWATER.

[00:07:49.474]
IT'S SO DIFFERENT FROM LAND.

[00:07:51.114]
I THINK WE NEED TO--
DID YOU HEAR THAT NOISE?

[00:07:56.554]
I'VE GOT TO GO CHECK IT OUT.

[00:07:57.544]
SEE YOU LATER.

[00:07:58.334]
POOR TONY.

[00:07:59.504]
I THINK HE'S SUFFERING
FROM ANOTHER I.O.I.

[00:08:02.304]
MY MOM HAS A MEETING
WITH DR. DAVID ADAMEC

[00:08:04.794]
AT NASA GODDARD SPACE
FLIGHT CENTER.

[00:08:06.914]
HE RESEARCHES CURRENTS.

[00:08:08.244]
SHE SAID I CAN GO
WITH HER TO MEET HIM.

[00:08:10.124]
SOUNDS LIKE A PLAN.

[00:08:11.354]
AND JACOB'S FAMILY IS TAKING
A VACATION TO HOUSTON, TEXAS.

[00:08:14.164]
I'LL ASK HIM TO DO SOME
RESEARCH IN OIL COUNTRY.

[00:08:17.514]
AND DON'T FORGET TO TAKE
A GET-UP-AND-GO WORKSHEET

[00:08:19.574]
FROM THE NASA SCI
FILES WEBSITE WITH YOU.

[00:08:24.614]
AH, BIANCA, THANKS
FOR MEETING ME HERE.

[00:08:27.144]
I HAD A TAPING EARLIER TODAY.

[00:08:28.864]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:08:29.844]
I'VE HAD A LITTLE BIT OF
EXPERIENCE IN FRONT OF CAMERAS.

[00:08:33.144]
DR. ADAMEC, WE LEARNED
ABOUT DENSITY CURRENTS,

[00:08:36.384]
BUT WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT SURFACE CURRENTS.

[00:08:39.054]
SO WHAT EXACTLY IS
A SURFACE CURRENT?

[00:08:40.884]
A SURFACE CURRENT IS WATER
MOVING NEAR THE OCEAN'S SURFACE,

[00:08:43.804]
ABOVE WHAT WE CALL THE THERMOCLINE.

[00:08:45.944]
THERMOCLINE...

[00:08:47.734]
I KNOW THAT THAT THERM HAS
SOMETHING TO DO WITH TEMPERATURE.

[00:08:50.284]
RIGHT, AND CLINE MEANS CHANGE.

[00:08:52.874]
SO A THERMOCLINE IS A REGION
OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE.

[00:08:56.144]
WHERE IS THE THERMOCLINE?

[00:08:57.744]
TYPICALLY BETWEEN 50
AND 150 METERS DEEP.

[00:09:01.454]
SO HOW DO SURFACE CURRENTS FORM?

[00:09:03.554]
FRICTION BETWEEN THE WIND
AND THE SURFACE WATER CAUSES

[00:09:06.334]
THAT WATER TO MOVE.

[00:09:07.884]
WE LEARNED IN THE CASE OF
THE MYSTERIOUS RED LIGHT

[00:09:10.124]
ABOUT GLOBAL WIND PATTERNS
AND THAT WINDS BLOW

[00:09:12.774]
IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION
DEPENDING UPON

[00:09:14.434]
WHERE THEY'RE LOCATED ON EARTH.

[00:09:16.784]
RIGHT.

[00:09:17.994]
FOR EXAMPLE, THE TRADE WINDS
PUSH THE SURFACE CURRENTS

[00:09:20.964]
AROUND IN THE TROPICS.

[00:09:22.364]
BUT ARE THERE OTHER FACTORS?

[00:09:24.144]
OH, SURE.

[00:09:24.754]
BECAUSE THE EARTH ROTATES, THERE'S
TURNING DUE TO THE CORIOLIS EFFECT.

[00:09:28.324]
ISN'T THAT WHEN THE WIND
IS DEFLECTED TO THE RIGHT

[00:09:30.954]
IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AND THE
LEFT IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE?

[00:09:33.684]
YES.

[00:09:35.054]
AND ANOTHER FACTOR THAT STEERS
CURRENTS IS THE TOPOGRAPHY:

[00:09:38.204]
THE HILLS AND VALLEYS
ON THE OCEAN FLOOR.

[00:09:40.844]
HOW DOES THE TOPOGRAPHY UNDERWATER
AFFECT THE SURFACE CURRENTS?

[00:09:44.424]
I'LL SHOW YOU.

[00:09:47.294]
SIT ON THIS STOOL.

[00:09:53.904]
NOW, DON'T TRY THIS WITHOUT
AN ADULT, BUT I WANT YOU

[00:09:56.624]
TO STICK YOUR ARMS AND LEGS OUT.

[00:09:58.634]
AND ONCE I SPIN YOU, I WANT
YOU TO BRING YOUR ARMS AND LEGS

[00:10:01.424]
IN CLOSE TO YOUR BODY, OKAY?

[00:10:03.374]
YOU READY?

[00:10:04.664]
[00:10:12.704]
WHAT HAPPENED?

[00:10:13.464]
I SPUN SLOWER WHEN MY
ARMS AND LEGS WERE OUT

[00:10:15.484]
AND FASTER WHEN THEY WERE IN.

[00:10:20.214]
TOPOGRAPHY DOES THE
SAME THING TO CURRENTS.

[00:10:23.074]
IF A CURRENT FLOWS OVER
AN UNDERWATER MOUNTAIN,

[00:10:25.834]
THE WATER COLUMN GETS
FLATTENED AND COMPRESSES.

[00:10:29.014]
THAT'S YOU WITH YOUR LEGS OUT.

[00:10:30.764]
THE WATER SPINS DIFFERENTLY,
AND THE CURRENTS GET DEFLECTED.

[00:10:34.314]
WHY ARE SOME SURFACE CURRENTS
COLD AND SOME OTHERS WARM?

[00:10:38.134]
IT DEPENDS ON WHERE THE
WATER IS COMING FROM.

[00:10:40.574]
IF IT'S COMING FROM
THE POLES, IT'S COLD.

[00:10:42.874]
IF IT'S FROM THE TROPICS,
IT'S WARM.

[00:10:45.884]
DO WARM AND COLD CURRENTS
AFFECT THE CLIMATE OF AN AREA?

[00:10:48.194]
THAT'S A GOOD QUESTION, BIANCA.

[00:10:50.304]
YES, THEY DO.

[00:10:51.794]
FOR EXAMPLE, IRELAND IS PRETTY
FAR NORTH, AND YOU MIGHT EXPECT IT

[00:10:54.874]
TO BE COLD THERE, BUT THE GULF
STREAM FLOWS PAST IRELAND,

[00:10:58.674]
AND THE WARM WATER HEATS
THE AIR WHICH HELPS

[00:11:00.734]
TO CREATE A SURPRISINGLY
MILD CLIMATE.

[00:11:03.444]
THEY EVEN HAVE PALM
TREES IN IRELAND.

[00:11:06.084]
REALLY?

[00:11:07.284]
WITH CURRENTS LOCATED
IN EVERY OCEAN,

[00:11:09.044]
I GUESS THEY COULD BE RESPONSIBLE

[00:11:10.754]
FOR BRINGING THE TENNIS
SHOES AND OIL TO OUR BEACH.

[00:11:12.884]
IT'S POSSIBLE, BUT
YOU GOT TO BE CAREFUL.

[00:11:16.104]
THE SAME CURRENT CAN TRANSPORT
THINGS TO DIFFERENT PLACES.

[00:11:19.614]
HOW DOES THAT HAPPEN?

[00:11:21.484]
[MUSIC]

[00:11:30.484]
[00:11:31.304]
YOU DROPPED THE BALLS
AT THE SAME TIME AND ALL

[00:11:34.034]
IN ABOUT THE SAME PLACE, BUT THEY
ENDED UP IN DIFFERENT PLACES.

[00:11:38.124]
WHY?

[00:11:38.934]
IS IT BECAUSE THERE ARE SO
MANY DIFFERENT VARIABLES,

[00:11:41.584]
SUCH AS THE PITS IN THE PAVEMENT,
OR EVEN THE SHAPE OF THE BALL?

[00:11:45.124]
EXACTLY.

[00:11:45.834]
THE SAME THING HAPPENS
IN THE OCEAN.

[00:11:48.774]
TINY VARIATIONS IN THE CURRENT
CAN LEAD TO LARGE DIFFERENCES

[00:11:52.564]
WHERE THE CURRENT MIGHT ACTUALLY
MOVE THINGS LIKE YOUR TENNIS SHOES.

[00:11:55.814]
WOW, THAT'S AMAZING.

[00:11:57.184]
I'M CURIOUS.

[00:11:59.364]
WHY DOES NASA STUDY CURRENTS?

[00:12:01.734]
EARTH'S OCEANS HAVE THE
GREATEST INFLUENCE ON CLIMATE,

[00:12:04.724]
AND ONLY FROM SPACE CAN WE MONITOR
THE VAST OCEANS ON A GLOBAL SCALE

[00:12:09.104]
AND MONITOR CRITICAL CHANGES IN
THE CURRENTS AND THE HEAT STORAGE.

[00:12:13.184]
WHY IS THAT SO IMPORTANT?

[00:12:15.014]
WELL, THE OCEANS COVER 70% OF
THE EARTH, AND THE CURRENTS

[00:12:18.374]
IN THE OCEAN ARE AN IMPORTANT
PART OF THE WATER CYCLE.

[00:12:21.974]
ANY CHANGE IN THE WATER CYCLE
CAN CAUSE MAJOR CONSEQUENCES

[00:12:25.124]
ON OUR EARTH.

[00:12:26.054]
HOW DOES NASA MONITOR THE OCEAN?

[00:12:28.274]
WE USE DIFFERENT SATELLITES TO
MONITOR THINGS LIKE CURRENTS,

[00:12:31.834]
WAVES, TEMPERATURE, AND
PRETTY SOON, EVEN SALINITY.

[00:12:35.344]
THAT'S REALLY INTERESTING.

[00:12:36.404]
I'M ALWAYS AMAZED AT ALL
THE RESEARCH NASA DOES

[00:12:39.724]
TO HELP PROTECT OUR EARTH.

[00:12:40.514]
THANKS, DR. ADAMEC.

[00:12:42.524]
THIS INFORMATION HAS
BEEN VERY HELPFUL.

[00:12:44.864]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:12:46.264]
AND CALL IF YOU HAVE
ANY MORE QUESTIONS.

[00:12:48.204]
ARE YOU READY FOR SOME RESEARCH?

[00:12:56.164]
I LOVE DOING RESEARCH WITH
DR. D. DID YOU BRING THE ITEMS

[00:12:58.994]
I REQUESTED?

[00:12:59.554]
OF COURSE.

[00:13:00.924]
I BROUGHT SOME OLD TENNIS SHOES,

[00:13:01.954]
AND CATHERINE BROUGHT
SOME SOCCER CONES.

[00:13:03.614]
GREAT, I WANTED TO MEET YOU
HERE AT THE HUBBA HUBBA HIGHWAY

[00:13:06.744]
BECAUSE THE SPEED OF ITS CURRENT
IS A LOT LIKE THE GULF STREAM.

[00:13:10.594]
IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S
MOVING PRETTY FAST.

[00:13:12.794]
DOES THE GULF STREAM
MOVE THAT FAST?

[00:13:14.744]
LET'S FIND OUT.

[00:13:15.724]
I BROUGHT A STOPWATCH
AND A MEASURING TAPE.

[00:13:17.654]
WE CAN FIND ITS VELOCITY, OR SPEED.

[00:13:19.464]
I KNOW THE FORMULA FOR VELOCITY.

[00:13:21.324]
IT'S DISTANCE DIVIDED BY TIME.

[00:13:23.114]
SO IF WE MEASURE THE
DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS

[00:13:25.874]
AND THEN TIME A FLOATING
OBJECT BETWEEN THEM,

[00:13:28.224]
THEN WE CAN FIND THE VELOCITY.

[00:13:29.714]
VERY GOOD.

[00:13:30.524]
WE NEED TO DO FIVE TRIALS.

[00:13:31.934]
YOU SHOULD ALWAYS DO MORE THAN
ONE TRIAL IN AN EXPERIMENT

[00:13:34.374]
AND THEN FIND THE AVERAGE.

[00:13:35.804]
EXCELLENT.

[00:13:36.594]
NEXT, WE NEED TO DECIDE HOW FAR
APART THE TWO POINTS SHOULD BE

[00:13:40.154]
AND MARK THE DISTANCE
WITH THE CONES.

[00:13:42.014]
HOW ABOUT PUTTING
THEM 10 METERS APART?

[00:13:44.114]
FINE.

[00:13:45.084]
WHAT OBJECT SHOULD WE TIME?

[00:13:46.624]
OH, I GET IT.

[00:13:47.374]
THAT'S WHY WE BROUGHT
THESE TENNIS SHOES.

[00:13:49.074]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:13:49.824]
LET'S GET STARTED.

[00:13:51.084]
[MUSIC]

[00:14:00.084]
[00:14:12.114]
LET'S SEE.

[00:14:12.844]
OUR FIVE TRIALS AVERAGED
8.65 SECONDS.

[00:14:16.424]
SO IF WE USE THE FORMULA
AND DIVIDE 10 BY 8.65,

[00:14:20.444]
THAT MEANS THAT THE VELOCITY
IS ABOUT 1.2 METERS PER SECOND.

[00:14:25.174]
THE GULF STREAM'S VELOCITY
AVERAGES BETWEEN ABOUT 1 AND 1

[00:14:28.554]
AND A HALF METERS PER SECOND.

[00:14:30.084]
WOW, BOTH THE HUBBA HUBBA HIGHWAY

[00:14:32.404]
AND THE GULF STREAM
MOVE REALLY FAST.

[00:14:34.364]
NOW IT'S TIME FOR YOU TO EXPERIENCE
THE POWER OF THE GULF STREAM

[00:14:37.484]
BY SWIMMING AGAINST THE CURRENT.

[00:14:39.194]
IT SHOULD BE EASY.

[00:14:40.454]
LET'S SEE WHICH ONE OF
YOU IS A STRONGER SWIMMER.

[00:14:43.134]
I PREDICT NO CONTEST.

[00:14:45.564]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:14:46.374]
I'LL BE THE CHAMP.

[00:14:47.584]
[MUSIC]

[00:14:56.584]
[00:14:58.464]
WOW, THAT WAS A LOT
HARDER THAN I EXPECTED.

[00:15:00.924]
I CAN CERTAINLY SEE WHY IT TOOK
TWO WEEKS LONGER TO GET MAIL

[00:15:03.834]
IN COLONIAL DAYS WHEN THE SHIPS
WERE SAILING AGAINST THE CURRENT.

[00:15:06.784]
OKAY, THERE'S STILL
MORE RESEARCH TO DO.

[00:15:09.774]
LET'S FLOAT AROUND THE
HUBBA HUBBA HIGHWAY AND SEE

[00:15:12.344]
IF WE ALL FLOAT AT THE SAME SPEED.

[00:15:14.044]
THIS SOUNDS LIKE MY
KIND OF RESEARCH.

[00:15:16.084]
[MUSIC]

[00:15:25.084]
[00:15:31.114]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:15:32.334]
DID THE SURFACE OR DENSITY
CURRENT BRING THE TENNIS SHOES

[00:15:34.584]
ONTO THE BEACH?

[00:15:35.884]
WHY IS THE VELOCITY OF A CURRENT
IMPORTANT TO SOLVING THIS CASE?

[00:15:38.864]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES DISCOVER OIL?

[00:15:41.484]
DON'T GO AWAY.

[00:15:42.874]
STAY TUNED TO LEARN
WHAT HAPPENS NEXT

[00:15:45.064]
IN THE CASE OF THE OCEAN ODYSSEY.

[00:15:48.884]
[00:00:02.508]
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
WHAT CONDITION MUST EXIST

[00:00:05.818]
FOR OIL AND GAS TO FORM?

[00:00:08.138]
IN NORTH AMERICA, WHERE DOES THE
MOST OIL POLLUTION COME FROM?

[00:00:11.808]
WHAT DOES THE OCEAN
FLOOR LOOK LIKE?

[00:00:13.518]
MR. BERNHARD WORKS HERE AT THE
HOUSTON MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCE.

[00:00:18.698]
I ASKED HIM IF HE COULD
TELL ME MORE ABOUT OIL

[00:00:20.298]
AND ESPECIALLY WHERE TO FIND IT.

[00:00:21.558]
WELCOME TO THE HOUSTON
MUSEUM OF NATURAL SCIENCE.

[00:00:24.128]
YOU'VE COME TO THE RIGHT PLACE
IF YOU WANT TO LEARN ABOUT OIL.

[00:00:26.558]
I LEARNED IN SCHOOL THAT OIL, GAS,
AND COAL ARE CALLED FOSSIL FUELS

[00:00:29.398]
BECAUSE THEY'RE MADE
FROM PLANTS AND ANIMALS

[00:00:30.728]
THAT LIVED MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO.

[00:00:32.178]
THAT'S CORRECT, BUT WE ACTUALLY
HAVE TO START FURTHER BACK

[00:00:34.388]
THAN THAT WHEN THE
EARTH WAS FIRST FORMING.

[00:00:36.158]
REALLY?

[00:00:36.688]
BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO, THE EARTH'S
CRUST BEGAN TO MOVE AROUND ON TOP

[00:00:39.858]
OF THE EARTH'S HOT LIQUID CENTER.

[00:00:41.438]
THIS MOVEMENT CREATED SPACES
BETWEEN THE LAND KNOWN

[00:00:43.908]
AS SEDIMENTARY BASINS.

[00:00:45.048]
LET ME SHOW YOU.

[00:00:46.818]
THAT'S WHAT I CALL RESEARCH.

[00:00:48.408]
JUST IMAGINE THAT THE
CHOCOLATE IS THE LAND

[00:00:50.928]
AND THE CHEWY CARAMEL IS
THE EARTH'S LIQUID CENTER.

[00:00:53.538]
YOU SEE THE SUNKEN SPACES OPENING?

[00:00:55.698]
THESE BASINS MADE THE PERFECT
PLACES FOR OIL AND GAS TO FORM.

[00:00:58.918]
COOL.

[00:00:59.868]
SO WHAT HAPPENED AFTER
THE BASINS FORMED?

[00:01:02.128]
THESE BASINS FILL WITH
WATER, FORMING OCEANS,

[00:01:04.758]
SEAS, AND LARGE LAKES.

[00:01:06.248]
BILLIONS OF MICROSCOPIC PLANTS AND
ANIMALS THRIVED IN THESE BASINS.

[00:01:09.858]
HOW DID THE PLANTS AND
ANIMALS BECOME OIL?

[00:01:12.048]
THE PLANTS AND ANIMALS DIED,
AND THEIR REMAINS PILED

[00:01:14.538]
UP ON THE BASIN FLOOR.

[00:01:16.158]
THIS ORGANIC MATTER EVENTUALLY
TRANSFORMED INTO OIL AND GAS.

[00:01:19.388]
WOULDN'T THE DEAD PLANTS AND
ANIMALS JUST DECAY AND DECOMPOSE?

[00:01:22.538]
UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS, YES,
BUT FOR OIL AND GAS TO FORM,

[00:01:25.758]
ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS MUST EXIST.

[00:01:27.778]
WHAT ARE ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS?

[00:01:29.788]
THOSE ARE JUST PLACES WHERE
THERE'S NO OXYGEN PRESENT.

[00:01:32.628]
THE ORGANIC MATERIAL WAS
THEN COVERED BY SEDIMENT,

[00:01:34.848]
FORMING DISTINCT LAYERS
OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK.

[00:01:37.478]
HAVE A LOOK AT THIS.

[00:01:40.778]
[00:01:43.298]
THAT'S COOL.

[00:01:44.938]
SO ONCE THE ORGANIC MATTER
IS COVERED WITH SEDIMENT,

[00:01:47.728]
HOW DOES IT BECOME OIL?

[00:01:49.148]
THE WEIGHT OF THE LAYERS OF MUD
AND SAND, COMBINED WITH HEAT

[00:01:52.278]
FROM INSIDE THE EARTH, TURN THE
MUD AND SAND INTO LAYERS OF ROCK.

[00:01:55.688]
WE LEARNED THAT THE DEEPER YOU GO
INTO THE EARTH, THE HOTTER IT GETS.

[00:01:58.398]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND AS THE ORGANIC
SOURCE ROCK WAS BURIED DEEPER

[00:02:01.508]
AND DEEPER, TEMPERATURES REACHED
100 TO 150 DEGREES CELSIUS,

[00:02:05.788]
COOKING THE ORGANIC MATTER
INTO A GOOEY BLACK SOUP

[00:02:08.458]
THAT BECAME BLACK
GOLD, OR TEXAS TEA.

[00:02:11.458]
TONY WOULD LIKE TO
HEAR ABOUT BLACK GOLD.

[00:02:13.438]
THE ROCK ABOVE THE
OIL MAY LOOK SOLID,

[00:02:15.688]
BUT IT ACTUALLY IS VERY POROUS AND
CONTAINS MILLIONS OF TINY HOLES.

[00:02:19.688]
YOU SEE THIS FLASK
OF OIL AND WATER?

[00:02:21.688]
CAN YOU TELL WHICH LAYER'S ON TOP?

[00:02:23.498]
IT'S DEFINITELY THE OIL.

[00:02:25.208]
YOU'RE CORRECT.

[00:02:26.048]
OIL IS LIGHTER THAN
WATER, SO IT KEEPS FLOATING

[00:02:28.208]
UP THROUGH THE SPACES
IN THE ROCK ABOVE IT.

[00:02:30.238]
IT WILL EVENTUALLY EITHER
REACH THE SURFACE OR BE TRAPPED

[00:02:32.998]
BY AN IMPERMEABLE LAYER OF ROCK.

[00:02:34.648]
YOU MEAN ROCK WITHOUT HOLES.

[00:02:36.308]
YES, THIS LAYER TRAPS THE OIL, AND
IT BEGINS TO BUILD A RESERVOIR.

[00:02:40.218]
THIS INFORMATION IS REALLY HELPFUL.

[00:02:42.018]
NOW I JUST NEED TO FIND OUT HOW
YOU GET THE OIL OUT OF THE GROUND.

[00:02:44.348]
WE'VE GOT SOME GREAT EXHIBITS HERE

[00:02:45.568]
TO HELP YOU LEARN
HOW OIL IS EXTRACTED.

[00:02:47.248]
FEEL FREE TO LOOK AROUND.

[00:02:48.258]
THANKS, MR. BERNHARD.

[00:02:49.418]
YOU MIGHT ALSO WANT
TO TALK TO MR. WELLS.

[00:02:51.278]
HE'S AT THE OCEAN STAR
MUSEUM IN GALVESTON.

[00:02:53.448]
IT USED TO BE A WORKING OIL RIG.

[00:02:55.008]
THAT WOULD BE GREAT.

[00:02:56.818]
HI, JACOB.

[00:03:00.238]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:03:01.958]
CAN YOU RESEARCH ANY RECENT
OIL SPILLS FROM OIL RIGS?

[00:03:05.058]
OF COURSE I CAN.

[00:03:06.208]
WE'RE HERE DOING RESEARCH
RIGHT NOW.

[00:03:07.798]
FOR SOME GREAT TOOLS TO HELP YOU
EVALUATE THE CONTENT OF WEBSITES,

[00:03:11.408]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:03:13.918]
[00:03:17.278]
HI, MR. WELLS.

[00:03:18.078]
I'M JACOB.

[00:03:18.858]
HELLO, JACOB.

[00:03:20.028]
CAN YOU TELL ME MORE ABOUT OFFSHORE
OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION?

[00:03:23.788]
SURE.

[00:03:24.528]
THIS IS THE PERFECT SPOT.

[00:03:26.048]
WE ARE STANDING ON THE DRILL
FLOOR OF THE OCEAN STAR.

[00:03:29.368]
WOW.

[00:03:30.648]
THIS LOOKS VERY INTERESTING.

[00:03:32.668]
WHAT'S THE TOWER FOR?

[00:03:34.098]
IT'S CALLED A DERRICK.

[00:03:35.548]
IT HAS A PULLEY SYSTEM FOR
RAISING AND LOWERING LENGTHS

[00:03:38.558]
OF CASING AND DRILL PIPE.

[00:03:39.938]
CASINGS?

[00:03:40.838]
YES, CASING IS STEEL PIPE THAT
FORMS THE WALL OF THE WELL BORE

[00:03:44.468]
TO INSURE THE STABILITY
OF THE WELL WE'VE DRILLED.

[00:03:46.598]
WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?

[00:03:47.658]
NEXT, A DRILL BIT IS
ATTACHED TO THE DRILL PIPE,

[00:03:50.278]
AND THE WHOLE ASSEMBLY ROTATES
LIKE A HAND DRILL TO CUT THE HOLE.

[00:03:53.848]
I READ ABOUT DRILL BITS.

[00:03:55.088]
THEY CAN CUT THROUGH ROCK.

[00:03:56.168]
ACTUALLY, THEY'RE SPECIFICALLY
DESIGNED TO JUST DO THAT.

[00:03:59.138]
AS WE ROTATE THE DRILL PIPE AND
THE DRILL BIT, IT CUTS UP THE ROCK,

[00:04:02.398]
AND WE PUMP MUD DOWN THE DRILL PIPE

[00:04:03.888]
TO HELP BRING THE
CUTTINGS BACK TO SURFACE.

[00:04:05.968]
MUD?

[00:04:07.198]
YOU MEAN LIKE WATER AND DIRT?

[00:04:09.258]
WELL, NOT EXACTLY.

[00:04:10.218]
THIS IS A SPECIALIZED DRILLING
FLUID WE USE TO HELP COOL THE BIT

[00:04:13.568]
AND BRING THE CUTTINGS
BACK TO THE SURFACE.

[00:04:15.178]
DO YOU ALWAYS FIND
OIL WHEN YOU DRILL?

[00:04:17.248]
UNFORTUNATELY, NOT ALWAYS,
BUT THROUGH NEW TECHNOLOGY,

[00:04:20.518]
NASA SATELLITE IMAGING,
AND SEISMIC TECHNIQUES,

[00:04:23.058]
WE'VE ACTUALLY GREATLY INCREASED
OUR CHANCES OF FINDING OIL.

[00:04:26.058]
ONCE YOU FIND OIL, HOW DO
YOU GET IT OUT OF THE GROUND?

[00:04:28.848]
AFTER REMOVING THE
DRILL PIPE AND BIT,

[00:04:30.878]
PRODUCTION TUBING IS
PUT INTO THE WELL BORE.

[00:04:33.018]
THEN A PERFORATING GUN IS USED
TO MAKE HOLES THROUGH THE CEMENT

[00:04:35.518]
AND CASINGS SO THE OIL
CAN FLOW INTO THE WELL.

[00:04:37.788]
WE'RE LOOKING FOR A SOURCE OF
OIL POLLUTION IN THE OCEAN.

[00:04:40.248]
ARE THERE OFFSHORE OIL RIGS ON THE
EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES?

[00:04:43.268]
ACTUALLY, THERE AREN'T ANY.

[00:04:44.618]
MOST OF THEM ARE IN
THE GULF OF MEXICO.

[00:04:46.708]
DID YOU KNOW ON A WORLDWIDE BASIS,

[00:04:48.768]
LESS THAN 3% OF THE OIL POLLUTION
COMES FROM OFFSHORE EXPLORATION

[00:04:52.908]
AND PRODUCTION OPERATIONS?

[00:04:54.508]
IN FACT, THE ONES THAT I'VE BEEN
INVOLVED IN, IT'S LITTLE, IF ANY.

[00:04:57.818]
WOW, THAT'S NOT VERY MUCH.

[00:04:59.858]
WHERE DOES MOST OF THE
OIL POLLUTION COME FROM?

[00:05:01.578]
ACTUALLY, IN NORTH AMERICAN WATERS,

[00:05:02.968]
GREATER THAN 60% COMES
FROM NATURAL SEEPAGE.

[00:05:05.748]
YOU MEAN IT JUST BUBBLES UP
FROM THE FLOOR OF THE OCEAN?

[00:05:08.458]
THAT'S RIGHT; ONCE THE OIL
MOVES UP THROUGH THE EARTH

[00:05:10.808]
TO THE OCEAN FLOOR, IT
JUST RISES TO THE SURFACE.

[00:05:13.148]
BECAUSE OIL IS LESS
DENSE THAN WATER.

[00:05:15.058]
VERY GOOD.

[00:05:16.288]
AND THE GULF OF MEXICO IS ONE
OF THE LARGEST NATURAL SOURCES

[00:05:19.828]
OF OIL SEEPAGE IN NORTH AMERICA.

[00:05:21.458]
IT SOUNDS LIKE WE NEED TO
LEARN MORE ABOUT OIL SEEPAGE.

[00:05:23.818]
THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

[00:05:24.958]
A MARINE GEOLOGIST CAN HELP YOU
LEARN MORE ABOUT THE GEOLOGY

[00:05:27.368]
AND TOPOGRAPHY OF THE OCEAN FLOOR.

[00:05:29.308]
THANKS, MR. WELLS.

[00:05:30.428]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:05:31.438]
WHILE YOU'RE HERE, LET ME SHOW
YOU MORE OF THE DRILLING RIG.

[00:05:34.258]
[00:05:36.318]
HI, JACOB.

[00:05:37.138]
WELCOME BACK.

[00:05:38.728]
DID YOU FIND OUT IF THERE HAVE
BEEN ANY REPORTED OIL SPILLS

[00:05:41.438]
FROM OIL RIGS?

[00:05:42.548]
I HAVE, AND THERE HASN'T
BEEN A SINGLE REPORT

[00:05:45.278]
OF AN OIL SPILL OR
OIL RIG ACCIDENT.

[00:05:48.258]
THAT'S GOOD.

[00:05:49.258]
MR. WELLS HAD MENTIONED THAT OIL
SOMETIMES JUST NATURALLY SEEPS

[00:05:52.038]
FROM THE OCEAN FLOOR.

[00:05:53.528]
MAYBE THAT'S A LEAD.

[00:05:54.978]
I ALSO DID SOME RESEARCH
ON THE TENNIS SHOES

[00:05:56.888]
WITH THE CALCULATIONS
FROM WATER COUNTRY.

[00:05:58.598]
WHAT DID YOU FIND?

[00:05:59.908]
EVEN IF THE SURFACE
CURRENT TRAVELED AS FAST

[00:06:02.018]
AS THE GULF STREAM, THE SHOES FROM
THE CONTAINER COULDN'T GET HERE

[00:06:04.848]
AS QUICKLY AS THEY DID.

[00:06:06.218]
GUESS IT WASN'T SURFACE CURRENTS.

[00:06:08.448]
THIS INVESTIGATION IS
GETTING INTERESTING.

[00:06:10.368]
I THINK WE NEED TO GO
TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:06:13.128]
OKAY, WE KNOW THAT TENNIS
SHOES AND WHAT WE BELIEVE

[00:06:15.728]
TO BE OIL GLOBS WASHED
UP ON THE BEACH.

[00:06:18.098]
WE KNOW THAT CURRENTS TRAVEL
LONG DISTANCES AROUND THE WORLD

[00:06:20.618]
AND COULD'VE BROUGHT THE
SHOES IN FROM FAR AWAY.

[00:06:22.928]
AND OIL RESERVES FORMED MILLIONS
OF YEARS AGO IN SEDIMENTARY BASINS

[00:06:27.508]
AND THAT SOME OIL
SEEPS OUT NATURALLY.

[00:06:29.168]
WE ALSO KNOW NOW THAT THERE
ARE NO REPORTED OIL SPILLS

[00:06:32.018]
FROM OFFSHORE RIGS OR OIL TANKERS.

[00:06:34.418]
I THINK WE NEED TO VERIFY
WHAT WAS IN THE CONTAINER

[00:06:36.778]
THAT FELL OVERBOARD LAST WEEK.

[00:06:38.708]
YOU KNOW, I.M. IS GOOD AT
JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS.

[00:06:41.078]
WE ALSO NEED TO KNOW IF NATURAL
SEEPAGE CAUSED OUR OIL GLOBS.

[00:06:44.638]
WE BETTER NOT TELL TONY,
OR HE'LL BE LOOKING

[00:06:47.068]
FOR OIL IN HIS SPARE TIME.

[00:06:48.698]
I'M SERIOUS.

[00:06:49.888]
I THINK THAT NEEDS TO BE OUR NEW
HYPOTHESIS FOR THE OIL GLOBS.

[00:06:52.748]
IF OIL IS SEEPING NATURALLY FROM
SOMEWHERE ALONG THE EAST COAST,

[00:06:55.648]
THEN IT WILL WASH UP ON OUR BEACH.

[00:06:57.208]
I WOULDN'T BE TOO QUICK TO MAKE THE
SEEPING POSSIBILITY OUR HYPOTHESIS.

[00:07:01.368]
REMEMBER, IN YOUR REPORT,
MR. WELLS SAID THAT THE GULF

[00:07:03.998]
OF MEXICO IS THE LARGEST
NATURAL SEEPAGE AREA.

[00:07:07.168]
BUT JACOB COULD BE ON TO SOMETHING.

[00:07:09.158]
MAYBE WE NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT SEEPING OILS

[00:07:11.048]
AND THE TOPOGRAPHY
OF THE OCEAN FLOOR.

[00:07:12.898]
MR. WELLS DID SUGGEST THAT WE
TALK TO A MARINE GEOLOGIST.

[00:07:16.028]
WE NEED TO FIND A MARINE
GEOLOGIST TO HELP US OUT.

[00:07:18.618]
I REMEMBER MR. MCNINCH.

[00:07:20.408]
HE TOLD US ABOUT HOT SPOTS IN
THE OCEAN FLOOR IN THE CASE

[00:07:22.708]
OF THE DISAPPEARING DIRT.

[00:07:24.148]
I THINK HE MIGHT BE JUST
THE PERSON TO TALK TO.

[00:07:26.428]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:07:27.508]
HE'S FROM THE VIRGINIA INSTITUTE OF
MARINE SCIENCE, OR VIMS FOR SHORT.

[00:07:31.608]
WE NEED TO SEE IF KALI
CAN MEET UP WITH HIM.

[00:07:34.008]
OH, BY THE WAY, JACOB, TONY TOLD US
THAT THE LACK OF NOISE IS STARTING

[00:07:38.138]
TO GET TO HIM, BUT I'LL ASK
HIM ABOUT NATURAL OIL SEEPAGE.

[00:07:41.498]
KALI SAID SHE WOULD BE
ABLE TO MEET WITH HIM,

[00:07:43.438]
BUT DR. MCNINCH REFERRED US
TO MISS JENNIFER MISELIS.

[00:07:45.698]
I'M HERE AT VIMS WITH MISS MISELIS.

[00:07:49.268]
SHE'S SHOWING ME THE VESSELS THEY
USE TO MAP AND TAKE CORE SAMPLES.

[00:07:52.918]
WE LEARNED THAT THERE ARE MOUNTAINS
AND VALLEYS ON THE OCEAN FLOOR

[00:07:55.458]
AND THAT THERE'S NATURAL
OIL SEEPAGE.

[00:07:57.128]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT
THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE OCEAN.

[00:07:59.888]
CAN YOU TELL ME EXACTLY
WHAT THE FLOOR LOOKS LIKE?

[00:08:02.468]
IT'S MAGNIFICENT.

[00:08:03.578]
UNDER THE OCEAN, YOU CAN
FIND THE TALLEST MOUNTAINS,

[00:08:05.558]
THE DEEPEST VALLEYS, AND THE
FLATTEST PLAINS ON EARTH.

[00:08:08.308]
SOUNDS FASCINATING, BUT
I DON'T SEE ANY MOUNTAINS

[00:08:10.988]
OR VALLEYS WHEN I SWIM.

[00:08:12.608]
THAT'S BECAUSE WHERE YOU SWIM IS
ACTUALLY THE CONTINENTAL SHELF.

[00:08:15.288]
THIS AREA IS LOCATED ALONG THE EDGE
OF THE CONTINENT AND CAN EXTEND 10

[00:08:18.538]
TO 200 KILOMETERS OFFSHORE.

[00:08:20.568]
SO ARE MOUNTAINS THE NEXT AREA?

[00:08:22.378]
NO, NEXT COMES THE
CONTINENTAL SLOPE.

[00:08:24.438]
IT STARTS AT THE EDGE OF
THE SHELF AND DIPS STEEPLY

[00:08:26.638]
UNTIL YOU REACH THE ABYSSAL PLAIN,

[00:08:28.308]
WHICH IS ONE OF THE
FLATTEST AREAS ON EARTH.

[00:08:29.978]
AND THE NEXT AREA IS WHERE THE
TALLEST MOUNTAINS ARE, RIGHT?

[00:08:33.308]
RIGHT, IN THE MIDDLE OF THE OCEAN,

[00:08:35.128]
THERE ARE MOUNTAIN RIDGES
CALLED MID-OCEAN RIDGES.

[00:08:37.788]
THIS IS WHERE THE SEA
FLOOR IS SPREADING APART,

[00:08:39.638]
MAKING NEW SEA FLOOR
AND BUILDING MOUNTAINS.

[00:08:42.088]
I LEARNED ABOUT THE SEA FLOOR
SPREADING APART IN THE CASE

[00:08:44.348]
OF THE SHAKY QUAKE WHEN WE
LEARNED ABOUT PLATE TECTONICS.

[00:08:47.408]
VERY GOOD.

[00:08:48.238]
YOU'LL ALSO FIND VOLCANOES
OVER THOSE RIDGES

[00:08:51.048]
AND OVER HOT SPOTS
IN THE EARTH'S CRUST.

[00:08:52.818]
IF A VOLCANO GROWS
TALL ENOUGH TO RISE

[00:08:55.088]
ABOVE SEA LEVEL, THEY FORM ISLANDS.

[00:08:57.188]
JUST LIKE THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

[00:08:58.618]
DIDN'T THEY FORM OVER A HOT SPOT?

[00:09:00.448]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:09:01.268]
AND IF A VOLCANO DOESN'T BREAK
THE SURFACE OF THE WATER,

[00:09:03.308]
THEN IT'S CALLED A SEAMOUNT.

[00:09:04.618]
THERE ARE ALSO DEEP OCEAN TRENCHES.

[00:09:06.068]
I ALWAYS THOUGHT OF
THE OCEAN AS SANDY.

[00:09:07.438]
UNDER THE OCEAN IS A WHOLE WORLD
JUST WAITING TO BE DISCOVERED,

[00:09:10.198]
AND THAT'S WHERE THE
CORE SAMPLES COME IN.

[00:09:11.878]
WHY DO YOU TAKE CORE
SAMPLES OF THE OCEAN FLOOR?

[00:09:14.708]
SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGES SHOW
BURIED ANCIENT RIVER CHANNELS

[00:09:17.858]
LOCATED NEAR HERE
DURING THE LAST ICE AGE.

[00:09:20.158]
CORING HELPS US TO
VERIFY THAT THEY EXIST.

[00:09:22.208]
IT SEEMS LIKE WE HAVE ANOTHER
MYSTERY, AND WE NEED YOUR HELP.

[00:09:25.018]
SURE THING.

[00:09:25.518]
WHAT CAN I DO?

[00:09:26.458]
RIGHT NOW, WE'RE TRYING TO
FIND OUT WHERE THE OIL GLOBS

[00:09:28.468]
ON OUR BEACH CAME FROM.

[00:09:30.198]
MR. WELLS SAID THAT OIL SOMETIMES
SEEPS OUT NATURALLY FROM THE OCEAN.

[00:09:33.538]
SO WE NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT OIL SEEPS.

[00:09:36.088]
OIL AND GAS CAN SEEP
DIRECTLY ONTO THE SURFACE

[00:09:38.438]
OF THE EARTH OR INTO THE OCEANS.

[00:09:40.508]
ARE SEEPS VERY COMMON?

[00:09:42.028]
YES, THEY'RE QUITE COMMON.

[00:09:43.448]
DID YOU KNOW IN CALIFORNIA, EVERY
OIL AND GAS FIELD DISCOVERED

[00:09:46.438]
BETWEEN 1860 AND THE EARLY
1900S WAS ACTUALLY FOUND

[00:09:50.008]
BY PEOPLE SEEING IT
SEEP UP FROM THE EARTH?

[00:09:52.328]
SO HOW DOES OIL AND GAS SEEP OUT?

[00:09:54.158]
SEEPS CAN COME FROM A
SINGLE POINT OR FROM AS MANY

[00:09:56.128]
AS 30,000 INDIVIDUAL LITTLE HOLES.

[00:09:58.248]
DIVERS DESCRIBE HIGH SEEPAGE AREAS

[00:10:00.298]
AS LOOKING LIKE A WHOLE
BUNCH OF GOPHER HOLES.

[00:10:02.738]
HOW MUCH OIL AND GAS SEEPS OUT?

[00:10:04.478]
IT VARIES FROM PLACE TO PLACE AND
CAN RANGE FROM NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE

[00:10:07.508]
TO DETECT TO THICK OIL FILMS WITH
GLOBULAR DEPOSITS CALLED TAR BALLS.

[00:10:11.708]
THAT SOUNDS LIKE WHAT'S
ON OUR BEACH.

[00:10:13.628]
WE LEARNED THAT MOST OF THE OIL
SEEPAGE OCCURS ALONG THE GULF

[00:10:16.308]
OF MEXICO, SO WE THOUGHT

[00:10:17.858]
THAT A CURRENT COULD BE CARRYING
THE OIL GLOBS TO OUR BEACH,

[00:10:20.958]
BUT WE LEARNED THAT THERE AREN'T
ANY CURRENTS THAT CARRY THINGS

[00:10:23.348]
TO VIRGINIA FROM THE
GULF OF MEXICO.

[00:10:25.398]
WHAT ABOUT THE GULF STREAM?

[00:10:26.488]
WE KNOW THAT THE GULF STREAM FLOWS
NORTHWARD FROM THE CENTRAL PART

[00:10:29.218]
OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN AND
TURNS BACK TOWARDS EUROPE

[00:10:31.858]
UP AROUND CANADA.

[00:10:33.338]
SO I DON'T THINK THAT'S THE ANSWER.

[00:10:34.958]
YOU MIGHT WANT TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT THE GULF STREAM.

[00:10:36.568]
YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:10:37.518]
MAYBE IT IS THE GULF STREAM.

[00:10:39.278]
THANKS, MISS MISELIS.

[00:10:40.438]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:10:41.038]
IT'S MY PLEASURE TO HELP OUT
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:10:43.668]
LET ME SHOW YOU SOMETHING ELSE.

[00:10:45.088]
[MUSIC]

[00:10:54.088]
[00:11:33.088]
HI, TONY.

[00:11:33.668]
WELCOME TO THE UNDERWATER
RESEARCH LAB.

[00:11:35.858]
NEAT PLACE, DR. D.
THANKS FOR INVITING ME.

[00:11:38.438]
I UNDERSTAND THAT YOU HAVE
SOME EXPLORATION IN MIND.

[00:11:40.738]
I CERTAINLY DO.

[00:11:41.868]
I WAS AMAZED TO FIND OUT HOW
MUCH SCUBA DIVERS CAN ACCOMPLISH

[00:11:44.318]
WHEN THEY STAY IN AN UNDERWATER
HABITAT LIKE THE AQUARIUS.

[00:11:47.268]
SCUBA DIVERS GENERALLY HAVE
A MAXIMUM DEPTH OF 40 METERS,

[00:11:50.618]
AND WITH SPECIAL EQUIPMENT,
MAYBE UP TO 600 METERS.

[00:11:54.028]
WHY CAN'T THEY GO DEEPER?

[00:11:55.358]
WELL, THE REAL PROBLEM IS PRESSURE.

[00:11:56.958]
THE DEEPER YOU GO IN THE OCEAN,
THE GREATER THE PRESSURE.

[00:11:59.698]
WHY IS PRESSURE A PROBLEM?

[00:12:00.988]
WELL, LOOK AT THIS BOTTLE.

[00:12:02.868]
HOW DID YOU CRUSH
THE BOTTLE, DR. D?

[00:12:04.738]
I DIDN'T.

[00:12:05.298]
THE PRESSURE CRUSHED THE
BOTTLE AS I BROUGHT IT

[00:12:06.978]
DOWN TO THE LAB FROM THE SURFACE.

[00:12:08.568]
EVERY 10 METERS DOWN IN THE OCEAN,

[00:12:10.068]
THE PRESSURE INCREASES
BY 1 ATMOSPHERE.

[00:12:12.928]
SO WHAT IF MY TREASURE
IS, SAY, THEORETICALLY,

[00:12:17.498]
DEEPER THAN 600 METERS?

[00:12:19.238]
YOU CAN USE A SUBMERSIBLE
OR MINI-SUBMARINE.

[00:12:21.468]
THEY HAVE THICK REINFORCED WALLS
INSTEAD OF INCREASED AIR PRESSURE.

[00:12:24.418]
IT CAN GO AS DEEP AS 6,500 METERS.

[00:12:27.298]
SO YOU'RE SAYING IF I BROUGHT A
GLASS BOTTLE DOWN TO THE AQUARIUS,

[00:12:29.908]
IT WOULDN'T COLLAPSE BECAUSE IT'S
STRONGER THAN THE PLASTIC BOTTLE.

[00:12:32.618]
VERY GOOD; ANOTHER TYPE
OF SUBMERSIBLE IS AN ROV,

[00:12:34.788]
OR REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE.

[00:12:37.078]
IN FACT, I HAVE ONE RIGHT HERE.

[00:12:39.558]
YOU'RE KIDDING.

[00:12:40.948]
WELL, MINE IS A LOT SMALLER
THAN A RESEARCH VESSEL,

[00:12:43.518]
AND IT USES RADIO CONTROL
INSTEAD OF A CABLE.

[00:12:46.218]
MAYBE I COULD USE AN ROV TO
HELP IN MY TREASURE HUNT.

[00:12:48.578]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:12:49.418]
BESIDES LOCATING LOST
TREASURE SHIPS,

[00:12:51.068]
WE CAN ALSO USE THESE VEHICLES
TO INSPECT OIL RIGS AND PIPELINES

[00:12:54.588]
AND TO INVESTIGATE OCEAN
RIDGES AND GEOTHERMAL VENTS.

[00:12:57.868]
WHAT ARE THESE?

[00:12:58.638]
THESE ARE MY TWO OTHER
SUBMERSIBLES CALLED RBUVS.

[00:13:00.598]
LET ME GUESS.

[00:13:03.198]
RUBBER BAND UNDERWATER VEHICLES.

[00:13:05.058]
YOU'RE REALLY ON THE BALL.

[00:13:06.318]
LET'S GO OUTSIDE AND
HAVE AN RBUV RACE.

[00:13:09.088]
[MUSIC]

[00:13:18.088]
[00:13:22.688]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:23.828]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
FIGURE OUT HOW TO CLEAN UP THE OIL?

[00:13:26.258]
WHERE DID THOSE TENNIS
SHOES REALLY COME FROM?

[00:13:29.978]
JOIN US FOR THE FINAL CHAPTER OF
THE CASE OF THE OCEAN ODYSSEY.

[00:13:35.048]
[00:00:00.119]
IN THE FINALE OF THE CASE OF THE
OCEAN ODYSSEY, YOU NEED TO LOOK

[00:00:02.889]
FOR THE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS: WHAT ARE ABSORBENTS?

[00:00:06.999]
HOW IS AN OIL SPILL CLEANED UP?

[00:00:09.319]
WHAT IS DISPERSION?

[00:00:11.189]
[00:00:20.519]
ARE YOU STILL EXAMINING
THOSE SHOES?

[00:00:23.059]
I BELIEVE NOW THAT THESE SHOES
HAVE TRAVELED A LONG WAY.

[00:00:26.099]
WHY DO YOU THINK THAT?

[00:00:27.489]
I WAS JUST READING
ABOUT A CARGO SHIP

[00:00:28.679]
THAT LOST A CONTAINER
NEAR JAPAN YEARS AGO.

[00:00:31.839]
OH, YES, I REMEMBER THAT, AND ABOUT
TEN YEARS LATER, THE SHOES WASHED

[00:00:36.019]
UP ON THE SHORELINE OF
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON.

[00:00:39.759]
I.M. LISSNING HERE BRINGING
YOU THIS REPORT LIVE

[00:00:42.479]
FROM VIRGINIA BEACH.

[00:00:43.999]
RECENTLY I REPORTED
THAT A CONTAINER

[00:00:45.689]
OF SHOES FELL OVERBOARD
NEAR THE COASTLINE.

[00:00:48.999]
I WOULD NOW LIKE TO
RETRACT THAT REPORT

[00:00:51.639]
BECAUSE WE HAVE NEW
INFORMATION WHICH REVEALS

[00:00:54.929]
THAT THE CONTAINER
ACTUALLY HELD RUBBER DUCKS.

[00:00:59.059]
I APOLOGIZE FOR THE MISINFORMATION
AND FOR JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS.

[00:01:03.649]
I THOUGHT MY CALCULATIONS
WERE CORRECT.

[00:01:06.979]
I KNEW THOSE SHOES COULDN'T
HAVE COME FROM THAT CONTAINER.

[00:01:10.049]
THEY GOT TO THE BEACH
TOO QUICKLY, RIGHT?

[00:01:12.029]
SO WHAT DO WE DO NOW?

[00:01:13.539]
PROBLEM BOARD, JACOB.

[00:01:15.269]
OKAY, WE KNOW THAT THE SHOES
CAN TRAVEL A VERY LONG DISTANCE.

[00:01:18.509]
WE KNOW THAT CURRENTS CAN
MOVE OBJECTS LONG DISTANCES.

[00:01:20.929]
SO THEY PROBABLY GOT
TO THE VIRGINIA COAST

[00:01:22.769]
THROUGH THE GULF STREAM.

[00:01:24.119]
AND WE STILL NEED TO KNOW HOW THE
SHOES GOT FROM THE GULF STREAM

[00:01:26.309]
TO THE BEACH AND WHERE
THEY ORIGINALLY CAME FROM.

[00:01:28.749]
WE NOW KNOW THAT OIL
SEEPS OUT NATURALLY.

[00:01:31.409]
RIGHT NOW, THAT SEEMS
TO BE THE ONLY ANSWER

[00:01:33.009]
TO THE OIL GLOB MYSTERY.

[00:01:34.519]
EVEN THOUGH THE OIL
SEEPED OUT NATURALLY,

[00:01:36.219]
IT STILL MADE A MESS OF THE BEACH.

[00:01:38.009]
I THINK WE NEED TO LEARN HOW
THE OIL CAN BE CLEANED UP.

[00:01:41.329]
THE NASA SCI FILES KIDS'
CLUB WEBSITE HAS A POSTING

[00:01:44.329]
ABOUT CLEANING UP OIL SPILLS.

[00:01:46.659]
IT'S WITH THE KEY LARGO
SCHOOL IN KEY LARGO, FLORIDA.

[00:01:49.529]
THEY'RE WORKING WITH MENTORS FROM
THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS.

[00:01:53.229]
TEACHERS, TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
GETTING A CLASSROOM MENTOR,

[00:01:56.219]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:01:59.289]
LET'S DIAL THEM UP.

[00:02:01.169]
HI, I'M ROBERT.

[00:02:02.069]
I'M JACKLYN.

[00:02:02.479]
AND THIS IS DEVIN.

[00:02:03.989]
WE'RE IN MRS. DUNN'S
FOURTH GRADE CLASS.

[00:02:06.689]
HI, WE SAW ON THE NASA SCI
FILES KIDS' CLUB WEBSITE

[00:02:09.599]
THAT YOU'RE WORKING
ON AN EXPERIMENT

[00:02:10.849]
TO CLEAN UP AN OIL SPILL.

[00:02:12.209]
WHAT KIND OF OIL DID YOU SPILL?

[00:02:13.539]
IT'S NOT A REAL OIL
SPILL, BUT A SIMULATED ONE.

[00:02:16.339]
WE USED VEGETABLE OIL AND COCOA
POWDER AND MIXED IT TOGETHER

[00:02:19.639]
TO MAKE AN ENVIRONMENTALLY
FRIENDLY OIL.

[00:02:21.629]
THAT'S A GOOD IDEA.

[00:02:23.549]
CRUDE OIL SUCH AS MOTOR OIL CAN
BE DAMAGING TO THE ENVIRONMENT,

[00:02:27.159]
EVEN ON A SMALL SCALE.

[00:02:28.699]
EXACTLY.

[00:02:29.799]
NEXT, WE MADE OUR OWN MINI-OCEAN
BY POURING 5 MILLILITERS OF SALT

[00:02:33.359]
INTO A SHALLOW ALUMINUM
PAN FULL OF WATER.

[00:02:36.329]
THEN WE SLOWLY POURED OUR OIL
ON TOP OF THE WATER IN THE PAN.

[00:02:40.259]
WHAT HAPPENED?

[00:02:41.649]
BECAUSE OIL IS LIGHTER THAN WATER,
IT SPREADS OUT AND FLOATS ON TOP.

[00:02:45.239]
IT LOOKS KIND OF PRETTY
WITH RAINBOW COLORS,

[00:02:47.849]
BUT IT ISN'T SO PRETTY
WHEN WE TRY TO CLEAN IT UP.

[00:02:50.589]
WHAT DO YOU USE TO CLEAN IT UP?

[00:02:52.089]
WE ARE TRYING A VARIETY OF
THINGS, SUCH AS ABSORBENTS,

[00:02:55.619]
SKIMMERS, AND DETERGENTS.

[00:02:56.719]
WHAT ARE ABSORBENTS?

[00:02:58.259]
ABSORBENTS ARE MATERIALS SUCH AS
STRAW, SAWDUST, AND PEAT MOSS USED

[00:03:02.749]
TO ABSORB THE OIL OFF
THE TOP OF THE WATER.

[00:03:05.149]
SO DID THE ABSORBENTS
HELP CLEAN UP THE OIL?

[00:03:07.219]
NOT VERY WELL.

[00:03:07.859]
WE STILL HAVE A LOT OF OIL
LEFT, AND IT'S VERY MESSY.

[00:03:10.529]
NEXT, WE ARE TRYING SPOONS
TO SIMULATE SKIMMERS,

[00:03:14.379]
WHICH ARE BOWL-SHAPED DEVICES USED

[00:03:16.669]
TO SKIM THE OIL OFF
THE TOP OF THE WATER.

[00:03:19.679]
DOES THAT WORK BETTER
THAN THE ABSORBENTS?

[00:03:21.899]
NO, AND WE DIDN'T
GET MUCH OIL EITHER.

[00:03:23.309]
LAST, WE ARE TRYING DETERGENT.

[00:03:25.199]
THAT WORKS MUCH BETTER.

[00:03:27.299]
THE OIL IMMEDIATELY
MOVES AND FORMS GLOBS,

[00:03:30.039]
BUT A LOT OF DETERGENT WOULDN'T
BE GOOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT.

[00:03:33.229]
THAT WOULD TURN INTO
ONE BIG BUBBLE BATH.

[00:03:35.789]
SO WHAT DID YOU CONCLUDE
WITH YOUR EXPERIMENT?

[00:03:37.579]
WE CONCLUDED THAT THERE IS NO
EASY WAY TO CLEAN UP AN OIL SPILL,

[00:03:41.829]
BUT THE BEST THING IS TO
PREVENT THEM FROM EVER HAPPENING.

[00:03:44.759]
I AGREE.

[00:03:44.949]
THANKS FOR SHARING YOUR
EXPERIMENT WITH US.

[00:03:48.139]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:03:49.199]
GOOD-BYE FROM MRS. DUNN'S
CLASS AT KEY LARGO SCHOOL

[00:03:55.679]
IN KEY LARGO, FLORIDA.

[00:03:57.029]
WOW, CLEANING UP OIL IS
COMPLICATED AND NOT SO EASY.

[00:04:04.619]
IT SEEMS LIKE IT WOULD TAKE
YEARS TO GET THE JOB DONE.

[00:04:07.149]
I SPILLED OIL ON MY MOM'S KITCHEN
FLOOR, AND IT TOOK FOREVER JUST

[00:04:09.769]
TO CLEAN A SMALL AMOUNT UP.

[00:04:10.899]
I KNOW THAT OIL SPILLS ARE
NOT GOOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT,

[00:04:13.939]
ESPECIALLY FOR ALL THE PLANTS
AND WILDLIFE IN THE OCEAN

[00:04:15.929]
AND ALONG THE COASTLINE.

[00:04:17.199]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
CLEANING UP OIL SPILLS

[00:04:19.919]
AND WHAT THE IMPACT TO
OUR ENVIRONMENT MIGHT BE.

[00:04:21.999]
I'LL EMAIL KALI AND ASK HER

[00:04:23.849]
IF SHE CAN HELP US FIND
SOMEONE TO TALK TO.

[00:04:26.139]
I'VE BEEN LOOKING AT KALI'S I.O.I.

[00:04:27.509]
REPORT, AND I WONDER
HOW TONY'S DOING LIVING

[00:04:29.319]
IN THE UNDERWATER HABITAT.

[00:04:30.369]
CAN YOU DIAL HIM UP?

[00:04:32.589]
[00:04:38.609]
HI, TONY.

[00:04:39.549]
HOW'S IT GOING?

[00:04:39.949]
HAVE YOU GUYS BEEN
WATCHING ME THE WHOLE TIME?

[00:04:45.929]
TONY, KALI'S BEEN KEEPING AN I.O.I.

[00:04:47.639]
REPORT ON YOU, AND YOU KNOW WHAT?

[00:04:49.409]
WE THINK IT'S TIME FOR YOU
TO COME HOME TO DRY LAND.

[00:04:52.929]
I HATE TO ADMIT IT, BUT
I THINK YOU'RE RIGHT.

[00:04:55.129]
I GUESS THE TREASURE
HUNT WILL HAVE TO WAIT.

[00:04:57.519]
THANKS.

[00:04:58.449]
I'LL SEE YOU SOON.

[00:05:00.059]
HURRY BACK.

[00:05:00.649]
I'M PROUD OF TONY.

[00:05:02.829]
I KNOW THAT WAS HARD TO DO.

[00:05:06.219]
THERE'S BREAKING NEWS
IN THE OIL GLOB MYSTERY.

[00:05:08.569]
I.M. LISSNING IS REPORTING
FROM FLORIDA.

[00:05:10.759]
TED, WE NOW HAVE REPORTS THAT OIL
GLOBS AND TAR BALLS HAVE WASHED

[00:05:14.729]
UP ALL ALONG THE EAST COAST.

[00:05:16.889]
IT LOOKS LIKE IT'S ALL COMING
FROM HERE IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.

[00:05:20.139]
THAT'S A PRETTY BIG PLACE.

[00:05:21.939]
HOW DID THEY FIND THE
LOCATION OF THE SEEPAGE?

[00:05:24.059]
SATELLITES DID THE TRICK.

[00:05:25.709]
WHAT?

[00:05:26.279]
DID YOU SAY SOMETHING ABOUT LIGHTS?

[00:05:27.999]
NO, TED, NASA SATELLITES REVEALED
THE PRESENCE OF THIS SEEPAGE.

[00:05:32.979]
OH, YES, OF COURSE.

[00:05:34.469]
NASA IS ALWAYS ON THE JOB.

[00:05:37.799]
OKAY, IT APPEARS THAT THE OIL IS
COMING FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO,

[00:05:41.189]
BUT WE STILL NEED TO FIND
OUT HOW IT GOT TO VIRGINIA.

[00:05:43.759]
REMEMBER, MISS MISELIS TOLD KALI

[00:05:45.419]
TO DO SOME MORE RESEARCH
ON THE GULF STREAM.

[00:05:47.409]
DIDN'T DR. TEXTBOOK SAY SOMETHING
ABOUT THE GULF STREAM BEING NAMED

[00:05:50.739]
AFTER THE GULF OF MEXICO?

[00:05:52.389]
YOU'RE RIGHT, BIANCA.

[00:05:53.299]
WE NEED TO DO SOME MORE RESEARCH.

[00:05:55.139]
AND WHAT ABOUT THOSE SHOES?

[00:05:56.339]
I GUESS NASA SATELLITES
CAN'T SEE SHOES FROM SPACE.

[00:05:59.089]
WAIT A MINUTE.

[00:06:00.749]
[00:06:02.009]
KALI FOUND AN ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEER

[00:06:03.739]
AT NASA WALLOPS FLIGHT FACILITY

[00:06:06.239]
WHO CAN TELL US THE
IMPACT OF AN OIL SPILL.

[00:06:08.799]
AND SHE SAYS RJ IS THERE
TO MEET WITH HER NOW.

[00:06:11.329]
THAT'S GREAT, BUT WE STILL
NEED TO SOLVE THE MYSTERY

[00:06:13.389]
OF WHERE THE TENNIS SHOES
AND OIL GLOBS CAME FROM.

[00:06:15.529]
WE'RE GETTING CLOSER.

[00:06:16.419]
LET'S NOT GET DISCOURAGED.

[00:06:18.749]
DR. D ALSO EMAILED AND
SAID THAT DR. MOISAN

[00:06:21.769]
AT NASA WALLOPS FLIGHT FACILITY
COULD HELP US LEARN MORE

[00:06:24.569]
ABOUT COASTAL CURRENTS.

[00:06:25.999]
LET'S ASK RJ TO TALK TO HIM
TOO, AND BE SURE TO HAVE HIM ASK

[00:06:28.599]
ABOUT THE GULF STREAM.

[00:06:30.499]
[00:06:34.009]
MISS FIELDS IS AN
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER HERE

[00:06:36.059]
AT NASA WALLOPS FLIGHT FACILITY
ON THE EASTERN SHORE OF VIRGINIA.

[00:06:39.219]
SHE HAS AGREED TO MEET WITH ME.

[00:06:41.709]
HI, RJ.

[00:06:42.109]
I READ KALI'S EMAIL, AND I CHECKED
OUT YOUR RESEARCH ON THE INTERNET.

[00:06:46.769]
I UNDERSTAND THAT YOU WANT TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT THE IMPACT OF OIL SPILLS

[00:06:50.279]
AND HOW TO CLEAN TH