Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of The Zany Animal Antics

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HEY, HEY, HEY.

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IT'S FAT ALBERT.

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WELL, ACTUALLY, MY REAL
NAME IS KENAN THOMPSON,

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BUT I PLAY FAT ALBERT IN
THE LIVE ACTION FILM BASED

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ON BILL COSBY'S HIT SHOW.

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MY BUDDIES AND I LOVE ADVENTURE.

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BUT WE ALSO LOVE A GOOD CHALLENGE.

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THAT'S WHY WE LOVE
THE NASA SCI FILES.

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IF YOU WANT AN ADVENTURE IN
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY,

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CHECK IN ON THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES HOT ON THE TRAIL

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WITH THEIR LATEST CASE
ON THIS EXCITING EPISODE

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OF THE NASA SCI FILES.

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COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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BE SURE TO LOOK FOR THE ANSWERS
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHY IS IT IMPORTANT
TO CLASSIFY ANIMALS?

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WHICH PHYLUM OF INVERTEBRATES
IS MOST COMMON?

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WHAT ARE THE FIVE
CLASSES OF VERTEBRATES?

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WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON,
THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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WHAT AN AWESOME RIDE.

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RIDING ACROSS THE WATER AT TOP
SPEEDS, CHECKING OUT NATURE,

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AND THE WILDLIFE WAS AMAZING.

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RIGHT, AMAZING.

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COME ON, CATHERINE.

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THAT HAS TO RANK UP THERE
AS ONE OF THE COOLEST.

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YOU'RE RIGHT, IT WAS COOL, BUT...

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BUT WHAT?

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I'VE BEEN THINKING.

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REMEMBER WHEN WE WERE OUT ON THE
BOAT AND WE STOPPED TO EXAMINE SOME

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OF THE PLANT LIFE UNDER THE WATER?

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WELL, I TURNED AROUND TO SEE
THIS BIRD FALL FROM THE SKY.

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I FOLLOWED IT DOWN, ONLY TO
SEE ANOTHER BIRD FLAILING

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AROUND IN THE WATER,
OBVIOUSLY HURT.

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I MENTIONED IT TO OUR GUIDE,
AND HE SAID THAT ON A PRESERVE,

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THEY DON'T USUALLY
RESCUE OR HELP ANIMALS

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UNDER STRESS FROM NATURAL CAUSES.

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THERE ARE NO TRAPS
OR ANYTHING THERE,

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SO THE BIRD PROBABLY
HAD BEEN ATTACKED

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BY A PREDATOR BUT HAD GOTTEN AWAY.

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THEY DON'T INTERFERE.

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I DON'T KNOW.

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IT JUST SEEMS LIKE THERE'S
SOMETHING THAT WE CAN DO TO HELP.

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WELL, WE ARE TALKING ABOUT NATURE.

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I'M NOT SURE WE CAN
HELP EVERY ANIMAL.

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TRUE, BUT I WONDER WHAT WE CAN DO.

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KALI MIGHT BE ABLE TO HELP.

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SHE'S THE EXPERT ON
NATURE AND ANIMALS.

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SHE PROBABLY DOESN'T HAVE TIME.

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I THINK SHE'S WORKING
ON SOME KIND OF PROJECT.

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I HAVE AN IDEA, BUT IT'S GOING

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TO REQUIRE EVERYONE'S
HELP AND JACOB'S BACKYARD.

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JACOB MIGHT BE HARD TO CONVINCE.

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I DON'T KNOW.

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BENEATH HIS HARSH EXTERIOR LIES A
TRULY COMPASSIONATE NATURE LOVER.

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REALLY?

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OKAY, SO I'M EXAGGERATING.

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BUT I'M SURE HE'LL HELP.

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LET'S CONTACT THE OTHERS.

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I DON'T KNOW HOW YOU
EXPECT ME TO HELP YOU

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WITH YOUR WILDLIFE BADGE RESEARCH

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WITH ALL THIS PRIME REAL
ESTATE WAITING TO BE DEVELOPED.

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TONY, IF WE BUILD HOUSES
EVERYWHERE THERE ARE FORESTS,

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THERE WON'T BE ANY WILDLIFE.

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OF COURSE, YOU'RE RIGHT.

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BY THE WAY, HOW'S THE
RESEARCH COMING ALONG?

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I'VE TAKEN SOME PICTURES
OF OUR STATE BIRD,

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AND I'VE IDENTIFIED
SOME POISONOUS PLANTS,

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BUT I STILL HAVE A
LOT OF WORK TO DO.

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WELL, I HOPE YOU HAVE SOME
EXTRA TIME ON YOUR HANDS.

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WHAT'S UP?

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I JUST GOT AN EMAIL FROM CATHERINE.

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SHE SAID SHE SAW AN INJURED
ANIMAL IN THE EVERGLADES AND SHE

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AND BIANCA WANT TO CREATE
THEIR OWN BACKYARD HABITAT.

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SOUNDS COOL.

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WHOSE BACKYARD?

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THEY'VE TALKED TO JACOB, AND
HE'S AGREED TO USE HIS BACKYARD.

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I THINK HE'S HOPING HE DOESN'T
HAVE TO CUT THE GRASS ANYMORE.

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AT LEAST HE'S DOING
WHAT HE CAN TO HELP.

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GOOD POINT.

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BUT THE QUESTION IS,
WHAT CAN WE DO?

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THEY'RE STILL IN FLORIDA AND
DON'T KNOW WHERE TO BEGIN.

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I'M NOT SURE, BUT MAYBE MY RESEARCH

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FROM MY WILDLIFE BADGE
CAN HELP THEM.

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GREAT IDEA.

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LET'S START WITH THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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OKAY, WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THAT CATHERINE SAW AN
INJURED ANIMAL IN DISTRESS.

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AND OF COURSE WE KNOW THAT ANIMALS
ARE A PART OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

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AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT THERE ARE
MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANIMALS.

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SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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I THINK WE NEED TO
START WITH THE BASICS.

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IF WE'RE GOING TO MAKE A HABITAT
FOR ANIMALS, WE SHOULD LEARN HOW

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TO CLASSIFY AND IDENTIFY THEM.

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AND WHICH ONES WE NEED TO PROTECT.

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SO WHERE SHOULD WE GO?

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DIDN'T YOU GO ON A CAMPING
TRIP TO BUSCH GARDENS

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WITH YOUR GIRL SCOUT TROOP?

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RIGHT, THEY TAKE CARE OF
SOME AMAZING ANIMALS THERE.

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I'M SURE THEY'LL HELP US.

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I'LL EMAIL MY TROOP LEADER.

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EXCELLENT IDEA.

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AND DON'T FORGET, WE HAVE TO
EMAIL DR. D, BIANCA AND CATHERINE,

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AND DOWNLOAD A GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET.

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YOU CAN GET YOUR OWN
GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET

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AT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

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IT MAY TAKE A LOT OF HARD
WORK, BUT IT'S GOOD TO HELP.

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I'M HERE AT BUSCH GARDENS
IN WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA,

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TOO TALK WITH THEIR ZOOLOGICAL
MANAGER, MR. ROB YORDI.

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HE ACTUALLY WORKS WITH
WOLVES HERE AT THE PARK,

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SO IT SHOULD BE VERY EXCITING.

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THE WOLVES ARE VERY FASCINATING
CREATURES, BUT REMEMBER,

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NO CAMERAS, BACKPACKS, AND
ALSO, DON'T LOOK THEM IN THE EYE

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SO WE WON'T DISTRACT THEM.

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NO PROBLEM.

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THEY LOOK LIKE DOGS.

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WELL, THAT'S BECAUSE THEY'RE IN THE
SAME PHYLUM, CHORDATA; SUBPHYLUM,

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VERTEBRATA; CLASS,
MAMMALIA; ORDER, CARNIVORA;

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AND FAMILY, CANIDAE, AS DOGS ARE.

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UH, COULD YOU REPEAT THAT?

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WELL, ACTUALLY, IN YOUR EMAIL,
YOU REQUESTED INFORMATION ON HOW

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TO CLASSIFY ANIMALS, AND THAT IS
THE CLASSIFICATION FOR WOLVES.

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BUT MAYBE WE SHOULD
START AT THE BEGINNING.

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THAT SOUNDS LIKE A GOOD IDEA.

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WE KNOW THAT THERE ARE TWO MAIN
KINGDOMS, PLANTS AND ANIMALS,

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BUT WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
HOW ANIMALS ARE CLASSIFIED.

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JUST LIKE FOR PLANTS, SCIENTISTS
USE A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

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FOR ANIMALS.

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THE ANIMAL KINGDOM IS
DIVIDED INTO SMALLER GROUPS.

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THE LARGEST GROUP WITHIN
A KINGDOM IS A PHYLUM.

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PHYLA ARE DIVIDED INTO CLASSES.

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CLASSES ARE DIVIDED INTO
SMALLER AND SMALLER GROUPS.

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THE SMALLEST GROUP IS THE SPECIES.

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WHY IS IT IMPORTANT
TO CLASSIFY ANIMALS?

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BY CLASSIFYING ANIMALS, WE CAN
GIVE EACH ORGANISM A UNIQUE,

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SCIENTIFICALLY ACCEPTED
NAME, WHICH AVOIDS CONFUSION.

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WHY CAN'T YOU JUST
CALL A DOG A DOG?

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WELL, AN ANIMAL'S COMMON NAME
CAN VARY WITHIN LANGUAGES,

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ALSO WITHIN REGIONS,
EVEN IN THE SAME COUNTRY.

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HERE IN THE U.S., THE MOUNTAIN
LION IS ALSO CALLED THE PANTHER,

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THE COUGAR, OR THE PUMA.

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IT'S KNOWN AS THE
CAT OF MANY NAMES.

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SO HOW DO ANIMALS GET THEIR NAMES?

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WELL, SCIENTISTS LOOK AT SPECIFIC
CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH ORGANISM

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TO DIVIDE THEM INTO GROUPS.

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THE ANIMAL KINGDOM IS DIVIDED
IN TWO SPECIFIC GROUPS:

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VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES.

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HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT?

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VERTEBRATES ARE ANIMALS WITH
A BACKBONE OR SPINAL COLUMN.

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INVERTEBRATES ARE NOT.

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I HAVE A BACKBONE.

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I MUST BE A VERTEBRATE.

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YES, YOU ARE.

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ABOUT 5% OF ANIMALS ARE
VERTEBRATES AND ARE CATEGORIZED

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INTO CLASSES ACCORDING
TO THEIR TRAITS.

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VERTEBRATES INCLUDE
FISH, AMPHIBIANS,

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REPTILES, BIRDS, AND MAMMALS.

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WOW, ONLY 5%.

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DOES THAT MEAN THE OTHER
95% ARE INVERTEBRATES?

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THAT'S CORRECT.

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THE INVERTEBRATE PHYLA CONSIST OF
MANY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF WORMS,

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INSECTS, SPONGES, AND EVEN
MICROSCOPIC ORGANISMS.

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IF I WERE TO FIND AN ANIMAL IN MY
BACKYARD THAT I DIDN'T RECOGNIZE,

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HOW COULD I IDENTIFY IT?

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WELL, ONE WAY THAT SCIENTISTS
USE TO IDENTIFY AN ANIMAL IS

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THROUGH THE USE OF
A DICHOTOMOUS KEY.

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DICHOTOMOUS KEY?

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I'M NOT SURE I UNDERSTAND.

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DICHOTOMOUS MEANS
SEPARATED INTO TWO PARTS.

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DICHOTOMOUS KEY IS A METHOD
USED TO IDENTIFY AN OBJECT

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BY GIVING A SPECIFIC SET
OF CHOICES ALL THE WAY

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DOWN TO THE OBJECT'S NAME,
OR IN THIS CASE, AN ANIMAL.

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HOW DOES IT WORK?

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YOU START OUT WITH
TWO CHARACTERISTICS.

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AFTER CHOOSING THE
FIRST CHARACTERISTIC,

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YOU ARE GIVEN TWO
MORE TO CHOOSE FROM.

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YOU KEEP MAKING CHOICES UNTIL
YOU CLASSIFY THE ANIMAL.

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IF YOU'RE LOOKING AT AN
ANIMAL, THE FIRST SET

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OF CHARACTERISTICS WOULD
BE BACKBONE OR NO BACKBONE.

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AND IF IT HAS A BACKBONE,
THEN YOU WOULD KEEP LOOKING

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AT OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
TO NARROW IT DOWN.

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EXACTLY.

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LIKE THE GRAY WOLF, YOU WOULD START
OUT WITH BACKBONE OR NO BACKBONE.

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YOU WOULD CHOOSE BACKBONE.

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THE NEXT SET OF CHOICES
WOULD BE FUR OR FEATHERS.

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YOU WOULD CHOOSE FUR.

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GO DOWN TO THE NEXT SET
WOULD BE LONG CANINE TEETH

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OR SHORT CANINE TEETH.

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YOU WOULD CHOOSE LONG CANINE
TEETH AND EVENTUALLY GET

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DOWN TO THE GRAY WOLF
CLASSIFICATION.

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THEY'RE REALLY BEAUTIFUL.

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THE GRAY WOLF USED TO BE
ENDANGERED IN THE UNITED STATES DUE

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TO OVER HUNTING AND
THE LOSS OF HABITAT.

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BUT THROUGH CONSERVATION EFFORTS,
IT IS NOW CONSIDERED THREATENED.

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IT IS THE LARGEST OF THE CANID
SPECIES AND HAS THE LARGEST RANGE

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OF ANY LAND MAMMAL, WITH
THE EXCEPTION OF HUMANS.

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THEY ARE PACK HUNTERS AND
USUALLY FEED ON MAMMALS LARGER

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THAN THEMSELVES, INCLUDING
CARIBOU, ELK, AND DEER.

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THEY ALSO HAVE A VERY
DISTINCTIVE HOWL.

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YOU'RE LUCKY TO HAVE SUCH
COOL ANIMALS HERE AT THE PARK.

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WE'RE THRILLED, AND BUSCH
GARDENS WILLIAMSBURG IS COMMITTED

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TO THE CONSERVATION OF ALL ANIMALS.

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WE HAVE LOTS OF DIFFERENT
ANIMALS IN OUR PARK

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TO HELP TEACH OUR GUESTS ABOUT
THEIR HABITATS, BEHAVIORS,

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THE ANIMAL'S STATUS IN THE
WILD, AND WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE

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TO HELP THE ENVIRONMENT.

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SEEING AN ANIMAL UP CLOSE

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AND PERSONAL REALLY
DOES MAKE A DIFFERENCE.

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JUST WAIT TILL YOU SEE THE SHOW.

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HI, KALI.

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WHAT A COOL VESSEL.

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YES, IT IS.

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IT'S LIKE THE KIND YOU USE TO
COLLECT BIOLUMINESCENT ORGANISMS.

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YOU SURE CAN LEARN A LOT ABOUT
ORGANISMS IN THIS GLOWING EXHIBIT.

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VERY FUNNY, DR. D. I
WAS SURPRISED TO LEARN

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THAT ORGANISMS CAN GIVE OFF
LIGHT BY MIXING CHEMICALS

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IN THEIR OWN BODY, JUST
LIKE MIXING CHEMICALS

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IN THIS GLOW STICK.

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RIGHT, AND ORGANISMS THAT
MAKE THEMSELVES GLOW ARE

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CALLED BIOLUMINESCENT.

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DID YOU KNOW THAT 90% OF MID-OCEAN
ORGANISMS ARE BIOLUMINESCENT?

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THEY USE THEIR LIGHT TO
BLIND THEIR PREDATORS,

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ATTRACT PREY, AND FIND A MATE.

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WOW, YOU REALLY KNOW YOUR STUFF.

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IN THE OCEAN, YOU'LL FIND
JELLYFISH, SEA CUCUMBERS, SHRIMP,

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SQUID, AND OCTOPUS THAT GLOW.

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AND ON LAND YOU'LL FIND
FIREFLIES, GLOW WORMS,

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SNAILS, AND CLICK BEETLES.

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HMM, SO FAR YOU'VE MENTIONED
ONLY INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS.

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RIGHT.

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WE LEARNED THAT THE
ANIMAL KINGDOM IS DIVIDED

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INTO VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES.

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MR. YORDI AT BUSCH
GARDENS TOLD US THAT MOST

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OF THE ANIMALS ARE INVERTEBRATES.

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VERY GOOD.

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THE ANIMAL KINGDOM HAS OVER
30 MAJOR GROUPS, OR PHYLA.

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ONE OF THESE INCLUDES
ALL OF THE VERTEBRATES

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AND THERE ARE EIGHT OTHERS

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THAT INCLUDE A MAJORITY
OF THE INVERTEBRATES.

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DO YOU KNOW WHICH OF THE
INVERTEBRATES ARE THE MOST COMMON?

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I'M PRETTY SURE INSECTS
ARE THE MOST COMMON.

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INSECTS, INCLUDING FIREFLIES,

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ARE PART OF THE PHYLUM
KNOWN AS ARTHROPODA.

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THERE ARE MORE THAN A
MILLION ARTHROPOD SPECIES,

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AND MOST OF THEM ARE INSECTS.

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DOES ARTHROPODA ALSO
INCLUDE CRABS AND SPIDERS?

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YES, IT DOES, ALONG WITH
BIOLUMINESCENT SHRIMP.

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ARE SNAILS ARTHROPODS?

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NO.

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ARTHROPODS HAVE A
HARDENED EXOSKELETON,

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WHICH YOU MIGHT CONFUSE
WITH A SNAIL'S SHELL.

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ARTHROPODS ALSO HAVE
JOINTED APPENDAGES,

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LIKE WINGS, LEGS, OR ANTENNAS.

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SO SNAILS MUST BE GROUPED WITH
OTHER SHELLED ANIMALS, LIKE CLAMS.

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VERY GOOD.

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CLAMS, MUSSELS, AND SNAILS,
ALONG WITH OCTOPUS AND SQUID,

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ARE ALL PART OF MOLLUSCA.

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MOLLUSKS ARE SOFT-BODIED.

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IN FACT, MOLLUSCA COMES FROM
THE LATIN WORD FOR SOFT.

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JELLYFISH ARE SOFT.

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ARE THEY ALSO PART OF MOLLUSCA?

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UNFORTUNATELY, CLASSIFICATION
IS A LITTLE MORE COMPLICATED

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THAN JUST HARD AND SOFT.

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JELLYFISH, ALONG WITH
CORALS, ARE PART OF CNIDARIA.

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THESE ANIMALS HAVE
TENTACLES AND STINGING CELLS.

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CNIDARIA.

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THAT'S STRANGE TO SAY.

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HOW ABOUT NEMATODA?

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THAT SOUNDS LIKE IT
HAS TO DO WITH A FROG.

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NEMATODA ACTUALLY
REFERS TO ROUNDWORMS,

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WHICH HAVE A TUBE-LIKE BODY.

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EARTHWORMS ARE ALSO TUBE-LIKE, BUT
THEY BELONG TO THE PHYLUM ANNELIDA,

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WHICH ARE SEGMENTED ANIMALS.

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WORMS SURE HAVE SOME
COMPLICATED NAMES.

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JUST WAIT, THERE'S MORE.

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PLATYHELMINTHES, WHICH IS LATIN FOR
FLATWORM, ARE THE SIMPLEST ANIMALS

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THAT HAVE ORGAN SYSTEMS.

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AND I THOUGHT SEA CUCUMBER
WAS A STRANGE NAME.

[00:12:45.441]
OH, SEA CUCUMBERS ARE FROM
THE ECHINODERMATA PHYLUM,

[00:12:48.301]
ALONG WITH SAND DOLLARS
AND STARFISH.

[00:12:50.511]
THESE SPINY-SKINNED ANIMALS
HAVE SUCTION CUP FEET.

[00:12:53.171]
THE NEXT PHYLUM IS VERY SIMPLE.

[00:12:55.991]
FINALLY, A SIMPLE NAME.

[00:12:57.461]
NO, THE NAME IS NOT
SIMPLE, BUT THE ANIMALS ARE.

[00:13:00.681]
SPONGES ARE PART OF
THE PORIFERA PHYLUM.

[00:13:03.351]
THESE PRIMITIVE ANIMALS HAVE NO
SYMMETRY, TISSUES, OR ORGANS.

[00:13:07.611]
WOW, CLASSIFYING ANIMALS
IS HARDER THAN I THOUGHT.

[00:13:10.101]
I HOPE WE FARE BETTER
WITH OUR BACKYARD HABITAT.

[00:13:13.271]
HAVE YOU HEARD FROM THE OTHERS?

[00:13:14.661]
BIANCA AND CATHERINE ARE
RESEARCHING VERTEBRATES.

[00:13:17.141]
THEY MADE A CONTACT AT
NASA KENNEDY SPACE CENTER,

[00:13:19.801]
SO THEY SHOULD HAVE
SOME EXCELLENT DATA.

[00:13:21.721]
TRUE.

[00:13:22.631]
I'M GOING OUT OF TOWN, BUT IF
I CAN HELP, SEND ME AN EMAIL.

[00:13:28.301]
CATHERINE AND I ARE MEETING
WITH MS. REBECCA SMITH,

[00:13:30.521]
A WILDLIFE ECOLOGIST AT
NASA KENNEDY SPACE CENTER.

[00:13:34.291]
PART OF HER JOB IS TO MONITOR
AND MINIMIZE THE EFFECTS

[00:13:38.621]
OF THE SPACE PROGRAM
ON THE ENVIRONMENT,

[00:13:41.361]
HABITATS, AND WILDLIFE.

[00:13:43.211]
PLUS, SHE KNOWS ALL
ABOUT VERTEBRATES.

[00:13:44.901]
MAYBE WE'LL GET TO SEE SOME...

[00:13:45.591]
OTHER THAN OURSELVES.

[00:13:46.111]
REACH AROUND AND TOUCH
THE MIDDLE OF YOUR BACK.

[00:13:48.431]
WHAT DO YOU FEEL?

[00:13:49.141]
I FEEL MY BACKBONE.

[00:13:51.111]
EXACTLY.

[00:13:52.051]
ALL VERTEBRATES HAVE
AN ENDOSKELETON,

[00:13:54.121]
WHICH IS AN INTERNAL
SKELETON WITH A BACKBONE.

[00:13:56.821]
THEY HAVE SMALL BONES
CALLED VERTEBRAE.

[00:13:59.061]
THEY TYPICALLY CONSIST OF A
BONY ARCH THAT ENCLOSES A HOLE

[00:14:01.931]
FOR THE SPINAL CORD AND
HAVE STUBBY PROJECTIONS

[00:14:04.461]
THAT CONNECT WITH ADJACENT BONES.

[00:14:06.471]
WHY DO ANIMALS, I MEAN
VERTEBRATES, NEED AN ENDOSKELETON?

[00:14:10.551]
IT SUPPORTS AND PROTECTS THE
INTERNAL ORGANS OF THE BODY

[00:14:13.441]
AND ALSO PROVIDES A PLACE
FOR MUSCLES TO ATTACH.

[00:14:16.291]
THE VERTEBRAE PROTECT THE NERVE,
OR SPINAL CORD, AND BECAUSE IT IS

[00:14:19.451]
IN MANY PIECES, IT
ALLOWS AN ANIMAL TO BEND.

[00:14:22.581]
SO IF AN ANIMAL HAS A
BACKBONE, YOU KNOW IT BELONGS

[00:14:25.001]
TO THE PHYLUM VERTEBRATA.

[00:14:27.051]
BUT HOW CAN YOU DETERMINE
WHICH CLASS IT BELONGS TO?

[00:14:29.531]
YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT OTHER
CHARACTERISTICS OR ATTRIBUTES.

[00:14:32.111]
A KEY DIFFERENCE AMONG
VERTEBRATES IS HOW THEY REGULATE

[00:14:34.341]
BODY TEMPERATURE.

[00:14:35.591]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:14:36.581]
THE FROG AND THE SNAKE ARE
BOTH COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS

[00:14:38.881]
CALLED ECTOTHERMS.

[00:14:40.351]
THEY DON'T HAVE AN INTERNAL ABILITY
TO CONTROL THEIR BODY TEMPERATURE.

[00:14:43.921]
THEY RELY ON HEAT FROM THE
ENVIRONMENT TO KEEP THEM

[00:14:46.061]
AT A TEMPERATURE FOR LIFE
PROCESSES, SO WHEN IT'S COLD,

[00:14:49.321]
THEY BODY PROCESSES SLOW DOWN,
AND WHEN IT'S WARM, THEY SPEED UP.

[00:14:52.931]
WHAT ABOUT WARM-BLOODED ANIMALS?

[00:14:54.501]
THEY'RE CALLED ENDOTHERMS.

[00:14:56.121]
THEIR BODIES CAN REGULATE HEAT,

[00:14:57.641]
SO THEY MAINTAIN A
CONSTANT BODY TEMPERATURE,

[00:14:59.541]
EVEN IF THE TEMPERATURE
CHANGES AROUND THEM.

[00:15:01.701]
SHIVERING, PANTING, AND
SWEATING ARE SOME OF THE WAYS

[00:15:03.901]
THAT ENDOTHERMS CAN CONTROL
THEIR BODY TEMPERATURE.

[00:15:06.291]
WHICH CLASSES OF VERTEBRATES
ARE WARM-BLOODED

[00:15:08.281]
AND WHICH ARE COLD-BLOODED?

[00:15:10.171]
THERE ARE FIVE CLASSES
OF VERTEBRATES.

[00:15:12.141]
FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND
REPTILES ARE COLD-BLOODED.

[00:15:14.741]
BIRDS AND MAMMALS ARE WARM-BLOODED.

[00:15:16.301]
SO ONCE YOU KNOW IF THEY ARE
WARM-BLOODED OR COLD-BLOODED,

[00:15:18.701]
WHAT OTHER CHARACTERISTICS CAN YOU
USE TO DETERMINE AN ANIMAL'S CLASS?

[00:15:22.011]
EACH CLASS IS VERY DIFFERENT.

[00:15:23.611]
FOR EXAMPLE, FISH HAVE FINS, GILLS,
AND MOST HAVE SCALES THAT COVER

[00:15:27.761]
AND PROTECT THEIR BODY.

[00:15:29.121]
THEY LIVE IN A VARIETY
OF AQUATIC HABITATS

[00:15:31.241]
FROM SALT WATER TO FRESH WATER.

[00:15:33.081]
SO ALL FISH AREN'T THE SAME.

[00:15:34.541]
NO, THERE ARE THREE
TYPES: JAWLESS FISH,

[00:15:37.081]
CARTILAGE FISH, AND BONY FISH.

[00:15:39.151]
AMPHIBIANS LIVE IN WATER.

[00:15:40.231]
HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM FISH?

[00:15:42.291]
UNLIKE FISH, MOST AMPHIBIANS
ONLY SPEND PART OF THEIR LIVES

[00:15:45.421]
IN THE WATER AND THE REST
OF THEIR LIVES ON LAND.

[00:15:47.681]
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF
AMPHIBIANS: FROGS AND TOADS,

[00:15:50.261]
NEWTS AND SALAMANDERS,
AND CAECILIANS.

[00:15:52.411]
WHY DO THEY SPEND TIME
ON LAND AND IN WATER?

[00:15:54.811]
AMPHIBIANS NEED THE
WATER TO LAY THEIR EGGS.

[00:15:57.191]
THE YOUNG ARE ALSO AQUATIC
FOR A TIME BEFORE THEY GO

[00:15:59.261]
THROUGH METAMORPHOSIS.

[00:16:00.561]
METAMORPHOSIS IS THE PROCESS THAT
OCCURS WHEN AN ANIMAL CHANGES FORM

[00:16:04.101]
AS IT DEVELOPS INTO AN ADULT.

[00:16:06.081]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:16:06.971]
FOR EXAMPLE, A FROG
DEVELOPS FROM AN EGG

[00:16:09.421]
TO A TADPOLE AND THEN TO AN ADULT.

[00:16:11.221]
WHAT ABOUT REPTILES?

[00:16:12.771]
SNAKES ARE REPTILES.

[00:16:13.811]
YOU WANT TO SEE A CORN SNAKE?

[00:16:14.911]
SURE.

[00:16:15.201]
COME ON.

[00:16:17.961]
SOME REPTILES, SUCH AS WATER
SNAKES AND SEA TURTLES,

[00:16:21.161]
LIVE MOST OF THEIR
LIVES IN THE WATER.

[00:16:23.171]
BUT REPTILES ARE PRIMARILY
CROCODILIANS, TURTLES, LIZARDS,

[00:16:26.621]
AND SNAKES THAT CAN LIVE
ON LAND FROM BIRTH TO DEATH

[00:16:29.051]
WITHOUT RETURNING TO
THE WATER TO REPRODUCE.

[00:16:31.901]
THIS IS A CORN SNAKE.

[00:16:33.531]
MOST SNAKES IN THE
U.S. ARE NOT POISONOUS

[00:16:35.591]
AND ARE ACTUALLY BENEFICIAL TO US

[00:16:36.991]
BECAUSE THEY OCCUPY AN
IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL NICHE,

[00:16:39.691]
SUCH AS KEEPING THE RODENT
POPULATION UNDER CONTROL.

[00:16:42.361]
SHE'S COOL.

[00:16:43.581]
WHAT ABOUT BIRDS?

[00:16:44.591]
BIRDS ARE UNIQUE BECAUSE
THEY LAY HARD-SHELLED EGGS.

[00:16:47.081]
THEY HAVE BEAKS, WINGS, AND
FEATHERS AND LIGHTWEIGHT,

[00:16:49.871]
HOLLOW BONES THAT
MAKE IT EASIER TO FLY.

[00:16:51.661]
SO THAT LEAVES US MAMMALS.

[00:16:53.661]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:16:54.561]
MAMMALS HAVE HAIR, GIVE LIVE BIRTH,
AND FEED MILK, TO THEIR YOUNG.

[00:16:58.541]
THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF
MAMMALS: THE EGG-LAYING MAMMALS,

[00:17:01.611]
THE POUCHED MAMMALS, OR MARSUPIALS,

[00:17:03.771]
AND THE PLACENTAL MAMMALS,
WHICH ARE THE LARGEST GROUP.

[00:17:06.471]
DON'T MAMMALS LIVE IN A
VARIETY OF DIFFERENT HABITATS?

[00:17:09.251]
ANIMALS SUCH AS WHALES AND
DOLPHINS LIVE IN THE OCEAN,

[00:17:12.171]
SLOTHS LIVE IN THE TREES, BATS FLY
AROUND, AND MOLES LIVE UNDERGROUND.

[00:17:15.951]
WOW, I NEVER KNEW
ANIMALS WERE SO DIVERSE.

[00:17:17.701]
IT MUST BE FUN TO STUDY
ANIMALS EVERY DAY.

[00:17:21.021]
AND CHALLENGING.

[00:17:21.921]
FOR EXAMPLE, WHENEVER A NEW
BUILDING NEEDS TO BE BUILT

[00:17:24.411]
OR A PIPELINE NEEDS TO BE LAID, WE
GO TO THE AREA AND SURVEY THE SITE

[00:17:28.141]
TO SEE WHAT ANIMALS
WILL BE AFFECTED.

[00:17:30.531]
WHENEVER POSSIBLE, WE MOVE
THE ANIMALS OUT OF HARM'S WAY,

[00:17:33.341]
AND WE WORK CLOSELY WITH
PROJECT MANAGERS TO REDUCE

[00:17:35.771]
OR ELIMINATE THE IMPACTS.

[00:17:37.301]
THANKS, MS. SMITH.

[00:17:37.931]
NOW WE NEED TO RESEARCH
WHAT ANIMALS NEED.

[00:17:40.751]
MR. MARIO MOTA, A COLLEAGUE OF
MINE, MIGHT BE ABLE TO HELP YOU.

[00:17:43.761]
GREAT.

[00:17:45.771]
PROTECTING ANIMALS MAY BE MORE
DIFFICULT THAN WE THOUGHT.

[00:17:48.311]
I KNOW KALI AND THE OTHER TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES ARE WORKING HARD,

[00:17:51.401]
BUT WE STILL HAVE A LOT TO DO.

[00:17:55.951]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:17:57.731]
WHAT KINDS OF ANIMALS WILL
JACOB FIND IN HIS BACKYARD?

[00:18:02.121]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES FIND A NEW SPECIES?

[00:18:05.101]
IS A BACKYARD NATURE
PRESERVE A GOOD IDEA?

[00:18:07.251]
FIND OUT IN THE NEXT
EXCITING CHAPTER OF THE CASE

[00:18:10.781]
OF THE ZANY ANIMAL ANTICS.

[00:18:12.251]
[00:00:01.107]
BE SURE TO LOOK FOR THE ANSWERS
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:04.537]
WHAT ARE THE BASIC
NEEDS OF ANIMALS?

[00:00:06.827]
WHAT ARE THE THREE BASIC
REASONS ANIMALS MIGRATE?

[00:00:09.887]
WHAT IS DIFFERENT BETWEEN
MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS?

[00:00:12.107]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR A
SPECIES TO HAVE GENETIC DIVERSITY?

[00:00:17.147]
[00:00:19.777]
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO BELIEVE
IT, BUT IT'S ALL RIGHT HERE.

[00:00:22.557]
WITH PROPER PLANNING
AND MAINTENANCE,

[00:00:24.107]
YOU CAN CREATE YOUR OWN
BACKYARD PRESERVE OR HABITAT.

[00:00:27.137]
THAT'S AMAZING.

[00:00:28.467]
AND IF YOU FOLLOW THEIR GUIDELINES,

[00:00:30.247]
YOU CAN ACTUALLY HAVE YOUR
BACKYARD OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED.

[00:00:33.207]
HOW'D YOU FIND OUT ABOUT ALL THIS?

[00:00:34.537]
I HAVE A FRIEND WHO DEALS
STRICTLY WITH AGRICULTURAL STOCKS.

[00:00:38.347]
I GAVE HIM A FEW LEADS ON
SOME FARM EQUIPMENT COMPANIES,

[00:00:40.567]
AND HE GAVE ME THE SCOOP
ON BACKYARD HABITATS.

[00:00:42.827]
COOL.

[00:00:44.617]
SO IS EVERYBODY HELPING OUT?

[00:00:46.497]
ALL THE TREE HOUSE
DETECTIVES ARE PITCHING IN.

[00:00:48.717]
CATHERINE AND BIANCA ARE DOWN
AT NASA KENNEDY IN FLORIDA,

[00:00:51.667]
AND RJ'S AT ADVENTURE CAMP
AT BUSCH GARDENS IN TAMPA.

[00:00:54.797]
WE CERTAINLY HAVE A GREAT TEAM.

[00:00:56.347]
WELL, WE HAVEN'T OFFICIALLY HEARD
FROM RJ YET, BUT DR. D IS GOING

[00:00:59.887]
TO TALK TO HIM DOWN IN FLORIDA.

[00:01:01.137]
AND OF COURSE, NASA
IS A BIG RESOURCE.

[00:01:03.847]
YES, THEY ARE.

[00:01:04.647]
IN FACT, CATHERINE AND
BIANCA ARE SUPPOSED TO TALK

[00:01:06.787]
TO MR. MARIO MOTA THERE TODAY.

[00:01:08.397]
I HOPE THEY REMEMBERED TO DOWNLOAD
THEIR GET-UP-AND-GO SHEETS.

[00:01:11.737]
YOU CAN DOWNLOAD YOUR
OWN GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET

[00:01:13.097]
AT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:01:15.517]
MS. SMITH WAS RIGHT.

[00:01:16.027]
MR. MARIO MOTA AGREED TO
MEET WITH US ABOUT ANIMALS.

[00:01:22.087]
HE'S A WILDLIFE BIOLOGIST
WORKING WITH SEA TURTLES HERE

[00:01:25.887]
AT NASA KENNEDY SPACE CENTER.

[00:01:27.767]
WE HOPE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
BASIC NEEDS OF ANIMALS,

[00:01:29.877]
AND IF WE'RE LUCKY, WE MAY FIND
A SEA TURTLE NEST ON THE BEACH.

[00:01:33.457]
WELL, AN ANIMAL'S BASIC
NEEDS ARE PRETTY SIMPLE.

[00:01:36.007]
THEY NEED FOOD, WATER, SHELTER, AND
ANOTHER MATE SO THEY CAN REPRODUCE.

[00:01:40.467]
THAT SOUNDS SIMPLE ENOUGH.

[00:01:42.067]
BUT HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT
KIND OF FOOD ANIMALS NEED?

[00:01:43.917]
IT DEPENDS ON THE SPECIES, BUT NO
MATTER WHAT KIND OF ANIMAL IT IS,

[00:01:47.757]
YOU'VE GOT TO MAKE SURE YOU
HAVE A HEALTHY FOOD CHAIN.

[00:01:49.527]
DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE FOOD CHAIN?

[00:01:51.427]
WE'VE STUDIED THE
FOOD CHAIN IN SCHOOL.

[00:01:53.567]
IT'S THE PROCESS OF
ENERGY BEING TRANSFERRED

[00:01:55.597]
FROM ONE ORGANISM TO ANOTHER.

[00:01:57.517]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:01:58.077]
ALL LIVING THINGS
NEED FOOD FOR ENERGY.

[00:02:00.577]
PRODUCERS, SUCH AS PLANTS,
ALGAE, AND OTHER ORGANISMS,

[00:02:04.297]
CONVERT LIGHT ENERGY
INTO SUGAR MOLECULES

[00:02:07.187]
THAT THE PLANT USES
FOR FOOD ENERGY.

[00:02:10.077]
A PORTION OF THIS ENERGY
IS PASSED ON WHEN ANIMALS,

[00:02:13.017]
CALLED CONSUMERS, EAT THE PLANTS.

[00:02:15.597]
AND THEN OTHER CONSUMERS EAT THE
CONSUMERS THAT ATE THE PLANTS.

[00:02:19.057]
VERY GOOD.

[00:02:19.617]
AND THEN ENERGY STORED
IN THE MOLECULES

[00:02:21.607]
OF ONE ORGANISM IS
TRANSFERRED TO ANOTHER ORGANISM.

[00:02:24.927]
MAKING A FOOD CHAIN.

[00:02:26.697]
PLANTS ARE AT THE BOTTOM.

[00:02:28.217]
ANIMALS SUCH AS DEER AND
RABBITS ARE CALLED HERBIVORES,

[00:02:31.657]
AND THEY EAT THE PLANTS.

[00:02:33.177]
THE HERBIVORES ARE THEN EATEN BY A
CARNIVORE, SUCH AS A WOLF OR LION.

[00:02:38.297]
AREN'T THERE SOME THAT EAT
BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS?

[00:02:41.047]
YES, THEY'RE CALLED OMNIVORES.

[00:02:42.957]
IN THE FINAL STAGE OF THE
FOOD CHAIN, WHEN AN ANIMAL

[00:02:45.627]
OR PLANT DIES, THEY ARE BROKEN

[00:02:47.197]
DOWN BY BACTERIA CALLED
DECOMPOSERS.

[00:02:49.707]
DECOMPOSERS TURN THE
REMAINS INTO MATERIALS

[00:02:52.557]
THAT CAN BE USED BY THE PLANTS.

[00:02:54.447]
FOOD CHAINS SEEM SIMPLE AT FIRST,
BUT THEY'RE REALLY COMPLEX.

[00:02:58.177]
IN A HABITAT, THERE ARE
MANY FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS.

[00:03:01.107]
SOME CAN BE VERY COMPLEX,
SO SCIENTISTS USE A FOOD WEB

[00:03:04.727]
TO BETTER SHOW THESE RELATIONSHIPS.

[00:03:06.547]
A WEB LIKE A SPIDER'S WEB?

[00:03:08.317]
ACTUALLY, A SPIDER'S
WEB IS A GOOD ANALOGY.

[00:03:10.627]
IT IS INTRICATELY WOVEN AND
CONNECTED, JUST LIKE A FOOD WEB.

[00:03:13.887]
WHAT IF SOMETHING HAPPENED
TO AN ANIMAL'S HABITAT?

[00:03:16.407]
THE FOOD WEB WOULD BE DISRUPTED,
AND IT COULD DISRUPT THE BALANCE

[00:03:19.757]
OF PLANT AND ANIMAL POPULATIONS.

[00:03:21.827]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:03:22.827]
LET'S SAY A FIRE DESTROYED A
HABITAT AND REMOVED ALL THE PLANTS.

[00:03:26.827]
WITHOUT PLANTS, THEN THE HERBIVORES
WOULD NOT HAVE FOOD TO EAT.

[00:03:30.917]
WITHOUT HERBIVORES, THEN THE
CARNIVORES WOULD ALSO STARVE.

[00:03:34.007]
THE ANIMALS WOULD HAVE
TO MOVE TO A NEW HABITAT.

[00:03:37.507]
IT'S NOT ALWAYS THAT EASY.

[00:03:38.887]
SOME HABITATS ARE SMALL OR
ENCLOSED BY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT,

[00:03:43.207]
SUCH AS SUBDIVISIONS, MAKING
IT DIFFICULT FOR ANIMALS

[00:03:46.367]
TO MIGRATE TO A NEW HABITAT.

[00:03:48.147]
IF THEY CAN'T FIND A NEW
HABITAT, WON'T THEY DIE?

[00:03:51.297]
THEY MIGHT.

[00:03:52.227]
AND IT COULD EVEN LEAD TO THE
EXTINCTION OF SOME SPECIES.

[00:03:55.267]
I NEVER REALIZED THAT
EVERYTHING IS SO CONNECTED.

[00:03:58.087]
YES, IT IS, AND AS PART
OF MY JOB HERE AT NASA,

[00:04:01.197]
I STUDY THE SEA TURTLES THAT
LIVE IN THE ESTUARIES AND LAGOONS

[00:04:04.407]
TO MAKE SURE THAT THEIR
HABITATS AREN'T DISRUPTED.

[00:04:08.597]
MR. MOTA TOLD US ALL ABOUT
HOW SEA TURTLES ARE ENDANGERED

[00:04:11.367]
AND THREATENED AND HOW THE BEACHES

[00:04:12.707]
AT NASA KENNEDY PROVIDE
NESTING SITES FOR THEM.

[00:04:15.617]
BY MONITORING THEIR POPULATION
HEALTH, AGE STRUCTURE,

[00:04:18.417]
GROWTH REPRODUCTION, MORTALITY,
AND THE IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITY,

[00:04:21.937]
NASA CAN HELP THE SPECIES THRIVE.

[00:04:23.387]
WE DIDN'T GET TO SEE ANY, BUT
MR. MOTA SAID THAT TO DO THAT,

[00:04:26.727]
WE WOULD HAVE TO GO OUT TO SEA.

[00:04:28.867]
[00:04:30.737]
I NEVER KNEW THAT WORKING AS
A ZOO KEEPER REQUIRED SO MUCH.

[00:04:36.667]
FEEDING, RAKING, CLEANING,
MORE FEEDING: IT'S HARD WORK,

[00:04:40.967]
BUT IT'S VERY REWARDING.

[00:04:42.177]
OF COURSE, I'M LOOKING
FORWARD TO MY BREAK.

[00:04:44.917]
HOPEFULLY I CAN TAKE
CARE OF A LITTLE RESEARCH

[00:04:46.717]
FOR THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
WHEN I MEET DR. D TODAY

[00:04:49.417]
ON THE BUSCH GARDENS
SERENGETI PLAIN HABITAT.

[00:04:52.287]
EACH ZEBRA HAS A UNIQUE
SET OF STRIPES

[00:04:54.187]
WHICH CREATES AN OPTICAL ILLUSION
THAT CONFUSES THE PREDATOR.

[00:04:57.537]
OH, AND I ALSO LEARNED
THAT IN 12 MONTHS,

[00:04:59.727]
THE ANIMALS OF THE SERENGETI
PLAIN IN AFRICA WILL TRAVEL

[00:05:02.707]
IN A LARGE CIRCLE OF
ABOUT 1,000 KILOMETERS.

[00:05:05.497]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:05:06.277]
THE MIGRATION INCLUDES
HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS

[00:05:08.717]
OF HERBIVORES INCLUDING
THOMPSON'S GAZELLES, ZEBRAS,

[00:05:11.867]
AND WILDEBEESTS, LIKE THESE HERE.

[00:05:14.047]
WOW, THEY'RE PRETTY
FUNNY-LOOKING ANIMALS.

[00:05:16.707]
AFRICAN LEGEND SAYS THEY'RE
MADE FOR SPARE PARTS.

[00:05:19.537]
WILDEBEEST ARE, HOWEVER, WELL
SUITED FOR THEIR MIGRATION.

[00:05:22.677]
FOR EXAMPLE, MOST WILDEBEEST
CALVES CAN STAND AND RUN IN LESS

[00:05:25.937]
THAN TEN MINUTES AFTER BIRTH.

[00:05:27.797]
WOW, THAT'S AMAZING.

[00:05:29.737]
BUT I THOUGHT MIGRATION MEANT
GOING SOUTH FOR THE WINTER.

[00:05:32.697]
DOES IT GET THAT COLD IN AFRICA?

[00:05:34.237]
NO, BUT THERE ARE
SEASONS: WET AND DRY.

[00:05:37.067]
DURING THE DRY SEASON, THE GRASS
DRIES OUT AND WATER BECOMES SCARCE.

[00:05:40.677]
THE HERBIVORES THAT
MIGRATE LEAVE IN SEARCH

[00:05:43.197]
OF NEW GRASS AND PLENTIFUL WATER.

[00:05:45.917]
I KNOW THAT OTHER
ANIMALS, LIKE BIRDS,

[00:05:47.657]
WILL MIGRATE GREAT DISTANCES.

[00:05:49.177]
IS THIS ALSO IN SEARCH OF FOOD?

[00:05:51.127]
THERE ARE THREE BASIC
REASONS FOR MIGRATION.

[00:05:53.127]
THE FIRST IS FOOD AND WATER.

[00:05:54.337]
THE SECOND IS TO ESCAPE
HARSH WEATHER.

[00:05:56.837]
SO I GUESS THAT WHEN BIRDS
FLY SOUTH FOR THE WINTER,

[00:05:59.287]
THEY GET BOTH A MILDER
CLIMATE AND MORE FOOD.

[00:06:01.847]
VERY GOOD.

[00:06:02.907]
WHEN THEY GO NORTH FOR THE
SUMMER, THEY GET MORE HOURS

[00:06:05.007]
OF DAYLIGHT TO GATHER FOOD.

[00:06:06.827]
HOW DO ANIMALS TRAVEL
THOUSANDS OF KILOMETERS

[00:06:08.997]
AND FIND THEIR DESTINATION?

[00:06:10.527]
THEY MUST HAVE SOME
WAY TO NAVIGATE.

[00:06:12.247]
ARE YOU READY TO TRY AN EXPERIMENT?

[00:06:14.407]
OKAY, WHY NOT?

[00:06:15.797]
CLOSE YOUR EYES, AND
I'LL SPIN YOU AROUND.

[00:06:18.697]
[00:06:22.307]
NOW, KEEP YOUR EYES
CLOSED AND POINT NORTH.

[00:06:26.257]
ARE YOU KIDDING, DR. D?

[00:06:27.847]
I CAN'T POINT NORTH
WITH MY EYES CLOSED.

[00:06:30.437]
I'M NOT EVEN SURE
IF I CAN POINT NORTH

[00:06:31.717]
WITH MY EYES OPEN
WITHOUT A COMPASS.

[00:06:34.137]
SOME ANIMALS CAN.

[00:06:35.387]
THEY HAVE A BUILT-IN
COMPASS IN THEIR HEAD

[00:06:36.807]
THAT HELPS THEM FIND
THEIR DESTINATION.

[00:06:38.637]
OTHER ANIMALS USE THE SUN
OR STARS TO FIND THEIR WAY.

[00:06:41.277]
COULDN'T ANIMALS JUST USE
LANDMARKS, SUCH AS MOUNTAINS

[00:06:44.007]
OR LAKES, ON THEIR JOURNEYS?

[00:06:45.287]
SOMETIMES THEY DO.

[00:06:46.747]
SALMON MIGRATE USING
A KEEN SENSE OF SMELL.

[00:06:49.047]
UH, DR. D, CAN I ASK JUST
ONE MORE QUICK QUESTION?

[00:06:53.257]
SURE, RJ.

[00:06:53.877]
CAN I OPEN MY EYES NOW?

[00:06:57.117]
OF COURSE.

[00:06:58.207]
YOU'LL NEED TO SEE
TO FEED THE GIRAFFES.

[00:07:01.067]
[00:07:16.887]
DR. D, DIDN'T YOU SAY THERE WERE
THREE REASONS FOR MIGRATION?

[00:07:20.057]
GOOD MEMORY, RJ.

[00:07:20.937]
THE THIRD REASON FOR ANIMAL
MIGRATION IS REPRODUCTION.

[00:07:24.687]
THEY WANT TO PROVIDE THEIR YOUNG
WITH PLENTY OF FOOD WITH PROTECTION

[00:07:27.987]
FROM PREDATORS AND
EXTREMES IN THE ENVIRONMENT.

[00:07:30.277]
I SHOULD HAVE GUESSED REPRODUCTION.

[00:07:32.287]
THAT'S ONE OF AN ANIMAL'S
BASIC NEEDS.

[00:07:34.437]
AND MIGRATION IS ALL
ABOUT MEETING BASIC NEEDS.

[00:07:37.977]
THANKS, DR. D. I'M WORKING AT THE
NAIROBI FIELD STATION LATER TODAY.

[00:07:40.967]
THAT WILL BE A GREAT PLACE TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT ANIMAL REPRODUCTION.

[00:07:45.207]
RIGHT, BUT FIRST, LET'S GET
SOME MORE HIBISCUS LEAVES

[00:07:47.557]
FOR THE GIRAFFE.

[00:07:49.657]
I'VE BEEN GOING OVER OUR NOTES
SO FAR, AND I THINK JACOB'S

[00:07:54.327]
IN FOR A BIG SURPRISE.

[00:07:55.807]
THERE'S A LOT TO CONSIDER
WHEN IT COMES

[00:07:57.037]
TO CREATING YOUR OWN PRESERVE.

[00:07:58.537]
RIGHT, LIKE WHETHER YOUR PROPERTY
IS RURAL, SUBURBAN, OR URBAN

[00:08:01.067]
AND WHAT TYPES OF WILDLIFE
THE HABITAT WILL SUPPORT.

[00:08:04.817]
AND OF COURSE YOU HAVE TO
SUPPORT THE BASIC NEEDS

[00:08:06.497]
OF THE ANIMALS IN YOUR HABITAT.

[00:08:07.937]
OTHERWISE THEY MIGHT
MIGRATE TO ANOTHER AREA.

[00:08:10.207]
GOOD THING WE HAVE RJ'S
NOTES ON MIGRATION.

[00:08:11.977]
AND DR. D TALKED ABOUT ANIMAL
GROWTH THROUGH REPRODUCTION.

[00:08:15.007]
WHICH IS CRITICAL
TO THE POPULATION.

[00:08:16.997]
HOPEFULLY RJ WILL LEARN MORE
AT THE NAIROBI FIELD STATION

[00:08:18.917]
AT BUSCH GARDENS IN TAMPA.

[00:08:20.637]
HE'S WORKING WITH MS.
DIEDRING AS WE SPEAK.

[00:08:22.857]
WE SHOULD VISIT JACOB'S
BACKYARD TO SEE WHAT TYPES

[00:08:25.147]
OF ANIMALS ALREADY LIVE THERE.

[00:08:26.707]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:08:27.987]
OTHERWISE I'LL HAVE TO HIRE
SOME SURVEY CONSULTANTS AS WELL.

[00:08:31.377]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:08:32.207]
WELL, IF THE HABITAT IS SUCCESSFUL,
I HAVE OTHER PROBLEMS TO CONSIDER:

[00:08:35.697]
PARKING, TICKET PRICES, A POSSIBLE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVE GIFT SHOP.

[00:08:39.417]
AND I'M SURE YOU'LL BE GIVING
JACOB SOME OF THE PROCEEDS.

[00:08:42.577]
DON'T WORRY, HE'S SALARIED.

[00:08:44.667]
[00:09:08.127]
DR. D MENTIONED THAT ANIMAL
REPRODUCTION WAS IMPORTANT

[00:09:10.677]
FOR THE SURVIVAL OF SPECIES.

[00:09:12.267]
WE NEED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
HOW ANIMALS REPRODUCE.

[00:09:14.927]
WELL, THERE ARE TWO MAIN WAYS
THAT ANIMALS REPRODUCE: SEXUALLY

[00:09:18.877]
AND BY ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION.

[00:09:21.387]
WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE?

[00:09:22.637]
WELL, TO UNDERSTAND THE
DIFFERENCE, FIRST YOU NEED

[00:09:24.807]
TO KNOW A LITTLE BIT ABOUT CELLS.

[00:09:27.107]
I REMEMBER FROM SCIENCE CLASS
THAT A CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT,

[00:09:30.067]
OR BASIC BUILDING BLOCK OF LIVING
THINGS, AND THEY HAVE A NUCLEUS

[00:09:33.517]
THAT IS SURROUNDED BY
CYTOPLASM AND A CELL MEMBRANE.

[00:09:36.157]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:09:37.107]
VERY GOOD.

[00:09:38.057]
THE NUCLEUS ACTUALLY CONTAINS DNA.

[00:09:39.917]
NOW, DNA IS THE GENETIC CODE THAT
DETERMINES THE CHARACTERISTICS

[00:09:44.257]
OF ANIMALS, SUCH AS BLONDE
HAIR OR BROWN HAIR OR BLUE EYES

[00:09:47.917]
OR GREEN EYES AND SO
ON, AS WITH HUMANS.

[00:09:50.917]
SO HOW DO CELLS REPRODUCE?

[00:09:52.817]
ALL CELLS REPRODUCE
FROM OTHER CELLS.

[00:09:55.447]
DO ALL CELLS REPRODUCE
THE SAME WAY?

[00:09:57.567]
NO, THERE ARE ACTUALLY TWO
WAYS THAT CELLS REPRODUCE.

[00:10:00.967]
ONE WAY THAT CELLS,
SUCH AS BODY CELLS,

[00:10:03.187]
REPRODUCE IS THROUGH MITOSIS.

[00:10:05.557]
IN MITOSIS, THE CELL DUPLICATES ITS
GENETIC MATERIAL, AND THEN SPLITS

[00:10:08.957]
IN TWO, FORMING TWO
IDENTICAL CELLS.

[00:10:11.717]
MITOSIS IS THE PROCESS BY
WHICH ANIMALS ARE ABLE TO GROW.

[00:10:15.517]
OKAY, SO IF THAT'S MITOSIS,
WHAT'S THE OTHER WAY?

[00:10:19.037]
MEIOSIS.

[00:10:19.547]
IN THIS METHOD, CERTAIN CELLS IN
THE REPRODUCTIVE TISSUE DIVIDE

[00:10:23.457]
SO THAT THEY CONTAIN EXACTLY
HALF OF THE GENETIC MATERIAL.

[00:10:26.977]
THE CHROMOSOMES THAT CARRY THE
GENETIC CODES OCCUR IN PAIRS,

[00:10:30.227]
AND DURING MEIOSIS, ONE HALF OF
EACH PAIR GOES TO THE NEW CELLS.

[00:10:34.417]
IN MALES, THESE ARE THE
SPERM CELLS, AND IN FEMALES,

[00:10:37.117]
THEY ARE THE EGG CELLS.

[00:10:38.497]
OKAY, SO WHAT DOES CELL DIVISION
HAVE TO DO WITH REPRODUCTION?

[00:10:42.447]
IN ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION,
AN OFFSPRING IS FORMED

[00:10:45.427]
FROM ONE PARENT'S CELL.

[00:10:47.207]
THE PARENT CELL GOES THROUGH
MITOSIS AND FORMS AN OFFSPRING

[00:10:50.037]
THAT IS IDENTICAL TO THE PARENT.

[00:10:51.877]
WHAT TYPES OF ANIMALS
REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY?

[00:10:54.567]
FLATWORMS AND SPONGES
ARE TWO OF THEM.

[00:10:56.947]
STARFISH, ALSO KNOWN AS SEA
STARS, REPRODUCE BY REGENERATION,

[00:11:00.837]
WHICH IS A FORM OF
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION.

[00:11:03.427]
RIGHT, MY DAD SAID THAT IF A
STARFISH LOSES ONE OF ITS RAYS,

[00:11:07.097]
THEN IT WILL GROW A NEW ONE,

[00:11:08.557]
AND THE ONE THAT BROKE
OFF WILL GROW FOUR MORE.

[00:11:10.597]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:11:11.517]
LONG AGO, SOME FISHERMEN
HAD A PROBLEM

[00:11:13.687]
WITH STARFISH GETTING CAUGHT
IN THEIR NETS, SO THEY TRIED

[00:11:16.387]
TO GET RID OF THEM BY
CHOPPING THEM INTO PIECES.

[00:11:19.147]
BUT THEY WERE ACTUALLY
ONLY ADDING TO THE PROBLEM,

[00:11:21.557]
BECAUSE EACH NEW PIECE GREW NEW
LIMBS AND CREATED MORE STARFISH.

[00:11:25.777]
IT SOUNDS LIKE THEY COULD HAVE
USED THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

[00:11:27.967]
AND DONE MORE RESEARCH BEFORE
THEY TRIED TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM.

[00:11:31.507]
SO WHAT IS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION?

[00:11:33.247]
WELL, IT OCCURS WHEN A
SPERM AND EGG CELL COMBINE

[00:11:36.227]
TO PRODUCE A NEW CELL,
WHICH IS CALLED A ZYGOTE,

[00:11:38.297]
WHICH WILL THEN GROW
INTO AN OFFSPRING.

[00:11:40.287]
NOW, THE OFFSPRING PRODUCED
WILL RECEIVE A COMBINATION

[00:11:42.777]
OF GENETIC MATERIAL FROM BOTH
THE MALE AND FEMALE PARENT.

[00:11:46.387]
IS ONE TYPE OF REPRODUCTION
BETTER THAN THE OTHER?

[00:11:49.187]
NO, IT JUST DEPENDS ON THE ANIMAL.

[00:11:51.317]
HOWEVER, WITH SEXUAL
REPRODUCTION, MEIOSIS HELPS TO SORT

[00:11:54.587]
OF SHUFFLE THE GENETIC
MATERIAL TO THE OFFSPRING

[00:11:57.457]
TO HELP ENSURE GENETIC DIVERSITY.

[00:11:59.567]
WHY IS THAT IMPORTANT?

[00:12:00.707]
WELL, GENETIC DIVERSITY IS
CRITICAL FOR A SPECIES' SURVIVAL

[00:12:04.287]
BECAUSE IT INCREASES THE
PROBABILITY THAT ONLY HEALTHY,

[00:12:07.187]
STRONG INDIVIDUALS
WILL BE PRODUCED.

[00:12:09.717]
ADDITIONALLY, GENETIC DIVERSITY
ALSO HELPS REDUCE THE PROBABILITY

[00:12:13.427]
THAT A GENETIC DEFECT WILL
OVERCOME A POPULATION.

[00:12:16.557]
SO WOULD IT BE IMPORTANT TO HAVE
A LARGE POPULATION OF A SPECIES

[00:12:20.187]
FOR BETTER GENETIC SHUFFLING?

[00:12:21.787]
YES.

[00:12:22.157]
WITH A LARGE POPULATION, THERE'S
MUCH MORE GENETIC DIVERSITY.

[00:12:25.407]
ARE THERE ANY FACTORS THAT
KEEP ANIMALS FROM REPRODUCING?

[00:12:28.027]
SURE, THERE ARE: GEOGRAPHIC
ISOLATION, GENETIC DEFECTS,

[00:12:31.217]
AND A LACK OF FOOD,
WATER, AND SHELTER.

[00:12:33.977]
SO FOR REPRODUCTION, IT'S
PRETTY IMPORTANT TO MAKE SURE

[00:12:36.437]
THAT AN ANIMAL'S BASIC
NEEDS ARE MET.

[00:12:38.457]
YES, IT IS.

[00:12:39.367]
WITHOUT ADEQUATE AMOUNTS OF
FOOD, WATER, AND SHELTER,

[00:12:42.507]
ANIMALS WILL ACTUALLY
STOP REPRODUCING

[00:12:44.317]
SO THAT THEY CAN BETTER ENABLE
THOSE THAT ARE LIVING TO SURVIVE.

[00:12:47.697]
I CAN'T WAIT TO SEND MY REPORT
TO THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:12:50.347]
MAYBE YOU CAN EMAIL THEM AFTER
WE CLEAN THE PORCUPINE HABITAT.

[00:12:53.387]
WELL, A ZOO KEEPER'S
JOB IS NEVER DONE.

[00:12:56.287]
[00:13:00.057]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:03.387]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
FIND ANY ENDANGERED ANIMALS

[00:13:06.237]
IN JACOB'S BACKYARD?

[00:13:08.057]
WILL KALI GET HER GIRL SCOUT BADGE?

[00:13:10.487]
WHAT ELSE SHOULD THE DETECTIVES DO

[00:13:12.087]
TO HELP JACOB GET A
CERTIFIED HABITAT?

[00:13:15.017]
FIND OUT ON THE NEXT
EXCITING CHAPTER OF THE CASE

[00:13:17.797]
OF THE ZANY ANIMAL ANTICS.

[00:13:19.387]
[00:00:01.479]
BE SURE TO LOOK FOR ANSWERS
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:04.419]
WHAT IS CARRYING CAPACITY?

[00:00:06.579]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT A
RANDOMLY SAMPLE A POPULATION?

[00:00:10.089]
WHAT MAKES A GOOD HABITAT?

[00:00:12.299]
WHAT DOES TERRITORIAL MEAN?

[00:00:14.579]
[00:00:16.259]
THANKS FOR HELPING
ME ON MY BAT PROJECT,

[00:00:17.929]
DR. D. HELPING AN ENDANGERED
SPECIES IS ONE OF THE REQUIREMENTS

[00:00:21.339]
FOR MY WILDERNESS BADGE.

[00:00:22.599]
NO PROBLEM.

[00:00:24.199]
I'M GLAD THAT YOUR PROJECT
INVOLVES BATS, BECAUSE OVER 40%

[00:00:26.959]
OF BAT SPECIES ARE
ENDANGERED OR THREATENED.

[00:00:28.919]
IT'S ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT
BECAUSE THE EASTERN BIG-EARED BAT,

[00:00:32.759]
WHICH IS NATIVE TO SOUTHEASTERN
VIRGINIA, IS ENDANGERED.

[00:00:36.229]
I READ THAT AS WELL.

[00:00:37.549]
DID YOU KNOW THAT ONE BAT CAN EAT
UP TO 3,000 INSECTS IN ONE NIGHT?

[00:00:42.049]
THEY ALSO HELP TO DISPERSE
SEEDS AND POLLINATE FRUITS.

[00:00:45.789]
SO BY PROVIDING THE BATS
WITH SHELTER AND A PLACE

[00:00:48.149]
TO RAISE THEIR YOUNG,
THE NUMBER OF BATS

[00:00:50.259]
IN THE AREA SHOULD INCREASE.

[00:00:52.359]
WELL, IT'LL CERTAINLY HELP,

[00:00:53.449]
BUT A LOT OF FACTORS AFFECT
THE GROWTH OF A POPULATION.

[00:00:56.559]
ISN'T A POPULATION A GROUP

[00:00:57.979]
OF THE SAME SPECIES THAT'S
LIVING IN A PARTICULAR AREA?

[00:01:00.739]
I SEE THAT YOU'VE BEEN
DOING SOME RESEARCH.

[00:01:03.629]
LET'S DO AN EXPERIMENT WITH PENNIES
THAT SIMULATES POPULATION GROWTH.

[00:01:07.549]
IF I THROW DOWN EIGHT PENNIES
TO REPRESENT EIGHT BATS,

[00:01:10.809]
HOW MANY WILL TURN UP HEADS?

[00:01:12.329]
ON THE AVERAGE, FOUR
SHOULD TURN UP AS HEADS.

[00:01:14.879]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:01:15.819]
LET'S SAY THAT THE BAT POPULATION
AS A WHOLE AVERAGES ONE BABY,

[00:01:19.199]
OR PUP, PER BAT COUPLE PER YEAR.

[00:01:21.569]
THAT MEANS THAT WITH FOUR
BAT COUPLES, OR EIGHT BATS,

[00:01:24.469]
THEY WOULD PRODUCE A TOTAL
OF FOUR PUPS PER YEAR,

[00:01:27.259]
WHICH MEANS AFTER ONE YEAR,
YOU WOULD HAVE 12 BATS.

[00:01:29.949]
EXCELLENT.

[00:01:30.449]
WE CAN THEN ADD FOUR PENNIES
AND THROW DOWN A TOTAL OF 12

[00:01:33.269]
TO SEE HOW MANY BATS WE'LL
HAVE IN THE NEXT YEAR.

[00:01:36.459]
LET'S TRY THE EXPERIMENT FIVE TIMES

[00:01:40.899]
TO SEE HOW MANY BATS
WE'LL HAVE IN FIVE YEARS.

[00:01:49.899]
[00:01:49.949]
I GOT FIVE HEADS.

[00:01:54.899]
I HAD FIVE PENNIES IN MINE.

[00:02:00.589]
I GET 45.

[00:02:02.789]
THE POPULATION INCREASED RAPIDLY.

[00:02:04.819]
I HAVE 62; IT'S DIFFERENT BECAUSE
YOU DON'T ALWAYS GET THE AVERAGE

[00:02:08.079]
WHEN YOU THROW DOWN PENNIES.

[00:02:09.189]
SHOULDN'T WE SUBTRACT A FEW
PENNIES TO REPRESENT THE BATS

[00:02:12.499]
THAT DIED OR LEFT THE AREA?

[00:02:13.769]
THAT'S A GOOD POINT.

[00:02:15.829]
UNDER IDEAL CONDITIONS, WHERE
BATS ONLY DIE OF OLD AGE

[00:02:18.589]
AND NO BATS EMIGRATE,

[00:02:19.859]
THE POPULATION WILL EVENTUALLY
REACH WHAT IS CALLED ITS BIOTIC

[00:02:23.129]
POTENTIAL AS IT GROWS VERY RAPIDLY.

[00:02:24.799]
I GUESS THAT MEANS THE
THE ANIMALS' NEEDS ARE MET

[00:02:27.309]
AND THAT THEY HAVE
A HEALTHY HABITAT.

[00:02:29.429]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:02:30.199]
IN THE REAL WORLD, THE
POPULATION WILL EVENTUALLY REACH AN

[00:02:32.719]
EQUILIBRIUM SITUATION
WHERE THE NUMBER

[00:02:34.689]
OF BIRTHS EQUAL THE
NUMBER OF DEATHS.

[00:02:37.419]
I GUESS THAT'S BECAUSE THE
POPULATION GETS SO BIG,

[00:02:39.889]
THERE'S JUST NOT ENOUGH
FOOD TO FEED EVERYONE.

[00:02:42.259]
THAT'S ONE FACTOR, BUT THERE
ARE A LOT OF OTHER FACTORS.

[00:02:44.449]
A LOT OF ANIMALS IN A SMALL
AREA IS CALLED A HIGH DENSITY.

[00:02:48.129]
HIGH DENSITIES OF PREY
ATTRACT MORE PREDATORS.

[00:02:51.299]
AND I WOULD THINK THAT DISEASES
WOULD SPREAD MORE EASILY

[00:02:53.969]
THROUGH HIGH DENSITY POPULATIONS.

[00:02:56.279]
PLUS, I GUESS THAT ANIMALS JUST
NEED A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF SPACE.

[00:02:59.439]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:03:00.009]
ALL OF THESE FACTORS AFFECT
THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF A SPECIES

[00:03:02.909]
THAT A GIVEN ENVIRONMENT
CAN SUPPORT.

[00:03:04.699]
THAT'S CALLED THE
CARRYING CAPACITY.

[00:03:07.669]
I JUST HOPE WE CAN HELP
INCREASE THE BAT POPULATION.

[00:03:10.149]
I HOPE SO TOO.

[00:03:11.849]
SO HOW CAN YOU TELL IF THE
POPULATION IS SHRINKING OR GROWING?

[00:03:14.609]
WE WOULD HAVE TO COUNT THEM,

[00:03:16.219]
BUT I WOULD THINK IT
WOULD BE ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE

[00:03:18.219]
TO COUNT ALL OF THE ANIMALS.

[00:03:20.239]
YES, IT WOULD BE DIFFICULT.

[00:03:21.719]
IN ORDER TO ESTIMATE THE
POPULATION OF A SPECIES,

[00:03:24.439]
SCIENTISTS WILL CAPTURE SOME
OF THEM, MARK THEM WITH A TAG,

[00:03:27.029]
AND THEN RELEASE THEM.

[00:03:28.009]
SOME TIME LATER, THEY WILL CAPTURE
SOME MORE OF THE SAME SPECIES

[00:03:30.809]
AND SEE WHAT FRACTION ARE TAGGED.

[00:03:32.219]
I BET THERE'S SOME MATHEMATICAL
WAY TO FIGURE OUT THE SIZE

[00:03:34.899]
OF THE TOTAL POPULATION.

[00:03:36.169]
THERE ARE SOME OTHER TECHNIQUES
TO MEASURE POPULATIONS.

[00:03:39.079]
I READ ON THE INTERNET THAT CAROL
CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN MIAMI,

[00:03:41.799]
FLORIDA, IS INVESTIGATING A
RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUE.

[00:03:44.469]
AREN'T THEY A NASA
EXPLORERS SCHOOL?

[00:03:46.759]
TO FIND OUT HOW YOU
CAN GET YOUR SCHOOL

[00:03:48.549]
TO BECOME A NASA EXPLORERS SCHOOL,
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:03:52.529]
YES, AND THEY'RE WORKING WITH
THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS.

[00:03:55.279]
HERE THEY ARE NOW.

[00:03:58.539]
HI, I'M TAQUIN, AND I'M
FROM MS. POLANCO'S CLASS.

[00:04:02.019]
AND I'M ANITA, AND I'M
IN MS. GANT'S CLASS HERE

[00:04:04.089]
AT CAROL CITY ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN MIAMI, FLORIDA.

[00:04:07.119]
HI, DR. D TOLD US ABOUT
YOUR INVESTIGATION.

[00:04:09.469]
CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT IT?

[00:04:11.319]
SURE.

[00:04:11.859]
WITH HELP FROM OUR MENTORS FROM
THE SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS,

[00:04:14.899]
WE BEGIN BY LOOKING AT THIS
CRITTER PAGE AND TRYING

[00:04:16.919]
TO PREDICT HOW MANY
CRITTERS ARE ON IT.

[00:04:19.049]
IT LOOKS LIKE IT HAS
A LOT OF CRITTERS.

[00:04:21.389]
YES, IT'S A LOT TO COUNT,
SO WE BRAINSTORMED SOME WAYS

[00:04:24.229]
TO ESTIMATE THE NUMBER.

[00:04:25.579]
WE DECIDED TO USE A
RANDOM SAMPLING TECHNIQUE.

[00:04:28.129]
RIGHT, WE USED A SAMPLING
SQUARE AND RANDOMLY DROPPED IT

[00:04:30.829]
ON THE PAGE OF CRITTERS.

[00:04:32.189]
WHY DID YOU DROP IT RANDOMLY?

[00:04:34.249]
RANDOMLY DROPPING THE SQUARE GIVES
A BETTER SAMPLE OF THE POPULATION.

[00:04:38.089]
IF YOU CHOOSE WHERE
TO COUNT THE CRITTERS,

[00:04:39.769]
YOU MAY PICK AREAS
WITH LOTS OF THEM.

[00:04:41.769]
THEN YOUR ESTIMATE
WILL BE TOO HIGH.

[00:04:43.439]
NEXT WE OUTLINED THE SQUARE,

[00:04:44.729]
AND THEN COUNTED THE
NUMBER OF CRITTERS IN IT.

[00:04:46.939]
WHAT DO YOU DO IF A SQUARE
CUTS A CRITTER IN HALF?

[00:04:49.449]
HOW DO YOU COUNT IT?

[00:04:50.639]
GOOD QUESTION.

[00:04:51.589]
FOR OUR SAMPLE, WE ONLY
USED CRITTERS THAT WERE

[00:04:53.799]
AT LEAST HALF IN THE SQUARE.

[00:04:55.579]
SO MANY SAMPLES DID YOU TAKE?

[00:04:57.619]
REMEMBER, IN A RANDOM SAMPLE,
THE MORE DATA YOU COLLECT,

[00:05:00.259]
THE MORE ACCURATE YOUR ESTIMATE.

[00:05:02.459]
WE DROPPED THE SQUARE
FOUR MORE TIMES.

[00:05:04.779]
NEXT, WE FOUND THE AVERAGE NUMBER
OF CRITTERS PER SQUARE UNIT.

[00:05:08.019]
HOW DID YOU FIND THE
TOTAL NUMBER OF CRITTERS?

[00:05:10.669]
WE COUNTED THE NUMBER
OF SQUARE UNITS

[00:05:12.359]
ON THE PAGE, AND THERE WERE 63.

[00:05:14.559]
SO WE MULTIPLIED OUR AVERAGE NUMBER
BY 63 AND RECORDED IT ON OUR CHART.

[00:05:18.759]
TO GIVE US AN EVEN
MORE ACCURATE ESTIMATE,

[00:05:20.439]
WE USED EACH GROUP'S AVERAGE AND
CALCULATED THE CLASS AVERAGE.

[00:05:24.609]
HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOUR
ESTIMATES ARE ACCURATE?

[00:05:26.699]
DON'T YOU NEED TO KNOW THE TOTAL
NUMBER OF CRITTERS ON THE PAGE?

[00:05:29.769]
YES, WE EACH COUNTED THE
CRITTERS AND COMPARED OUR ANSWERS.

[00:05:32.669]
THERE WERE 393 CRITTERS
ON THE PAGE.

[00:05:35.529]
HOW DID YOUR ESTIMATES COMPARE
WITH THE ACTUAL NUMBERS?

[00:05:38.609]
OUR GROUP ESTIMATED 433,
SO WE WERE OFF BY 40.

[00:05:42.009]
HOWEVER, WHEN WE COMPARED THE
CLASS ESTIMATE TO THE ACTUAL,

[00:05:44.749]
IT WAS 412, A LOT CLOSER.

[00:05:47.079]
THAT'S WHY IT'S IMPORTANT
TO TAKE LOTS OF SAMPLES

[00:05:49.099]
AND GATHER PLENTY OF DATA.

[00:05:51.329]
IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO COUNT
A LARGE POPULATION OF ANIMALS,

[00:05:54.439]
BUT BY SAMPLING AND
FINDING AN ESTIMATE,

[00:05:56.179]
YOU CAN GET PRETTY
CLOSE TO THE NUMBER.

[00:05:58.459]
NEXT WE ARE GOING
OUTSIDE TO DO A SAMPLE

[00:06:00.259]
OF SOME REAL CRITTERS,
LIKE GRASSHOPPERS.

[00:06:03.009]
SOUNDS LIKE FUN.

[00:06:04.199]
MAYBE WE SHOULD DO THAT
FOR JACOB'S BACKYARD.

[00:06:06.509]
BE SURE TO POST YOUR
RESULTS ON THE WEBSITE

[00:06:08.509]
SO WE CAN SEE WHAT YOU FOUND.

[00:06:10.229]
WILL DO, AND LET US KNOW ABOUT THE
ANIMAL POPULATION IN YOUR PRESERVE.

[00:06:14.199]
GOOD-BYE FROM CAROL CITY ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN MIAMI, FLORIDA.

[00:06:18.209]
I'M NOT SURE THAT JACOB WILL
WANT TO KNOW THE POPULATION

[00:06:21.919]
OF CRITTERS IN HIS BACKYARD.

[00:06:24.059]
PROBABLY NOT, BUT AT LEAST
YOU HAVE AN IDEA OF HOW

[00:06:26.319]
TO FIND THE SIZE OF A POPULATION.

[00:06:28.229]
I WONDER HOW JACOB'S DOING.

[00:06:30.389]
MAYBE I SHOULD GO SEE
IF HE NEEDS SOME HELP.

[00:06:32.759]
WELL, THIS WILL TAKE
SOME TIME TO DRY.

[00:06:35.739]
[00:07:23.859]
HAVE YOU HEARD FROM JACOB?

[00:07:24.989]
I WONDER IF HE'S WORKING
IN HIS BACKYARD.

[00:07:29.149]
NO, BUT KALI'S REPORT ON
POPULATIONS WAS VERY HELPFUL.

[00:07:31.979]
SHE'S ALMOST DONE ALL OF
HER WORK TO EARN HER BADGE.

[00:07:34.509]
ALL SHE NEEDS IS TO FIND OUT ABOUT
AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN OUR STATE.

[00:07:38.129]
I WONDER IF THERE'S ONE
IN JACOB'S BACKYARD.

[00:07:40.449]
IF THINK EVERYTHING IN
JACOB'S BACKYARD IS ENDANGERED.

[00:07:43.719]
BUT IF WE COULD FIND A SPECIES
THAT HIS BACKYARD COULD SUPPORT,

[00:07:47.119]
MAYBE WE COULD HELP KALI.

[00:07:48.429]
THAT WOULD BE AWESOME.

[00:07:49.689]
LET'S GO TO THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:07:51.089]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:07:53.249]
SO WHAT DO WE KNOW?

[00:07:54.469]
WE KNOW THAT ANIMALS BELONG TO
THE ANIMAL KINGDOM AND ARE DIVIDED

[00:07:56.669]
INTO TWO SEPARATE DIVISIONS.

[00:07:58.439]
RIGHT, VERTEBRATES
AND INVERTEBRATES.

[00:08:00.099]
WE KNOW THAT ANIMALS HAVE BASIC
NEEDS AND THAT THEY WILL MIGRATE

[00:08:03.679]
TO FIND NEW FOOD SOURCES.

[00:08:05.119]
WE ALSO KNOW THAT ANIMALS
REPRODUCE BASED ON THE AMOUNT

[00:08:07.549]
OF FOOD AVAILABLE AND
THE RIGHT CONDITIONS.

[00:08:09.199]
THAT'S WHY POPULATIONS
WILL VARY SO MUCH.

[00:08:12.169]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:08:13.529]
WE NEED TO KNOW WHAT
MAKES A GOOD HABITAT.

[00:08:15.719]
WE ALSO NEED TO LEARN MORE

[00:08:16.949]
ABOUT HOW HABITATS CAN
HELP ENDANGERED SPECIES.

[00:08:19.839]
SO WHERE DO WE GO?

[00:08:21.099]
MR. MOTA MENTIONED THAT
DR. BREININGER STUDIES

[00:08:23.389]
AND PROTECTS THE WILDLIFE
AT NASA KENNEDY.

[00:08:25.649]
I'LL SEE IF HE CAN HELP.

[00:08:26.919]
GREAT.

[00:08:27.539]
SINCE WE'RE GOING TO BE CREATING A
HABITAT THAT CAN SUPPORT WILDLIFE,

[00:08:30.009]
AND POSSIBLY EVEN AN
ENDANGERED SPECIES,

[00:08:32.409]
WE'LL NEED TO KNOW WHAT
MAKES UP A GOOD ONE.

[00:08:34.099]
EXACTLY.

[00:08:34.889]
HERE'S DR. BREININGER NOW.

[00:08:36.919]
HI.

[00:08:37.179]
I READ YOUR EMAIL, AND I
UNDERSTAND THAT JACOB WANTS

[00:08:39.879]
TO TURN HIS BACKYARD
INTO A NATURE PRESERVE.

[00:08:42.919]
YES, BUT WE NEED TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT HABITATS BEFORE HE DOES.

[00:08:46.399]
WHAT EXACTLY IS A HABITAT?

[00:08:48.129]
IT'S AN AREA WITH
SPECIFIC HABITAT FEATURES

[00:08:50.569]
THAT ALLOWS A SPECIFIC
SPECIES TO SURVIVE.

[00:08:53.749]
FOR EXAMPLE, THIS AREA HAS LOCHE
TREES AND A SPARSE TREE CANOPY

[00:08:57.539]
AND IS CALLED SCRUBBY FLATWOODS.

[00:08:59.669]
SO WHAT MAKES A GOOD HABITAT?

[00:09:01.499]
LOTS OF THINGS.

[00:09:02.289]
HABITAT SHOULD PROVIDE
ENOUGH FOOD, SHELTER,

[00:09:05.269]
AND PROTECTION FROM PREDATORS.

[00:09:07.609]
WHEN ALL THESE THINGS ARE PRESENT,
ANIMALS CAN PRODUCE ENOUGH YOUNG

[00:09:11.519]
FOR THEIR POPULATION TO SURVIVE.

[00:09:13.809]
DOES A SPECIES EVER
PRODUCE TOO MANY YOUNG?

[00:09:16.409]
YES, AND THAT MAKES THE
HABITAT OVERCROWDED.

[00:09:19.139]
IN FACT, SOME ANIMALS WILL LEAVE
AND FIND LESS CROWDED AREAS,

[00:09:23.379]
WHILE OTHERS WILL STAY BUT
WILL PRODUCE FEWER YOUNG.

[00:09:26.659]
SO THE SIZE AND HEALTH OF A HABITAT
CAN DETERMINE THE POPULATION

[00:09:29.939]
OF A SPECIES?

[00:09:31.659]
EXACTLY.

[00:09:32.379]
EACH INDIVIDUAL OR FAMILY

[00:09:33.759]
OF ANIMALS NEEDS ENOUGH
HABITAT TO SURVIVE.

[00:09:36.959]
DEPENDING ON THE AMOUNT OF FOOD,
WATER, AND SHELTER IN A HABITAT,

[00:09:41.249]
ONLY A CERTAIN NUMBER OF
INDIVIDUALS CAN BE SUPPORTED.

[00:09:44.179]
IF THE HABITAT CANNOT PROVIDE
FOR A LARGE ENOUGH POPULATION,

[00:09:48.849]
THE SPECIES FACES EXTINCTION.

[00:09:51.149]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:09:52.369]
IN A SPECIES, THERE ARE YEARS WHEN
THERE ARE MORE DEATHS THAN BIRTHS.

[00:09:56.809]
THERE ARE ALSO TIMES WHEN
THE HABITAT IS DISRUPTED

[00:09:59.599]
BY DISEASE, FIRE, AND STORMS.

[00:10:02.339]
BUT WON'T THEY JUST REPRODUCE
ONCE THE HABITAT IS RESTORED?

[00:10:05.379]
IF THE DISRUPTION CAUSES
THE POPULATION TO DECREASE,

[00:10:09.639]
THEN THE PROBABILITY THAT
ENOUGH INDIVIDUALS WILL SURVIVE

[00:10:13.579]
TO REPRODUCE IS LESS LIKELY.

[00:10:16.499]
HOW MUCH HABITAT DOES
EACH SPECIES NEED?

[00:10:19.279]
THAT VARIES AMONG SPECIES.

[00:10:20.869]
FLORIDA SCRUB-JAYS
NEED ABOUT 25 ACRES,

[00:10:23.519]
AND THEY'RE VERY TERRITORIAL.

[00:10:25.399]
WHAT IS TERRITORIAL?

[00:10:27.259]
TERRITORIAL MEANS THAT THEY
CLAIM A SPECIFIC AREA THEIR OWN.

[00:10:31.959]
IF OTHER SCRUB-JAYS TRY TO LIVE IN
THEIR AREA, THEY WILL DEFEND IT.

[00:10:37.169]
I NEVER THOUGHT OF BIRDS
DEFENDING THEIR HOME.

[00:10:39.619]
SCRUB-JAYS LIVE WITHIN THE SAME
TERRITORY WITH THEIR MATE FOR LIFE.

[00:10:44.059]
THEIR YOUNG ALSO OFTEN STAY
WITH THEM FOR MANY YEARS.

[00:10:48.099]
SO HOW ARE HABITATS
DESTROYED OR DISRUPTED?

[00:10:51.739]
FIRES AND STORMS REGULARLY
CAN CHANGE HABITAT

[00:10:55.629]
BUT SELDOM DESTROY THEM.

[00:10:57.519]
HUMANS, HOWEVER, REGULARLY
DESTROY HABITATS

[00:11:00.869]
TO BUILD HOUSES AND GROW FOOD.

[00:11:03.539]
THEY ALSO DISRUPT NATURAL
PROCESSES SUCH AS WILDFIRES.

[00:11:07.659]
WHY IS FIRE SO IMPORTANT?

[00:11:09.909]
FIRES KEEP THE SHRUBS LOW AND
ADD NUTRIENTS BACK INTO THE SOIL.

[00:11:14.099]
HOW DO YOU HELP NASA
PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT?

[00:11:16.049]
I USE FIELD STUDIES, REMOTE
SENSING, AND COMPUTER MODELS

[00:11:20.869]
TO STUDY ANIMAL POPULATIONS
AND THEIR HABITAT.

[00:11:24.049]
I THEN ADVISE NASA ON HOW TO
TAKE CARE OF THE ENVIRONMENT.

[00:11:28.879]
NASA SURE IS CONCERNED
ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT.

[00:11:31.709]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND WE WANT TO MAKE
SURE THAT ENDANGERED ANIMALS,

[00:11:34.899]
SUCH AS SCRUB-JAYS, ARE
AROUND FOR A LONG TIME.

[00:11:39.139]
THANKS, MR. BREININGER.

[00:11:39.989]
THIS HAS BEEN HELPFUL.

[00:11:41.809]
YOU'RE WELCOME, AND GOOD
LUCK ON YOUR NATURE PRESERVE.

[00:11:44.989]
WOW, I NEVER REALIZED HOW DIFFICULT
IT WAS TO PROTECT HABITATS

[00:11:48.239]
AND ENDANGERED SPECIES.

[00:11:50.069]
THAT'S WHY IT'S SUCH A GREAT IDEA
TO CREATE A BACKYARD HABITAT.

[00:11:53.209]
JUST THINK OF WHAT YOU
CAN DO TO HELP ANIMALS.

[00:11:55.219]
DO YOU REALLY THINK WE CAN ACTUALLY
HELP AN ENDANGERED SPECIES?

[00:11:58.169]
WELL, WE CAN TRY.

[00:11:59.889]
IN FACT, NOW THAT WE'VE DONE
THE RESEARCH, WE MAY BE READY

[00:12:02.259]
TO START LEARNING ABOUT PROTECTING
ANIMALS IN THE BACKYARD HABITAT.

[00:12:05.659]
GREAT, I HOPE WE CAN HELP.

[00:12:08.039]
[00:12:09.099]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:12:09.799]
WILL THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES
FIND ANY ENDANGERED ANIMALS

[00:12:13.239]
IN JACOB'S BACKYARD?

[00:12:15.029]
WILL KALI GET HER GIRL SCOUT BADGE?

[00:12:17.659]
WHAT ELSE SHOULD THE DETECTIVES DO

[00:12:19.009]
TO HELP JACOB GET A
CERTIFIED HABITAT?

[00:12:22.099]
FIND OUT IN THE EXCITING
CONCLUSION OF THE CASE

[00:12:24.839]
OF THE ZANY ANIMAL ANTICS.

[00:12:26.719]
[00:00:02.425]
BE SURE TO LOOK FOR ANSWERS
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:05.895]
WHAT CRITERIA ARE USED TO
CLASSIFY AN ANIMAL AS ENDANGERED?

[00:00:10.305]
WHAT IS EXPLOITATION?

[00:00:12.275]
WHAT ARE THE THREE
LEVELS OF ENDANGERMENT?

[00:00:15.315]
HOW MANY BREEDING PAIRS OF
BALD EAGLES ARE CURRENTLY

[00:00:17.975]
IN THE U.S.?THAT'S AWESOME.

[00:00:20.755]
I KNOW.

[00:00:21.225]
I NEVER THOUGHT IT COULD HAPPEN,

[00:00:24.715]
BUT I MAY HAVE ACTUALLY DISCOVERED
A SPECIES THAT WE COULD HELP.

[00:00:27.415]
ARE YOU SURE IT'S AN ENDANGERED
SPECIES AND THAT WE CAN HELP?

[00:00:31.325]
I THINK IT'S ENDANGERED.

[00:00:32.855]
I'M NOT SURE EXACTLY.

[00:00:34.445]
DID YOU GET ANY INFORMATION
FROM NASA ABOUT HOW TO DETERMINE

[00:00:36.795]
IF A SPECIES IS ENDANGERED?

[00:00:38.295]
NO, BUT I DID GET A LEAD.

[00:00:40.285]
DR. BREININGER WORKS WITH LOTS
OF NASA RESEARCHERS WHO WORK

[00:00:43.155]
WITH ENDANGERED SPECIES.

[00:00:45.025]
I'LL TRY TO CONTACT HIM.

[00:00:47.095]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:00:47.775]
YOU KNOW, IT'S STRANGE, BUT I
NEVER THOUGHT I COULD ACTUALLY HELP

[00:00:51.125]
OUT AN ANIMAL, POSSIBLY EVEN AN
ENDANGERED ONE, IN MY OWN BACKYARD.

[00:00:54.825]
IT'S KIND OF COOL.

[00:00:56.335]
YES, BUT YOU'RE GETTING
AHEAD OF YOURSELF.

[00:00:59.265]
FIRST, WE NEED SOME MORE ANSWERS.

[00:01:00.895]
HERE'S MR. SCHEIDT.

[00:01:03.195]
HE WORKS WITH ENDANGERED
SPECIES AT NASA KENNEDY.

[00:01:06.605]
HI, MR. SCHEIDT.

[00:01:08.105]
HELLO.

[00:01:08.935]
I UNDERSTAND YOU WANT TO LEARN
ABOUT ENDANGERED ANIMALS.

[00:01:11.145]
YES, BUT WE'RE NOT EVEN SURE HOW
WE KNOW A SPECIES IS ENDANGERED.

[00:01:14.635]
THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT SAYS
THAT ANY SPECIES THAT IS IN DANGER

[00:01:17.985]
OF BECOMING EXTINCT THROUGHOUT
ALL OR A SIGNIFICANT PORTION

[00:01:21.305]
OF ITS RANGE CAN BE
CLASSIFIED AS ENDANGERED.

[00:01:24.085]
WHAT KIND OF THINGS CAUSE
ANIMALS TO BECOME ENDANGERED?

[00:01:26.685]
LOSS OF HABITAT IS ONE WAY.

[00:01:28.415]
WE LEARNED THAT AN ANIMAL'S
HABITAT IS VERY IMPORTANT

[00:01:31.135]
TO PROVIDING ITS BASIC NEEDS.

[00:01:33.065]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:01:33.585]
IF AN ANIMAL'S HABITAT IS GREATLY
ALTERED, REDUCED, OR DESTROYED,

[00:01:36.935]
IT CAN HAVE A SIGNIFICANT
IMPACT ON THE SPECIES.

[00:01:39.535]
WE ALSO LEARNED THAT IN
ADDITION TO FIRE AND STORMS,

[00:01:42.465]
PEOPLE HAVE A BIG EFFECT
ON AN ANIMAL'S HABITAT.

[00:01:45.265]
YES, HUMAN IMPACTS CAN HAVE
SERIOUS EFFECTS ON HABITAT.

[00:01:48.475]
FOR EXAMPLE, WATER AND/OR AIR
POLLUTION CAN RESTRICT PLANT GROWTH

[00:01:52.395]
OR HARM A HABITAT.

[00:01:53.975]
EXPLOITATION IS ANOTHER WAY
IT CAN ENDANGER A SPECIES.

[00:01:57.185]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY EXPLOITATION?

[00:01:59.275]
EXPLOITATION IS WHERE A SPECIES'
POPULATION IS REDUCED TO A POINT

[00:02:03.565]
THAT IT CANNOT REPRODUCE FAST
ENOUGH TO SUSTAIN ITSELF.

[00:02:06.925]
HOW ARE ANIMALS EXPLOITED?

[00:02:08.165]
TAKE THE MANATEE, FOR EXAMPLE.

[00:02:10.545]
IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES,
THEY WERE HUNTED EXTENSIVELY

[00:02:13.365]
FOR THEIR MEAT, FAT,
AND TOUGH HIDES,

[00:02:15.975]
WHICH GREATLY REDUCED
THEIR POPULATION.

[00:02:18.135]
CURRENTLY, RESIDENTIAL

[00:02:19.615]
AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT ALONG
THE COAST HAS ALSO DEGRADED THEIR

[00:02:22.525]
HABITAT, THUS DECREASING
THEIR POPULATION.

[00:02:25.055]
SORT OF LIKE WHAT HAPPENED
TO THE BUFFALO ON THE PLAINS.

[00:02:27.635]
THEY WERE HUNTED UNTIL
THERE WERE HARDLY ANY LEFT.

[00:02:29.945]
BUT I THINK THEY'RE
MAKING A COMEBACK.

[00:02:32.105]
ARE THERE LEVELS OF ENDANGERMENT?

[00:02:34.885]
YES, THE U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE
SERVICE HAS THREE LEVELS.

[00:02:38.085]
ENDANGERED IS THE MOST SEVERE.

[00:02:40.015]
THREATENED IS WHEN A SPECIES
IS LIKELY TO BECOME ENDANGERED

[00:02:42.285]
WITHIN THE FORESEEABLE
FUTURE THROUGHOUT ALL

[00:02:44.555]
OR MOST OF ITS RANGE.

[00:02:45.825]
AND LAST ARE SPECIES
OF SPECIAL CONCERN.

[00:02:48.065]
WHAT'S THAT?

[00:02:49.615]
IT'S WHEN A SPECIES MAY
NEED A CONSERVATION ACTION.

[00:02:52.625]
THIS USUALLY MEANS
PERIODIC MONITORING

[00:02:54.395]
OF THE SPECIES' POPULATION
OR ITS HABITAT.

[00:02:57.255]
DO MOST BECOME THREATENED
OR ENDANGERED?

[00:02:59.735]
NO, NOT ALWAYS.

[00:03:01.425]
SOMETIMES, IF WE BECOME AWARE
OF THE PROBLEM EARLY ENOUGH,

[00:03:04.075]
WE CAN REMEDY IT BEFORE THE
SPECIES GETS TO THAT POINT.

[00:03:06.855]
HOW MANY ANIMALS ARE ON THE
ENDANGERED SPECIES LIST?

[00:03:09.385]
THERE ARE OVER 900 SPECIES OF
PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON THE LIST.

[00:03:13.155]
HOW MANY ARE THERE AT NASA KENNEDY?

[00:03:15.215]
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER IS ACTUALLY
HOME TO TEN ENDANGERED SPECIES.

[00:03:18.165]
OF COURSE, THESE SPECIES AREN'T
ENDANGERED DUE TO THE SPACE CENTER,

[00:03:21.935]
BUT ARE ACTUALLY PROTECTED BY
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER SINCE IT IS

[00:03:24.555]
SO LARGE AND COVERS SO MANY
DIFFERENT TYPES OF HABITATS.

[00:03:27.745]
DID YOU KNOW THAT ONLY 6%
OF THE SPACE CENTER IS USED

[00:03:30.535]
FOR SPACE LAUNCH OPERATIONS?

[00:03:31.935]
AND THE REST IS MERRITT ISLAND
NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE.

[00:03:35.115]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:03:36.745]
WE NOT ONLY HAVE PROGRAMS
TO PROTECT THESE SPECIES,

[00:03:39.005]
BUT WE ALSO CONDUCT RESEARCH
TO AID IN THEIR RECOVERY.

[00:03:41.375]
DO YOU EVER HAVE TO RESCUE ANIMALS?

[00:03:43.805]
YES, SOMETIMES WHEN WE ENCOUNTER
AN INJURED OR DISTRESSED ANIMAL,

[00:03:47.845]
WE DO OUR BEST TO STABILIZE THE
ANIMAL UNTIL A RESCUE TEAM ARRIVES.

[00:03:51.535]
WHO HELPS YOU RESCUE THE ANIMALS?

[00:03:53.515]
WE WORK CLOSELY WITH STATE
AND FEDERAL AGENCIES,

[00:03:56.445]
ALONG WITH PRIVATE
ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS SEAWORLD.

[00:03:59.595]
YOU MAY WANT TO GO TO SEAWORLD
AND TALK TO DR. BETH CHITTICK,

[00:04:02.305]
A VETERINARIAN THAT WORKS WITH
THE SEAWORLD RESCUE PROGRAM.

[00:04:05.135]
THANKS, MR. SCHEIDT.

[00:04:06.365]
THIS HAS BEEN FASCINATING
INFORMATION.

[00:04:08.655]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

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SEAWORLD RESCUE PROGRAM.

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SOUNDS AWESOME.

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YES, IT DOES.

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AND IT SOUNDS LIKE IT'S
RIGHT UP RJ'S ALLEY,

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SINCE HE'S STILL DOWN IN FLORIDA.

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YOU SEND HIM AN EMAIL WHILE I GO
CHECK ON OUR ENDANGERED SPECIES.

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I HOPE YOU KNOW WHAT
YOU'RE DOING, JACOB.

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REMEMBER, THIS IS ME
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT.

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I'M HERE IN FLORIDA WITH DR.
BETH CHITTICK, A VETERINARIAN

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WHO WORKS AT SEAWORLD.

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SHE HAS THE REAL INSIDE
SCOOP ON WHY SEAWORLD RESCUES

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AND REHABILITATES ANIMALS.

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SEAWORLD IS COMMITTED TO
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION.

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OUR RESCUE PROGRAMS ALLOW US TO
HELP ANIMALS AND ALSO LEARN MORE

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ABOUT THEM AT THE SAME TIME.

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WHAT KIND OF ANIMALS DO YOU RESCUE?

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THE FOUR MAIN ANIMAL GROUPS
WE RESCUE ARE SEA TURTLES,

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AQUATIC BIRDS, MANATEES,
AND DOLPHINS.

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WHAT ABOUT AN ANIMAL
INJURED BY NATURAL CAUSES?

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WE RESCUE THOSE ANIMALS
THAT ARE SICK OR INJURED,

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OR WHO WOULD NEED MEDICAL
ATTENTION IN ORDER TO SURVIVE,

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REGARDLESS OF THE CAUSE.

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FOR EXAMPLE, SOMETIMES MANATEES
BECOME COLD STRESSED IN THE WINTER,

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WHICH IS NATURAL, BUT WE WOULD
STILL ATTEMPT TO RESCUE THEM,

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ESPECIALLY SINCE THEY
ARE ENDANGERED.

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SO IF A MANATEE OR
DOLPHIN IS SICK ENOUGH

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TO BE RESCUED, WHAT DO YOU DO?

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WE MOBILIZE OUR CREW AND
EQUIPMENT AND HEAD TO THE S