Transcript for NASASciFiles - The Case of The Great Space Exploration

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HI, I'M CHRISTY CARLSON ROMANO.

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I PLAY REN STEVENS ON DISNEY
CHANNEL'S EVEN STEVENS,

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AND I'M THE VOICE OF KIM POSSIBLE--

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YOU KNOW, THE WONDERTEEN WHO SAVES
THE WORLD, DOES HER HOMEWORK,

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AND UPDATES HER WARDROBE
ALL ON A SCHOOL NIGHT?

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YEAH, WELL, SHE USES MATH,
SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

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TO FIGHT OFF EVIL VILLAINS.

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BUT, SERIOUSLY, I HAVE
SOME REALLY COOL FRIENDS

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WHO FIND THESE SUBJECTS HELPFUL
IN SOLVING REAL PROBLEMS.

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THEY ARE THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES,

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AND YOU CAN MEET THEM
ON NASA SCI FILES.

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THEY'RE GOING TO BE
TRAVELING TO PLACES

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THAT WE CAN ONLY DREAM OF GOING.

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SO, JOIN IN THE ADVENTURE, AND HELP
THE TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES SOLVE

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THEIR NEWEST CASE.

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COME ON, NOW, AND LEARN ABOUT
MATH, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DISCOVERING THE WORLD WE'RE
IN, DOING COOL EXPERIMENTS.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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NASA SCI FILES.

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DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

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WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO
FIND WATER ICE ON MARS?

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HOW WILL THE PHOENIX MARS LANDER
ANALYZE SOIL AND WATER ICE ON MARS?

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WHAT IS FERROFLUID, AND
WHY DID NASA DEVELOP IT?

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WHEN YOU SEE THIS ICON,
THE ANSWER IS NEAR.

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[MUSIC]

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SO GOOD JOB, BIANCA.

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NEXT TIME, I THINK WE
NEED TO SLOW DOWN A BIT,

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BECAUSE I DON'T WANT YOU TO
PULL A MUSCLE OR ANYTHING.

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ACTUALLY, I WAS THINKING ABOUT
PICKING UP THE PACE A LITTLE.

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ME TOO, BUT LET'S THINK
ABOUT THIS REALISTICALLY.

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WE STILL HAVE A FEW YEARS BEFORE
WE HAVE TO TAKE THE PHYSICAL TEST

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TO BE ASTRONAUTS, AND I
THINK WE SHOULD TAKE IT EASY,

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YOU KNOW, AT FIRST.

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RJ, WE'RE TALKING ABOUT POSSIBLY
BEING THE FIRST ASTRONAUTS

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TO TRAVEL TO MARS.

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I THINK I'LL GO AHEAD AND RUN HOME.

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THAT'S TWO MILES.

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HAVE YOU CONSIDERED SPEED WALKING?

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IT'S OKAY; I'M EXPECTING A LETTER.

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I THINK I'LL JUST SHOOT
FOR GOING TO THE MOON.

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HI, RJ.

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ARE YOU OKAY?

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YOU LOOK AWFUL.

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TONY!

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I MEAN AWFULLY FIT.

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BIANCA'S KILLING ME.

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I CAN'T HIDE IT ANY LONGER.

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I MEAN, I'M RUNNING TWICE A
DAY JUST TO KEEP UP WITH HER.

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WHY THE SUDDEN INTEREST
IN PHYSICAL FITNESS?

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REMEMBER WHAT MR. GREGORY SAID?

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WE COULD ACTUALLY BE THE FIRST
ASTRONAUTS TO GO TO MARS.

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AND YOU HAVE TO BE IN GREAT
SHAPE TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.

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YES, AND IN THE CASE OF
THE BIOLOGICAL BIOSPHERE,

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MS. SHEPARD TOLD US ABOUT HOW
ASTRONAUTS HAVE TO TRAIN TO STAY

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IN SHAPE BOTH ON EARTH
AND IN SPACE.

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WE ALSO LEARNED THAT
YOU CAN OVERDO IT.

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GETTING IN SHAPE SHOULDN'T
MEAN YOU HAVE

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TO RUN YOURSELF INTO THE GROUND.

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MAYBE THAT'S WHY NASA HAS
MANNED AND UNMANNED MISSIONS.

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DID YOU SAY MANNED AND UNMANNED?

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SURE.

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WITH THE WAY MY FITNESS TRAINING'S
GOING, MAYBE I NEED TO THINK

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ABOUT WORKING ON AN
UNMANNED MISSION.

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GOOD IDEA.

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NOT THAT YOU'RE NOT IN SHAPE,
BUT MR. GREGORY DID SAY

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THAT NASA NOT ONLY NEEDS FUTURE
ASTRONAUTS BUT ALSO RESEARCHERS,

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ENGINEERS, AND SCIENTISTS.

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AND GFPS.

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WHAT'S A GFP?

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GALACTIC FINANCIAL PLANNERS.

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COME ON, GUYS; GET
WITH THE PROGRAM.

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ACTUALLY, TONY HAS
AN INTERESTING POINT.

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I'M SURE THERE'S LOTS
OF WAYS TO GET INVOLVED

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WITH SPACE EXPLORATION.

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YES, NASA NEEDS LOTS OF PEOPLE
IN ALL KINDS OF CAREERS.

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WE JUST NEED TO FIND ONE WE LIKE.

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LET'S BRING UP THE PROBLEM BOARD.

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WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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WE KNOW THAT THERE ARE BOTH MANNED

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AND UNMANNED MISSIONS
TO EXPLORE SPACE.

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AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT THERE
ARE MISSIONS THAT INVOLVE GOING

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TO THE MOON, MARS, AND BEYOND.

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WE ALSO KNOW THAT NASA NEEDS
SPACE EXPLORERS AND SCIENTISTS.

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OKAY, SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

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WE NEED TO LEARN ABOUT
UNMANNED MISSIONS

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AND WHAT IT TAKES
TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.

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I'LL CHECK THE NASA WEBSITE.

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THE NASA WEBSITE IS THE
PERFECT PLACE TO FIND

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OUT ABOUT FUTURE NASA MISSIONS

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AND SPACE EXPLORATION,
ALONG WITH CAREERS.

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PERHAPS I CAN DO SOMETHING IN R&D.

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R&D?

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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

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'CAUSE, AS YOU KNOW, I'M
A BIG FAN OF RESEARCH.

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WELL, THIS MAY BE RIGHT
UP YOUR ALLEY, RJ.

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WHAT IS IT?

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I'VE CONTACTED DR. CAROL STOKER.

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SHE'S WORKING ON THE
LATEST NASA MARS MISSION.

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IT'S A LANDER CALLED THE PHOENIX
THAT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

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AND THE NASA AMES RESEARCH
CENTER ARE DEVELOPING.

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ISN'T KALI IN SAN FRANCISCO DOING
SOME RESEARCH ON REDWOOD TREES?

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YES, SHE DOESN'T GET
BACK UNTIL NEXT WEEK.

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I'LL SEND HER AN EMAIL TO SEE
IF SHE CAN TALK TO DR. STOKER.

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GREAT, MAYBE WE SHOULD
TALK TO DR. D TOO.

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MAYBE HE'LL HAVE SOME IDEAS
ABOUT MANNED SPACE TRAVEL.

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ACTUALLY, I WAS SUPPOSED TO
MEET DR. D AT THE VIRGINIA AIR

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AND SPACE CENTER TO CHECK OUT A
NEW EXHIBIT ON STRANGE MATTER.

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I'D BETTER RUN.

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WE'RE VERY EXCITED ABOUT THE NEW
VISION FOR NASA, SPACE EXPLORATION,

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AND THE PHOENIX LANDER.

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BUT WE ARE JUST WONDERING WHY
WE WANT TO EXPLORE MARS INSTEAD

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OF SOME OF THE OTHER PLANETS.

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WELL, MARS IS THE PLANET IN OUR
SOLAR SYSTEM MOST LIKE EARTH,

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AND IT ALSO MAY BE
ANOTHER HOME FOR LIFE.

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WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

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WELL, SOME SCIENTISTS THINK THAT
LIFE MAY HAVE EVOLVED ON MARS EARLY

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IN ITS HISTORY, WHEN IT WAS WARMER
AND WETTER THAN IT IS TODAY.

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BUT THE EXCITING THING WOULD BE
IF LIFE STILL EXISTS ON MARS NOW.

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THAT'S VERY EXCITING.

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SO WHY DON'T WE CHECK
IT OUT INSTEAD

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OF SENDING UNMANNED
MISSIONS TO MARS?

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ROBOTIC MISSIONS COST LESS,
AND THEY HELP US LEARN A LOT

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ABOUT THE SURFACE OF MARS.

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THE MORE WE KNOW ABOUT MARS,
THE MORE INFORMATION WE HAVE

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TO HELP DESIGN MORE
EFFECTIVE HUMAN MISSIONS.

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THAT MAKES SENSE.

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SO WHERE WILL THE
PHOENIX LANDER EXPLORE?

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PHOENIX WILL LAND IN MARS'
NORTHERN ARCTIC PLAINS

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BETWEEN 65 AND 75 DEGREES NORTH.

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WHY IS IT LANDING THERE?

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THE LANDING SITE WAS CHOSEN
BECAUSE ANOTHER MISSION

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TO MARS CALLED THE MARS ODYSSEY
HAS DISCOVERED NEAR SUBSURFACE

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WATER ICE-- THAT'S WATER
ICE THAT'S UNDER A LAYER

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OF DRY SOIL THAT'S FAIRLY
THIN-- RIGHT IN THAT LOCATION.

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WHY IS WATER ICE SO IMPORTANT?

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WELL, THE SIMPLE ANSWER IS

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THAT WATER IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT INGREDIENT FOR LIFE.

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BUT IT MUST BE LIQUID WATER.

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ON EARTH, WHEREVER WE FIND
LIQUID WATER, WE FIND LIFE.

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BUT ISN'T ICE THE
SOLID FORM OF WATER?

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YES, BUT RECENT CLIMATE STUDIES AND
CLIMATE MODELING INDICATE THAT ICE

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AT THE SURFACE OR NEAR
THE SUBSURFACE IN THE AREA

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WHERE PHOENIX IS LANDING
MAY MELT FROM TIME TO TIME

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UNDER SOME CIRCUMSTANCES.

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AND MELTED ICE MEANS LIQUID WATER.

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THAT'S CORRECT.

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AND WHEN WATER IS LIQUID, MICROBIAL
LIFE COULD BE GROWING IN THE SOIL

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AND THEN BECOME DORMANT
WHEN CONDITIONS GET HARSH.

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I LEARNED AT CAMP THAT WHEN
A PLANT OR ANIMAL IS DORMANT,

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IT'S INACTIVE, SORT
OF LIKE SLEEPING.

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IT'S NOT ACTIVELY GROWING, BUT
IT'S PROTECTED BY THE ENVIRONMENT

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UNTIL CONDITIONS ARE
FAVORABLE FOR IT TO GROW.

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THAT'S RIGHT, AND ON
MARS, WE HOPE TO FIND

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THAT WHEN CONDITIONS BECOME
FAVORABLE, THE ICE MELTS,

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AND ORGANISMS WAKE UP AND GROW.

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HOW WILL YOU KNOW IF THERE
ARE MICROBES IN THE SOIL?

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WELL, PHOENIX WON'T BE ABLE

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TO ACTUALLY DETECT
MICROBES IN THE SOIL.

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BUT IT WILL BE ABLE TO DETERMINE IF
THE ENVIRONMENT WAS EVER HABITABLE.

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AND IT MAY DETECT THINGS
LEFT BY BIOLOGY IN THE PAST

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SUCH AS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
AND OTHER CLUES.

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BUT HOW WILL IT BE ABLE TO
ANALYZE THE SOIL AND WATER ICE?

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THERE'S A ROBOTIC ARM WITH A
DIGGING TOOL DESIGNED TO DIG

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INTO THE SUBSURFACE AND SCRATCH

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AND OBTAIN SAMPLES
OF THE SOIL AND ICE.

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THOSE SAMPLES WILL THEN
BE PLACED INTO INSTRUMENTS

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THAT WILL ANALYZE THE SAMPLES FOR
SUCH THINGS AS THE TYPE OF MINERALS

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IN THE SOIL, ANY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS,

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THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES,
AND MUCH MORE.

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THE DATA WILL HELP US DETERMINE

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IF THE ENVIRONMENT WOULD
BE A GOOD ONE FOR LIFE.

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THAT SOUNDS SO EXCITING.

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I CAN'T WAIT TILL THE
PHOENIX LANDS ON MARS.

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WELL, IT DOESN'T LAUNCH UNTIL
2007, BUT IN THE MEANTIME,

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THERE'S LOT OF EXCITING
THINGS GOING ON AT NASA

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TO HOLD YOUR INTEREST.

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THANK YOU SO MUCH, DR. STOKER.

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YOU'RE WELCOME.

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DON'T HESITATE TO CALL IF
YOU HAVE ANY MORE QUESTIONS.

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THUD!

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HI, TONY.

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THIS STRANGE MATTER EXHIBIT IS
REALLY COOL, AND IT'S A GREAT PLACE

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TO LEARN ABOUT MANNED
MISSIONS TO SPACE.

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STRANGE MATTER?

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I DON'T SEE THE CONNECTION.

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SPACE IS A VERY HARSH ENVIRONMENT.

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AND FOR PEOPLE TO EXPLORE SPACE,
WE HAVE TO OVERCOME SUCH PROBLEMS

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AS METEOROIDS AND OTHER
SPACE DEBRIS COLLIDING

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WITH THE SPACECRAFT.

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I NEVER THOUGHT OF THAT.

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I GUESS IT COULD BE VERY DANGEROUS.

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SO WHAT CAN WE DO?

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COULDN'T SHATTER THE
GLASS WITH A BOWLING BALL

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BECAUSE IT IS SPECIALLY
TEMPERED GLASS.

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THANKFULLY.

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IN SPACE, IT'S REALLY
IMPORTANT TO HAVE MATERIALS

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THAT DON'T SHATTER UPON IMPACT.

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INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, FOR
EXAMPLE, HAS LAYERS OF KEVLAR

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THAT PREVENT MICROMETEORITES
FROM PENETRATING.

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ISN'T THAT THE SAME STUFF THEY
USE FOR BULLETPROOF VESTS?

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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I'VE GOT A KEVLAR
GLOVE RIGHT THERE.

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CHECK IT OUT.

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WELL, THAT MUST BE
A REALLY DULL BLADE.

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LET'S SEE HOW THIS WORKS
ON AN ORDINARY GLOVE.

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I'LL TAKE THE KEVLAR GLOVE.

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GOOD CHOICE.

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NOW, WHAT ELSE ABOUT
SPACE IS HARSH?

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WELL, I WOULD THINK IT'S
EXTREMELY COLD IN SPACE.

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YES, IT IS.

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INSULATION TO PROTECT FROM
EXTREME HEAT AND COLD IS CRITICAL,

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LIKE THE DISPLAY ON SOAP FOAMS.

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THAT'S PRETTY IMPRESSIVE.

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WHAT DOES THAT HAVE
TO DO WITH INSULATION?

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LET ME SHOW YOU.

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HERE; TAKE THIS PIECE OF AEROGEL.

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IT'S SOMETIMES CALLED
"FROZEN SMOKE."

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IT'S THE WORLD'S LIGHTEST SOLID,
WHICH MEANS IT'S THE LEAST DENSE.

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YOU'RE RIGHT.

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IT WEIGHTS A LOT LESS
THAN I THOUGHT IT WOULD.

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A PIECE THE SIZE OF THE HUMAN
BODY WOULD HAVE A MASS OF LESS

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THAN HALF A KILOGRAM,
OR ABOUT A POUND.

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IT'S MOSTLY AIR, ABOUT 99.8%.

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OH, I SEE.

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IT'S LIKE THE SOAP
BUBBLES; THEY'RE MOSTLY AIR.

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IT TURNS OUT THAT AIR DOES
A GREAT JOB OF INSULATION--

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EITHER KEEPING HEAT OUT OR
PREVENTING HEAT FROM LEAVING.

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LET ME SHOW YOU.

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HERE; HOLD THIS BALLOON
ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE

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OF THE AEROGEL FROM THE MICROTORCH.

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NOW MOVE THE BALLOON UP.

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THAT TORCH LOOKS MIGHTY HOT.

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BUT NOTHING HAPPENED
TO THE BALLOON AS LONG

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AS THE AEROGEL WAS RIGHT THERE.

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TRY TOUCHING THE AEROGEL.

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IS IT HOT?

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NO, NOT AT ALL.

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AEROGEL WAS USED IN INSULATE
THE MARS ROVER SOJOURNER

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FROM INTENSE SWINGS IN
THE MARTIAN TEMPERATURE.

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NASA IS EXPERIMENTING
WITH AEROGEL NOW TO SEE

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IF IT CAN BE MADE MORE
TRANSPARENT AND USED AS A WINDOW.

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WHAT ABOUT RADIATION IN SPACE?

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ISN'T THAT A DIFFICULT PROBLEM?

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THAT'S RIGHT.

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ASTRONAUTS NEED PROTECTION
FROM RADIATION.

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THE ATMOSPHERE AND THE EARTH'S
MAGNETIC FIELD PROTECT US

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FROM THESE THINGS.

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BUT ON A JOURNEY TO
MARS, FOR EXAMPLE,

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IT'S ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT
TO HAVE SHIELDING.

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SO WILL THEY USE LEAD?

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I'VE HEARD THAT IT STOPS
A LOT OF RADIATION.

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IT DOES, BUT IT'S WAY TOO
HEAVY TO HAUL INTO SPACE.

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AND IT HAS SOME OTHER PROBLEMS.

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SO WHAT'S THE SOLUTION?

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WELL, NASA IS EXPERIMENTING
WITH A LOT OF DIFFERENT IDEAS.

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ONE OF THEM INVOLVES...THIS.

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DR. D, YOU'VE GOT TO BE KIDDING.

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THAT'S A GROCERY BAG.

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IT'S CALLED POLYETHYLENE PLASTIC.

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OF COURSE, IT WOULD HAVE
TO BE THICKER THAN THIS.

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ANOTHER POSSIBILITY
IS LIQUID HYDROGEN.

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NOW LET'S TALK ABOUT FERROFLUIDS.

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FERROFLUIDS?

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NASA FIRST DEVELOPED FERROFLUIDS TO
DEAL WITH THE FLOW OF LIQUID FUEL

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IN THE WEIGHTLESSNESS OF SPACE.

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IT HAS MAGNETIC MATERIALS
SUSPENDED IN THE LIQUID

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SO IT CAN BE CONTROLLED BY MAGNETS.

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I DIDN'T REALIZE HOW
HARSH IT IS IN SPACE.

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I THINK WE REALLY
NEED TO LEARN MORE

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ABOUT HOW SPACE TRAVEL
AFFECTS THE HUMAN BODY.

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WHY DON'T YOU CONTACT DR. SCHAFFNER

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AS NASA JOHNSON SPACE
CENTER IN HOUSTON?

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HE'LL BE A BIG HELP.

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THANKS, DR. D. GO AHEAD AND
ENJOY THE REST OF THE EXHIBIT.

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BY THE WAY, I HEAR THAT
BIANCA IS GOING TO SPACE CAMP.

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I'M SURE SHE'LL ALSO LEARN A
LOT ABOUT BEING AN ASTRONAUT.

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RJ'S GOT MY BAGS.

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NOW, MAKE SURE THAT YOU ALL
RUN AT LEAST TWO MILES A DAY.

[00:12:52.509]
IT'S NEVER TO EARLY TO GET
A START ON YOUR PREPARATION.

[00:12:55.229]
AND YOU REMEMBER TO REPORT
DAILY ABOUT WHAT YOU'VE LEARNED

[00:12:57.269]
ABOUT WORKING AND LIVING IN SPACE,

[00:12:59.279]
EVEN AREAS THAT AREN'T
DIRECTLY INVOLVED

[00:13:00.769]
WITH ASTRONAUTS--
MANNED AND UNMANNED.

[00:13:03.279]
OF COURSE.

[00:13:05.129]
ARE YOU RUNNING IN THOSE SHOES?

[00:13:07.169]
YOU NEED BETTER ARCH SUPPORT.

[00:13:08.939]
HAVE A NICE TRIP, BIANCA.

[00:13:10.399]
KEEP IN TOUCH.

[00:13:11.349]
SEE YOU.

[00:13:15.409]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:13:16.619]
WILL BIANCA'S TRAINING PAY OFF?

[00:13:18.409]
WILL SHE HAVE THE RIGHT
STUFF FOR SPACE CAMP?

[00:13:21.089]
WILL RJ KEEP UP HIS
FITNESS TRAINING?

[00:13:23.529]
FIND OUT IN THE NEXT
EPISODE OF THE CASE

[00:13:25.939]
OF THE GREAT SPACE EXPLORATION.

[00:13:27.659]
[00:00:01.498]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:04.408]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT
TO EXERCISE IN SPACE?

[00:00:09.088]
WHY ARE CALORIES IMPORTANT?

[00:00:12.188]
WHY ARE ROBOTS IMPORTANT TO
THE FUTURE OF SPACE TRAVEL?

[00:00:16.218]
[00:00:17.538]
WELCOME TO HUNTSVILLE,
ALABAMA, HOME OF SPACE CAMP,

[00:00:20.708]
WHERE KIDS GET THE CHANCE
TO GET BEHIND THE CONTROLS

[00:00:22.478]
OF A NASA SPACE SHUTTLE AND
SIMULATE A MISSION IN SPACE.

[00:00:25.408]
IT'S THE NEXT BEST THING
TO BEING A REAL ASTRONAUT.

[00:00:28.548]
IN FACT, YOU SPEND THE ENTIRE
WEEK DOING EXACTLY WHAT THEY DO:

[00:00:31.798]
TRAINING, WORKING IN
TEAMS, PROBLEM-SOLVING,

[00:00:34.418]
AND OF COURSE FLYING MISSIONS.

[00:00:36.098]
BUT I'M GETTING AHEAD OF MYSELF.

[00:00:37.338]
I'VE GOT TO MEET MY TEAM
MEMBERS, BUT I'LL BE SURE

[00:00:39.678]
TO KEEP YOU POSTED AS I LEARN MORE.

[00:00:42.168]
[00:01:01.118]
THERE YOU ARE.

[00:01:02.168]
WHERE WERE YOU?

[00:01:03.078]
WE WERE SUPPOSED TO MEET AT
THE TRACK TO RUN THIS MORNING.

[00:01:05.428]
I'VE BEEN HERE ALL DAY.

[00:01:06.698]
WHAT HAPPENED?

[00:01:07.928]
WELL, IT TURNS OUT
BIANCA WAS RIGHT.

[00:01:09.628]
I KNOW; SHE USUALLY IS.

[00:01:11.038]
ISN'T THAT WHY WE'RE
ALL GETTING IN SHAPE?

[00:01:13.098]
NO, I MEAN THE SHOES.

[00:01:14.718]
AFTER CAREFUL STUDY, IT'S CLEAR
THAT THE SHOES, ALTHOUGH VERY COOL,

[00:01:17.678]
ARE NOT THE BEST THINGS
FOR RUNNING.

[00:01:21.028]
I NEVER REALLY TOOK THAT
KIND OF THING SERIOUSLY.

[00:01:23.128]
REMEMBER LAST SPRING
WHEN YOU TRIED TO CATCH

[00:01:24.668]
UP TO THE BUS IN YOUR DRESS SHOES?

[00:01:26.638]
AND YOU COULD BARELY WALK
FOR THE NEXT FEW DAYS.

[00:01:29.198]
THAT COULD HAVE BEEN THE
RESULT OF BAD EQUIPMENT.

[00:01:31.478]
WOW, IF SOMETHING AS SIMPLE AS
SHOES CAN MAKE SUCH A DIFFERENCE,

[00:01:34.688]
THEN I WONDER WHAT KIND
OF EQUIPMENT THEY USE

[00:01:36.228]
IN SPACE WHEN THEY EXERCISE?

[00:01:38.128]
ME TOO.

[00:01:39.078]
THAT'S EXACTLY WHY
I'M HERE: RESEARCH.

[00:01:41.518]
I THOUGHT YOU WERE FOCUSING
ON UNMANNED MISSIONS IN SPACE.

[00:01:44.868]
I AM, BUT CATHERINE
CALLED ME LAST NIGHT.

[00:01:47.348]
SHE'S GOING DOWN TO HOUSTON WITH
HER DAD FOR THE REST OF THE WEEK.

[00:01:50.098]
WHAT FOR?

[00:01:51.298]
SHE'S GOING TO MEET WITH
DR. GRANT SCHAFFNER TO LEARN

[00:01:53.368]
ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF
SPACE TRAVEL ON THE BODY.

[00:01:56.138]
OKAY, BUT I DON'T UNDERSTAND WHY
THAT WOULD SEND YOU TO THE LIBRARY.

[00:01:59.298]
NOT THAT THERE'S ANYTHING
WRONG WITH THE LIBRARY.

[00:02:01.828]
OH, SORRY.

[00:02:02.788]
THE CONNECTION IS SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:02:04.738]
IF IT HAS AN EFFECT
ON HUMAN BEINGS,

[00:02:06.398]
THEN IT MUST ALSO HAVE A
SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON CAMERAS,

[00:02:10.188]
ROBOTS, SENSORS, AND
EVERYTHING ELSE THAT'S INVOLVED

[00:02:13.248]
IN THE MISSIONS.

[00:02:14.388]
SO I CAME HERE TO LEARN
WHAT SPACE IS REALLY LIKE.

[00:02:16.798]
WOW.

[00:02:18.158]
I THINK I'LL HEAD
BACK TO THE TREE HOUSE

[00:02:19.888]
AND CATCH EVERYONE
UP ON OUR PROGRESS.

[00:02:21.888]
LET ME KNOW HOW IT ENDS.

[00:02:23.848]
NO PROBLEM.

[00:02:25.408]
[00:02:29.188]
DR. SCHAFFNER WORKS WITH FITNESS
TESTING AND EXERCISE EQUIPMENT

[00:02:32.298]
AT NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:02:34.118]
WE MET AT THE BIOASTRONAUTICS LAB.

[00:02:35.078]
I HEAR YOU WANT TO LEARN
HOW SPACE AFFECTS THE BODY.

[00:02:44.078]
[00:02:44.738]
YES, WE WERE DOING RESEARCH OF
THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION,

[00:02:48.778]
AND WE'RE CURIOUS AS
TO WHAT THE EFFECT

[00:02:50.668]
OF LONG-TERM SPACE FLIGHT
WILL HAVE ON THE HUMAN BODY.

[00:02:53.048]
[00:03:00.698]
EXPOSURE TO SPACE FLIGHT IS VERY
SIMILAR TO PROLONGED BED REST.

[00:03:04.948]
DURING PROLONGED EXPOSURE
TO WEIGHTLESSNESS,

[00:03:07.128]
THE BODY GRADUALLY DEGRADES AND
LOSES BONE MASS, MUSCLE MASS,

[00:03:11.888]
AND ENDURANCE CAPACITY.

[00:03:13.588]
CAN THESE PROBLEMS BE PREVENTED?

[00:03:15.988]
WE'RE NOT SURE IF THEY
CAN BE TOTALLY PREVENTED.

[00:03:17.858]
BUT WITH PROPER EXERCISE
AND NUTRITION,

[00:03:20.198]
THE EFFECTS ARE MINIMIZED.

[00:03:21.688]
WE KNOW HOW IMPORTANT IT IS TO BE
IN GOOD PHYSICAL CONDITION EVEN

[00:03:24.558]
IF YOU AREN'T AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:03:25.748]
BUT DO ASTRONAUTS HAVE
TO BE IN SUPER CONDITION?

[00:03:28.308]
ACTUALLY, THERE ARE NO
PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OTHER

[00:03:31.678]
THAN TO BE HEALTHY AND TO
PASS A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION.

[00:03:34.888]
BUT ALL ASTRONAUTS SHOULD BE
IN GOOD PHYSICAL CONDITION.

[00:03:38.478]
HOW IS EXERCISE IN SPACE
DIFFERENT FROM REGULAR EXERCISE?

[00:03:42.138]
EXERCISES PERFORMED IN SPACE ARE
SIMILAR TO EXERCISES DONE ON EARTH

[00:03:46.118]
BUT WITH A FEW DIFFERENCES.

[00:03:47.668]
ASTRONAUTS USE A CYCLE
ERGOMETER, TREADMILLS,

[00:03:50.858]
AND RESISTIVE EXERCISE DEVICES
FOR STRENGTH TRAINING BOTH

[00:03:54.058]
ON EARTH AND IN SPACE.

[00:03:55.928]
HOWEVER, THE EQUIPMENT IS JUST
DESIGNED A LITTLE DIFFERENTLY

[00:03:58.498]
FOR SPACE.

[00:03:59.458]
HOW IS THE EQUIPMENT DIFFERENT?

[00:04:01.118]
THE EQUIPMENT HAS TO BE LIGHTER,
BECAUSE IT IS VERY EXPENSIVE

[00:04:03.908]
TO CARRY MASS INTO SPACE.

[00:04:05.558]
WHEN YOU EXERCISE ON EARTH, YOU
WORK AGAINST YOUR OWN BODY WEIGHT.

[00:04:09.098]
WHAT DO ASTRONAUTS DO IN
A WEIGHTLESS ENVIRONMENT?

[00:04:11.518]
WE USE BUNGEES OR OTHER DEVICES

[00:04:13.888]
TO SIMULATE GRAVITY LOADING
WHILE RUNNING ON THE TREADMILL.

[00:04:17.228]
AND WE INCREASE THE
AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE

[00:04:19.098]
FOR SOME RESISTIVE EXERCISES.

[00:04:21.438]
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO
EXERCISE WHILE IN SPACE?

[00:04:24.578]
IN SPACE, EXERCISE HELPS LIMIT
THE AMOUNT OF BONE OR MUSCLE LOSS.

[00:04:28.478]
ASTRONAUTS WHO ARE ABLE TO COMPLETE
THE EXERCISE PROGRAM RETURN

[00:04:31.808]
TO EARTH IN BETTER SHAPE
AND RECOVER FASTER.

[00:04:34.458]
WHAT HAPPENS IF THEY DON'T
EXERCISE WHILE IN SPACE?

[00:04:37.678]
THOSE ASTRONAUTS ARE AT GREATER
RISK FOR BONE FRACTURES AND HAVE

[00:04:40.868]
TO COMPLETE A LONGER
REHABILITATION PROGRAM.

[00:04:43.238]
WHAT CONCERNS ARE THERE
FOR THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:04:45.028]
THAT ARE GOING TO MARS AND BEYOND?

[00:04:47.128]
ONE CONCERN IS THAT THE EXERCISE
EQUIPMENT BE VERY RELIABLE.

[00:04:50.668]
IF IT BREAKS DOWN AND
IS NOT REPAIRABLE,

[00:04:53.018]
THEN THERE WOULD BE SERIOUS
HEALTH RISKS TO THE CREW.

[00:04:55.748]
ALSO, DUE TO THE SMALL
SPACE, ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER

[00:04:58.848]
OF DEVICES CAN BE USED.

[00:05:00.538]
IF EXERCISING IS IMPORTANT
IN SPACE,

[00:05:02.248]
IT'S EATING RIGHT ALSO IMPORTANT?

[00:05:04.368]
YOU BET.

[00:05:05.258]
BUT THE REAL EXPERT
IS MS. DAVIS-STREET.

[00:05:07.918]
LET'S SEE IF SHE CAN MEET WITH YOU.

[00:05:09.828]
[00:05:13.278]
DR. SCHAFFNER SAID YOU HAD SOME
QUESTIONS ABOUT NUTRITION IN SPACE?

[00:05:16.778]
I'M CURIOUS.

[00:05:17.768]
ARE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS
DIFFERENT IN SPACE?

[00:05:20.188]
GOOD NUTRITION IS CRITICAL FOR ALL
ASPECTS OF HUMAN HEALTH ON EARTH.

[00:05:24.268]
WHILE THERE ARE SOME SPECIFIC
DIFFERENCES DURING SPACE FLIGHT,

[00:05:27.648]
JUST LIKE ON EARTH, WE NEED TO
MAKE SURE THAT ASTRONAUTS ARE ABLE

[00:05:30.968]
TO DO THEIR JOBS WHILE
THEY'RE ON THE MISSION.

[00:05:33.378]
HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

[00:05:34.738]
WE MAKE SURE THEY HAVE
ENOUGH CALORIES, VITAMINS,

[00:05:37.128]
AND MINERALS TO MAINTAIN
ENERGY LEVELS AND GOOD HEALTH.

[00:05:40.108]
WHAT ARE CALORIES?

[00:05:41.658]
FOOD PROVIDES US WITH THE ENERGY
TO PERFORM OUR DAILY ACTIVITIES.

[00:05:45.988]
THE TERM "CALORIE" IS A WAY
TO MEASURE ENERGY EITHER

[00:05:48.898]
IN THE FOODS WE EAT OR
THE ACTIVITIES WE PERFORM.

[00:05:52.278]
WHY ARE CALORIES IMPORTANT?

[00:05:54.218]
TO MAINTAIN AN APPROPRIATE BODY
WEIGHT, WE MUST BALANCE ENERGY

[00:05:57.428]
IN THE FOODS WE EAT WITH ENERGY WE
EXPEND DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.

[00:06:01.948]
IN OTHER WORDS, CALORIE INTAKE
MUST MATCH CALORIES BURNED,

[00:06:05.578]
OR YOU WILL LOSE OR
GAIN BODY WEIGHT.

[00:06:08.188]
HOW DO WE KNOW HOW
MANY CALORIES WE NEED?

[00:06:10.248]
THERE IS A FORMULA TO CALCULATE
A PERSON'S RESTING CALORIE NEEDS,

[00:06:14.628]
OR BMR, BASAL METABOLIC RATE.

[00:06:17.188]
ONCE YOU KNOW YOUR BMR, YOU
MULTIPLY IT BY A FACTOR DEPENDING

[00:06:20.248]
ON LOW, MEDIUM, OR
HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL.

[00:06:23.838]
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT BMR, VISIT
THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:06:27.738]
SO CALORIES ARE PRETTY IMPORTANT.

[00:06:30.078]
YES, BUT REMEMBER IT'S NOT
JUST IMPORTANT TO EAT FOODS

[00:06:32.948]
WITH THE RIGHT NUMBER OF CALORIES.

[00:06:34.698]
THEY ALSO NEED TO BE NUTRITIOUS.

[00:06:36.648]
HOW CAN YOU DETERMINE IF THE
FOODS YOU EAT ARE NUTRITIOUS?

[00:06:39.688]
ONE WAY IS TO FOLLOW
THE FOOD PYRAMID

[00:06:41.598]
AS A GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING.

[00:06:43.608]
THERE ARE SIX FOOD GROUPS:
GRAINS, VEGETABLES, FRUITS,

[00:06:47.448]
MILK, MEAT, FAT AND SWEETS.

[00:06:50.338]
EACH LEVEL OF THE PYRAMID
REPRESENTS THE CORRECT NUMBERS

[00:06:53.068]
OF SERVINGS OF EACH GROUP.

[00:06:54.698]
WHAT IS A SERVING?

[00:06:55.478]
A SERVING IS A RECOMMENDED PORTION
SIZE AND IS USUALLY MEASURED

[00:06:59.368]
IN OUNCES, CUPS, TEASPOONS,
OR PIECES,

[00:07:02.848]
DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FOOD.

[00:07:04.908]
IS THERE ANYTHING
ELSE THAT WE CAN DO

[00:07:06.348]
TO MAKE SURE THAT WE EAT HEALTHY?

[00:07:07.938]
YES, YOU CAN ALSO READ NUTRITIONAL
LABELS TO FIND FOODS LOW

[00:07:11.678]
IN SATURATED FATS AND SUGAR
AND HIGHER IN FIBER, PROTEIN,

[00:07:16.188]
VITAMINS, AND MINERALS.

[00:07:17.728]
SO HOW DO ASTRONAUTS MAKE
SURE THAT THEY EAT HEALTHY

[00:07:19.998]
AND GET THE RIGHT NUMBER
OF CALORIES WHILE IN SPACE?

[00:07:22.488]
NUTRITION EXPERTS HELP THE
ASTRONAUTS PLAN PROPER MENUS

[00:07:25.778]
FOR SPACE FLIGHT.

[00:07:27.588]
ASTRONAUTS LIKE TO HAVE
A CHOICE IN THEIR DIET,

[00:07:30.308]
SO VARIOUS FOODS ARE PREPARED
JUST LIKE THEY WILL BE IN SPACE.

[00:07:33.898]
VARIETY IN MENUS IS
ALWAYS VERY IMPORTANT.

[00:07:36.768]
THEN THE ASTRONAUTS
CONDUCT TASTE TESTS

[00:07:38.808]
TO SELECT THEIR FAVORITE
FOODS WHILE CREATING A

[00:07:41.468]
NUTRITIONALLY BALANCED MEAL.

[00:07:43.878]
IT DOESN'T SOUND THAT
MUCH DIFFERENT THAN GOING

[00:07:45.498]
TO A RESTAURANT THAT SERVES
NUTRITIONALLY BALANCED MEALS.

[00:07:47.868]
IT IS VERY SIMILAR.

[00:07:50.198]
WE ALSO HELP ASTRONAUTS KEEP
TRACK OF WHAT THEY EAT IN ORBIT

[00:07:53.048]
TO MAKE SURE THEY
MAINTAIN A HEALTHY DIET.

[00:07:55.198]
THANKS FOR ALL YOUR
HELP, MS. DAVIS-STREET.

[00:07:57.658]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:07:58.458]
CALL IF YOU HAVE ANY
OTHER QUESTIONS.

[00:08:00.238]
I WILL.

[00:08:01.058]
BYE.

[00:08:01.718]
BYE.

[00:08:03.068]
[00:08:04.638]
HELLO, RJ.

[00:08:08.998]
WHAT'S IN THE BAG?

[00:08:11.368]
NEW SHOES.

[00:08:12.408]
ACTUALLY, I THINK YOU'LL BE FINE.

[00:08:14.288]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:08:15.138]
I'VE BEEN GOING OVER CATHERINE'S
GET-UP-AND-GO SHEET FROM HER VISIT

[00:08:17.728]
WITH NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER.

[00:08:19.658]
APPARENTLY, YOU DON'T NEED TO BE A
MARATHON RUNNER TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:08:22.918]
I KNOW.

[00:08:23.718]
I ALSO CHECKED OUT HER REPORT.

[00:08:25.358]
ISN'T THAT GOOD NEWS?

[00:08:26.538]
YOU CAN JUST TAKE THE SHOES BACK.

[00:08:28.278]
I THINK I'M GOING TO KEEP THEM.

[00:08:29.638]
REMEMBER, IT'S IMPORTANT
TO BE PHYSICALLY FIT.

[00:08:31.468]
AND GOOD SHOES ARE
IMPORTANT FOR HEALTHY FEET.

[00:08:34.598]
I JUST HOPE BIANCA
WILL LIGHTEN UP A BIT.

[00:08:37.168]
I SENT HER CATHERINE'S REPORT,

[00:08:38.418]
AND IT LOOKS LIKE WE
HAVE A PRETTY GOOD HANDLE

[00:08:40.158]
ON HOW MANNED MISSIONS
WILL AFFECT THE BODY.

[00:08:42.068]
YES, BUT I THINK WE
NEED TO LEARN MORE

[00:08:43.548]
ABOUT AN ASTRONAUT'S DIET IN SPACE.

[00:08:45.708]
MS. DAVIS-STREET MADE IT
SOUND PRETTY IMPORTANT.

[00:08:47.728]
I'VE GOT JUST THE THING.

[00:08:49.198]
THE NASA SCI FILES KIDS' CLUB?

[00:08:50.908]
YOU GOT IT.

[00:08:52.198]
IT LOOKS LIKE MARYVALE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN ROCKVILLE, MARYLAND,

[00:08:55.238]
IS STUDYING NUTRITION.

[00:08:56.988]
COOL.

[00:08:57.928]
AND THE MENTORS FROM THE SOCIETY
OF WOMEN ENGINEERS ARE HELPING OUT.

[00:09:01.038]
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE
SOCIETY OF WOMEN ENGINEERS,

[00:09:03.578]
WHERE YOU CAN GET A
FREE CLASSROOM MENTOR,

[00:09:05.688]
VISIT THE NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:09:07.458]
HERE THEY ARE NOW.

[00:09:09.118]
HI, I'M JOSH.

[00:09:10.338]
AND I'M CHOUASSI.

[00:09:11.438]
YOU'RE JUST IN TIME.

[00:09:12.478]
WE'RE READY TO EVALUATE
OUR ASTRONAUT MENUS.

[00:09:15.488]
WOW, THAT SOUNDS LIKE
A DIFFICULT TASK.

[00:09:18.458]
HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT TO
PLAN FOR AN ASTRONAUT?

[00:09:20.268]
RIGHT, LIKE YOU CAN
ORDER A PIZZA IN ORBIT.

[00:09:23.378]
AT FIRST, WE DIDN'T.

[00:09:24.418]
WE JUST PLANNED WHAT WE
THOUGHT WOULD BE A GOOD DIET

[00:09:26.238]
FOR AN ASTRONAUT.

[00:09:27.628]
THEN WE DECIDED TO LOOK
AT OUR OWN DIETS AND WRITE

[00:09:30.688]
DOWN EVERYTHING WE
ATE THE DAY BEFORE.

[00:09:33.388]
NEXT, WITH THE HELP OF OUR
MENTORS FROM THE SOCIETY

[00:09:35.788]
OF WOMEN ENGINEERS, WE DID SOME
RESEARCH ABOUT SERVING SIZES.

[00:09:39.738]
WE WERE SURPRISED TO FIND OUT
THAT A SERVING SIZE IS NOT WHAT WE

[00:09:42.838]
THOUGHT IT WAS.

[00:09:43.908]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN NOT
WHAT YOU THOUGHT IT WAS?

[00:09:45.828]
WE LEARNED THAT SERVING
SIZES LISTED

[00:09:48.668]
ON NUTRITION FACT LABELS ARE OFTEN
LARGER THAN SERVING SIZES LISTED

[00:09:52.058]
ON GUIDES TO HEALTHY EATING.

[00:09:54.328]
FOR EXAMPLE, DID YOU KNOW
THAT A LARGE BAGEL IS ACTUALLY

[00:09:58.068]
ABOUT 3 1/2 SERVINGS
OF GRAIN INSTEAD OF 1?

[00:10:01.908]
THAT'S A BIG DIFFERENCE.

[00:10:03.408]
LARGE BAGEL.

[00:10:05.208]
WITH CREAM CHEESE.

[00:10:07.128]
WHAT OTHER FACTORS DO YOU
CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING A MENU?

[00:10:10.058]
WE LEARNED THAT CALORIES
ARE VERY IMPORTANT IN ORDER

[00:10:12.528]
TO MAINTAIN APPROPRIATE WEIGHT AND
TO GIVE ENOUGH ENERGY FOR THE DAY.

[00:10:15.728]
AND THAT THE NUMBER OF DAILY
REQUIRED CALORIES IS DETERMINED

[00:10:19.238]
BY YOUR AGE, WEIGHT,
HEIGHT, AND ACTIVITY LEVEL.

[00:10:23.308]
ALTHOUGH EVERYONE IS
DIFFERENT, FOR THIS EXERCISE,

[00:10:26.088]
WE ESTIMATED THAT AN
AVERAGE ASTRONAUT WOULD NEED

[00:10:28.488]
ABOUT 3,000 CALORIES.

[00:10:30.708]
MANY VERY LARGE BAGELS.

[00:10:32.738]
EXTRA CREAM CHEESE.

[00:10:34.428]
AND THE CALORIES NEED TO BE
BALANCED THROUGHOUT THE DAY

[00:10:36.968]
TO HELP MAINTAIN A GOOD
ENERGY LEVEL ALL DAY LONG.

[00:10:40.318]
THAT'S A LOT TO REMEMBER
IN PLANNING A MENU.

[00:10:42.408]
IT BECOMES EVEN MORE COMPLICATED
WHEN YOU GET TO THE NUTRITION.

[00:10:45.998]
WE LEARNED FROM MS. DAVIS-STREET

[00:10:47.158]
THAT THE FOOD PYRAMID
CAN HELP WITH NUTRITION.

[00:10:49.408]
YES, THE FOOD PYRAMID
SHOWED US HOW MANY SERVINGS

[00:10:52.448]
OF EACH FOOD SHOULD
BE CONSUMED IN A DAY.

[00:10:55.028]
DID YOU KNOW THAT YOU NEED 6 TO 11
SERVINGS OF GRAIN, 3 TO 5 SERVINGS

[00:10:59.858]
OF VEGETABLES, 2 TO 4 SERVINGS OF
FRUIT, 2 TO 3 SERVINGS OF MILK,

[00:11:04.618]
2 TO 3 SERVINGS OF MEAT, BUT ONLY
1 SERVING OF FATS AND SWEETS?

[00:11:09.648]
CANDY BARS AREN'T
CONSIDERED GRAIN, ARE THEY?

[00:11:11.918]
NO.

[00:11:13.178]
I THINK WE NEED TO MAKE SOME
MAJOR CHANGES TO OUR DIET.

[00:11:15.648]
THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT WE THOUGHT.

[00:11:17.528]
WE FOUND OUT THAT ASTRONAUTS SAY
THAT FOOD TAKES DIFFERENT IN SPACE.

[00:11:21.238]
THEY ALSO LIKE A LOT OF
VARIETY IN THEIR DIET.

[00:11:24.058]
THEY ALSO LIKE SPICY
FOODS, SUCH AS SALSA.

[00:11:26.638]
AND WE DIDN'T EVEN THINK ABOUT
CRUMBS FLOATING AROUND IN SPACE.

[00:11:29.868]
SO NO CRACKERS FOR THE ASTRONAUTS.

[00:11:31.748]
DO YOU THAT THEY DON'T EVEN HAVE A
REFRIGERATOR ON THE SPACE SHUTTER?

[00:11:35.718]
THAT WOULD BE ROUGH.

[00:11:37.158]
NO FROZEN PIZZAS.

[00:11:38.708]
WELL, AFTER WE FINISHED
OUR RESEARCH,

[00:11:40.438]
WE BEGAN TO EVALUATE OUR MENU.

[00:11:42.358]
WE THINK WE HAVE A GOOD
MENU NOW FOR OUR ASTRONAUTS,

[00:11:45.288]
BUT WE ARE GOING TO
SHARE IT WITH OUR CLASS

[00:11:47.088]
AND GET THEIR SUGGESTIONS.

[00:11:48.908]
THAT'S GREAT.

[00:11:49.938]
IT'S ALWAYS GOOD TO GET
ADVICE FROM LOTS OF PEOPLE.

[00:11:52.278]
YOU NEVER KNOW WHERE
YOU'LL GET A GOOD IDEA.

[00:11:54.558]
WELL, WE BETTER GET
BACK TO THE DISCUSSIONS.

[00:11:56.948]
WE'LL POST OUR RESULTS
ON THE WEBSITE.

[00:11:59.168]
WE'LL BE SURE TO CHECK IT OUT.

[00:12:00.518]
THANKS FOR SHARING
YOUR RESEARCH WITH US.

[00:12:02.378]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:12:03.448]
GOOD-BYE FROM MARYVALE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL IN ROCKVILLE, MARYLAND.

[00:12:08.898]
[00:12:10.738]
WOW, I NEVER KNEW THERE
WAS SO MUCH TO THINK

[00:12:12.838]
ABOUT IN PLANNING A HEALTHY DIET.

[00:12:14.708]
ALL THIS TALK ABOUT NUTRITION
AND CALORIES IS MAKING ME HUNGRY.

[00:12:17.608]
ME TOO.

[00:12:18.818]
WHY DON'T WE STOP BY MY
HOUSE AND GRAB A BITE?

[00:12:20.958]
COOL.

[00:12:21.278]
I'LL MEET YOU THERE.

[00:12:22.488]
BUT FIRST, I NEED
TO STOP BY DR. D'S.

[00:12:24.618]
I HAVE A FEW QUESTIONS
I'D LIKE TO ASK HIM.

[00:12:26.478]
WHAT QUESTIONS?

[00:12:27.488]
WELL, WE HAVE A GOOD IDEA ABOUT
THE BODY AND HOW TO PREPARE

[00:12:30.068]
FOR SPACE TRAVEL AND KEEP
IT FIT WHILE IN SPACE.

[00:12:32.758]
BUT WE STILL NEED TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT UNMANNED MISSIONS.

[00:12:35.268]
WE KNOW SPACE IS AN EXTREMELY
HARSH ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLE,

[00:12:38.168]
BUT WHAT ABOUT ROBOTS?

[00:12:39.648]
I'M SURE DR. D WILL
HAVE SOME IDEAS.

[00:12:42.298]
[00:12:48.558]
HI, DR. D. IT'S NICE TO SEE
YOU'RE FINALLY TAKING A BREAK.

[00:12:57.558]
[00:12:59.408]
BREAK?

[00:13:00.158]
THIS IS SERIOUS ROBOTICS RESEARCH.

[00:13:02.168]
IT LOOKS LIKE LEGO,
DR. D. IT IS LEGO.

[00:13:05.308]
BUT IT'S ALSO A COMPUTERIZED ROBOT.

[00:13:07.468]
THAT'S PRETTY COOL.

[00:13:08.178]
WHAT DOES IT DO?

[00:13:09.448]
HERE, LET ME SHOW YOU.

[00:13:10.268]
THIS ROBOT IS PROGRAMMED TO GO
FORWARD AND AVOID OBSTACLES.

[00:13:13.668]
HOW DOES IT DO THAT?

[00:13:15.008]
IT HAS A BUMPER WITH A TOUCH
SENSOR, WHICH CAUSES IT TO BACK UP

[00:13:18.148]
AND THEM MOVE AROUND ANY
OBJECT THAT IT RUNS INTO.

[00:13:21.198]
THAT'S PRETTY IMPORTANT, ESPECIALLY
IF A ROBOT IS EXPLORING MARS,

[00:13:24.288]
WHERE THERE IS ABOUT A
TEN-MINUTE TIME DELAY

[00:13:26.388]
BETWEEN QUESTIONS SENT
AND ANSWERS RECEIVED.

[00:13:29.738]
[00:13:31.128]
SO ARE THERE OTHER WAYS TO AVOID
OBSTACLES THAN JUST KNOWING HOW

[00:13:33.978]
TO BACK UP WHEN YOU HIT ONE?

[00:13:35.298]
YES, ONE EXAMPLE IS THE MARS
EXPLORATION ROVERS THAT USE PAIRS

[00:13:38.688]
OF CAMERAS BASED SOME
DISTANCE APART.

[00:13:41.018]
TWO CAMERAS, LIKE TWO EYES.

[00:13:43.068]
SO THE ROVER HAS DEPTH PERCEPTION,

[00:13:44.868]
AND IT CAN TELL HOW
FAR AWAY THINGS ARE.

[00:13:46.878]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:13:48.068]
3-D IMAGES HELP THE
ONBOARD COMPUTER PLOT A PATH

[00:13:51.038]
THAT AVOIDED OBSTACLES.

[00:13:52.378]
DIDN'T THE ROVERS ONLY
GO A SHORT DISTANCE

[00:13:54.128]
FROM THEIR SPACECRAFT LANDERS?

[00:13:55.628]
ACTUALLY, THE MARS ROVER NAMED
SPIRIT DID TRAVEL FOR ONLY

[00:13:58.118]
ABOUT TEN SECONDS AT A
TIME BEFORE IT HAD TO STOP

[00:14:00.498]
AND CONSIDER ITS NEXT STEP.

[00:14:02.448]
BUT IT DID TRAVEL A TOTAL
OF SEVERAL KILOMETERS.

[00:14:04.858]
SO WHAT ELSE CAN YOUR ROBOT DO?

[00:14:06.028]
IF I PLACE THESE LIGHT
SENSORS ON THE ROBOT,

[00:14:08.498]
IT WILL FOLLOW THIS BLACK LINE.

[00:14:10.288]
IT IS PROGRAMMED TO GO FORWARD
UNTIL IT HITS BLACK AND TURN AWAY

[00:14:13.498]
FROM THE BLACK AND
GO FORWARD AGAIN.

[00:14:16.138]
KALI LEARNED THAT
ROBOTS ARE VERY IMPORTANT

[00:14:17.848]
TO THE FUTURE OF SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:14:19.188]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:14:19.948]
ROBOTIC EXPLORERS WILL LEAD THE
WAY, FOLLOWED BY HUMAN EXPLORERS,

[00:14:23.158]
WHO WILL CONDUCT IN-DEPTH RESEARCH.

[00:14:25.188]
AREN'T ROBOTIC PROBES
ALSO ABLE TO COLLECT DATA

[00:14:27.238]
FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME?

[00:14:28.328]
VERY GOOD.

[00:14:29.368]
FOR A MARS MISSION, ROBOTIC
EXPLORERS ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT,

[00:14:32.648]
BECAUSE TRAVEL TO MARS IS A VERY
LENGTHY PROCESS FOR HUMAN BEINGS.

[00:14:36.488]
DOESN'T IT TAKE JUST AS LONG
FOR A MACHINE TO GET TO MARS?

[00:14:39.018]
YES, IT TAKES ABOUT EIGHT
MONTHS TO GET TO MARS.

[00:14:41.248]
BUT YOU DON'T HAVE TO BRING
A ROBOT BACK TO EARTH.

[00:14:43.928]
I GUESS 16 MONTHS OF FOOD, OXYGEN,
AND WATER CAN BE A CHALLENGE.

[00:14:46.908]
ACTUALLY, IT'S A LOT
LONGER THAN 16 MONTHS.

[00:14:50.218]
TRAVEL TO AND FROM MARS REQUIRES
PROPER PLANETARY ALIGNMENT.

[00:14:54.598]
ONCE YOU GET TO MARS, YOU'LL
PROBABLY HAVE TO WAIT TEN MONTHS

[00:14:57.118]
OR LONGER UNTIL THE ALIGNMENT
IS CORRECT TO COME BACK.

[00:15:00.958]
WE LEARNED THAT THE HARSHNESS

[00:15:01.838]
OF SPACE MAKES IT DIFFICULT
FOR HUMANS TO TRAVEL.

[00:15:04.208]
IS THE SAME TRUE FOR ROBOTS?

[00:15:05.878]
YOU BET.

[00:15:06.378]
ROBOTS HAVE TO SHIELDED FROM
RADIATION AND ALSO PROTECTED

[00:15:09.198]
FROM TEMPERATURE EXTREMES.

[00:15:10.768]
DR. D, CAN WE BORROW YOUR ROBOT
AND TAKE IT BACK TO THE TREE HOUSE?

[00:15:13.908]
NO PROBLEM.

[00:15:14.758]
IN FACT, LET ME GIVE
YOU AN ASSIGNMENT.

[00:15:16.748]
TRY TO FIND SEVERAL NEW
THINGS FOR THE ROBOT TO DO.

[00:15:19.358]
AND THEN WE CAN SELL THE ROBOTS
TO NASA FOR FUTURE MISSIONS.

[00:15:23.348]
[00:15:25.818]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:15:27.288]
WHAT ELSE DO THE TREE
HOUSE DETECTIVES NEED

[00:15:28.958]
TO KNOW ABOUT SPACE?

[00:15:30.328]
HOW WILL HUMANS OVERCOME
THE HARSHNESS

[00:15:32.218]
OF SPACE FOR TRAVEL TO MARS?

[00:15:34.418]
HOW WILL ROBOTS HELP
LEAD THE WAY TO MARS?

[00:15:37.118]
ALL THIS AND MORE WHEN THE
NASA SCI FILES CONTINUES.

[00:15:39.718]
[00:00:00.378]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK FOR THE
ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

[00:00:04.078]
WHAT ARE GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS?

[00:00:06.928]
EXPLAIN HOW SPACECRAFT WILL
BE SELF-HEALING IN THE FUTURE?

[00:00:11.268]
WHY DOES NASA NEED NEW
PROPULSION SYSTEMS?

[00:00:14.708]
[00:00:18.348]
TREADMAN HOUSTON,
HOW DO YOU READ US?

[00:00:20.138]
ROGER, HOUSTON.

[00:00:21.178]
WE'RE AT MACH 10.5, AND
EVERYTHING LOOKS OKAY.

[00:00:23.518]
GUYS, I'M REVIEWING PROTOCOLS
FOR AN UPCOMING MISSION.

[00:00:29.328]
IT'S SO COOL, BECAUSE YOU WORK
DIRECTLY WITH MISSION CONTROL

[00:00:32.368]
TO TROUBLE-SHOOT AND SOLVE
PROBLEMS THROUGHOUT THE

[00:00:34.538]
ENTIRE MISSION SIMULATION.

[00:00:36.248]
RIGHT NOW, I'M REVIEWING
REENTRY AND LANDING PROCEDURES

[00:00:38.668]
AFTER SUCCESSFULLY
LAUNCHING A NEW SATELLITE

[00:00:41.498]
TO TRACK RJ'S EXERCISE PROGRAM.

[00:00:43.888]
THE COUNSELORS MONITOR
YOUR PROGRESS CLOSELY,

[00:00:46.688]
AND THEY EVEN INTRODUCE PROBLEMS
INTO THE MISSION SIMULATION

[00:00:48.968]
FOR THE TEAMS TO SOLVE.

[00:00:50.548]
YOU REALLY HAVE TO BE PREPARED.

[00:00:52.568]
KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK, RJ.

[00:00:54.118]
OVER AND OUT.

[00:00:55.578]
[00:01:04.818]
KINDA GOES AGAINST THE WHOLE
IDEA OF WORKING OUT, DOESN'T IT?

[00:01:07.208]
NO, THAT'S THE BEAUTY.

[00:01:08.778]
NO-FAT FROZEN YOGURT WITH A
SUGARLESS SAUCE AND TOPPINGS,

[00:01:11.768]
AND IT EVEN HAS FRESH FRUIT!

[00:01:13.248]
IT'S TOTALLY HEALTHY.

[00:01:14.538]
I'LL JUST STICK WITH THE WATER.

[00:01:16.378]
[00:01:17.908]
I HAVE TO ADMIT, BIANCA'S RIGHT.

[00:01:20.048]
EVER SINCE WE STARTED
EXERCISING, I FEEL GREAT.

[00:01:22.798]
WE'RE NOT QUITE READY TO GO INTO
SPACE, BUT WE'RE GETTING THERE.

[00:01:25.518]
DR. D'S COMMENTS ON
THE POTENTIAL DANGERS

[00:01:27.198]
OF SPACE TRAVEL DO HAVE
ME A LITTLE CONCERNED.

[00:01:29.668]
ME TOO-- I'VE BEEN
GOING OVER OUR RESEARCH;

[00:01:31.568]
THE RADIATION PROBLEM
SEEMS CRITICAL.

[00:01:33.408]
SO WHAT DO WE DO NEXT?

[00:01:34.768]
TIME FOR THE PROBLEM BOARD.

[00:01:36.778]
WE KNOW SPACE IS AN
EXTREME ENVIRONMENT.

[00:01:38.758]
AND NASA TRAINS ASTRONAUTS TO
LIVE SAFELY IN THAT ENVIRONMENT.

[00:01:41.718]
ASTRONAUTS WILL ALSO NEED TO LEARN
TO LIVE ON THE MOON AND MARS.

[00:01:45.058]
SO WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW?

[00:01:46.238]
WE NEED TO KNOW MORE ABOUT
HOW ASTRONAUTS WILL DEAL

[00:01:48.508]
WITH RADIATION IN SPACE.

[00:01:50.448]
CATHERINE MENTIONED IN HER REPORT
THAT SHE MIGHT BE ABLE TO MEET

[00:01:52.498]
WITH MR. MARK WEYLAND AT THE
NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER

[00:01:55.178]
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT RADIATION.

[00:01:56.658]
GOOD IDEA.

[00:01:57.648]
WE MIGHT EVEN LEARN HOW TO SEND
A TREE HOUSE DETECTIVE TO MARS.

[00:02:00.868]
EXCELLENT IDEA.

[00:02:02.748]
WAIT, SEND SOMEONE TO MARS?

[00:02:05.208]
ARE YOU CRAZY?

[00:02:06.358]
I'M FINE.

[00:02:07.368]
CORRINE IS GOING TO STOP

[00:02:08.288]
BY THE MARS SOCIETY'S
REMOTE HABITAT IN UTAH.

[00:02:11.248]
IT ACTUALLY SIMULATES WHAT WORKING
AND LIVING WILL BE LIKE ON MARS.

[00:02:14.378]
THAT IS REALLY COOL.

[00:02:15.238]
WHERE ARE YOU GOING?

[00:02:17.458]
TO SEE DR. D?

[00:02:18.568]
NO, DR. D ISN'T HOME.

[00:02:19.758]
I'M GOING TO GET ANOTHER
BANANA SPLIT.

[00:02:22.268]
YOU'RE KIDDING.

[00:02:23.318]
NO, WHEN YOU EAT THE LIGHT
VERSION, SOMETIMES YOU HAVE

[00:02:26.198]
TO EAT TWICE AS MUCH TO FILL UP.

[00:02:28.788]
HI, MR. WEYLAND.

[00:02:33.838]
[00:02:37.388]
HI, CATHERINE.

[00:02:38.718]
I'M GLAD YOU COULD STOP BY.

[00:02:39.648]
I UNDERSTAND YOU WANT TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT RADIATION IN SPACE.

[00:02:42.308]
YES, WE'VE READ THAT
RADIATION IS VERY DANGEROUS,

[00:02:45.198]
BUT WE'RE NOT EXACTLY
SURE WHAT IT IS.

[00:02:47.288]
WELL, RADIATION'S ONE OF
THE TOP BIOLOGICAL CONCERNS

[00:02:49.308]
FOR OUR ASTRONAUTS.

[00:02:50.078]
THERE'S TWO BASIC TYPES OF
RADIATION: LIGHT AND PARTICLES.

[00:02:53.298]
HOW IS LIGHT DANGEROUS?

[00:02:55.048]
LIGHT COMES IN MANY
DIFFERENT FORMS.

[00:02:56.558]
THE LOW-ENERGY VISIBLE
LIGHT ISN'T DANGEROUS.

[00:02:59.808]
THE LIGHT COMES IN A HIGH-ENERGY
FORM CALLED ULTRAVIOLET.

[00:03:02.308]
ISN'T THAT WHAT CAUSES SUNBURN?

[00:03:03.908]
THAT'S RIGHT-- X-RAYS AND GAMMA
RAYS ARE ANOTHER FORM OF LIGHT

[00:03:07.148]
WITH MORE ENERGY THAN ULTRAVIOLET.

[00:03:08.828]
THEY CAN CAUSE DAMAGE
TO YOUR BODY'S CELLS.

[00:03:10.998]
WHAT ABOUT THE PARTICLES?

[00:03:12.908]
FAST-MOVING PARTICLES ARE
CONSIDERED TO BE RADIATION.

[00:03:15.308]
ONE EXAMPLE IS HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS,

[00:03:17.088]
WHICH ARE RELEASED
BY FLARES ON THE SUN.

[00:03:19.248]
ANOTHER EVEN MORE DANGEROUS TYPE

[00:03:20.458]
OF RADIATION ARE GALACTIC
COSMIC RAYS, OR GCRS.

[00:03:22.948]
WHAT'S A GALACTIC COSMIC RAY?

[00:03:25.908]
GCRS ARE EXTREMELY FAST-MOVING
PROTONS AND NUCLEI OF ELEMENTS

[00:03:28.928]
SUCH AS IRON, SILICON, AND
OTHER ELEMENTS THAT COME

[00:03:31.268]
FROM OUTSIDE OUR SOLAR SYSTEM.

[00:03:32.818]
WHY ARE THEY SO DANGEROUS?

[00:03:34.458]
THEY CAN PENETRATE MORE THAN
100 CENTIMETERS INTO MATERIALS

[00:03:37.228]
AND CAUSE A LOT OF CELL DAMAGE.

[00:03:38.928]
THEY ARE DIFFICULT
TO SHIELD AGAINST

[00:03:40.878]
AND CAN EVEN CREATE ADDITIONAL
RADIATION WHEN THEY COLLIDE

[00:03:43.218]
WITH METAL SPACECRAFT.

[00:03:44.588]
WOW.

[00:03:45.038]
I'VE HEARD THAT RADIATION
CAN INCREASE YOUR CHANCES

[00:03:47.658]
OF GETTING CANCER.

[00:03:48.858]
IS THAT TRUE?

[00:03:49.998]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:03:50.668]
THE GREATER THE RADIATION
EXPOSURE, THE GREATER THE RISK

[00:03:52.818]
OF GETTING CANCER AND OTHER
EFFECTS SUCH AS CATARACTS,

[00:03:58.018]
WHICH IS A CLOUDING
OF THE EYE LENS.

[00:04:01.878]
WHAT DETERMINES HOW
MUCH EXPOSURE YOU GET?

[00:04:07.588]
THE LENGTH OF THE MISSION IS ONE
OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS...

[00:04:12.308]
WHAT ARE THEY DOING?

[00:04:13.478]
THEY'RE DEVELOPING
BETTER SHIELDING MATERIALS

[00:04:15.068]
THAT WILL PREVENT RADIATION
FROM REACHING THE ASTRONAUTS.

[00:04:17.378]
HIGH EXPOSURES CAN ALSO COME

[00:04:19.548]
FROM VERY INTENSE
EVENTS, LIKE SOLAR FLARES.

[00:04:21.758]
ISN'T THAT WHEN THE
SUN HAS A SOLAR STORM?

[00:04:23.888]
VERY GOOD.

[00:04:24.768]
IF YOU CAN MONITOR THE
SUN FOR SOLAR STORMS

[00:04:26.688]
THAT PRODUCE THESE FLARES, THEN
YOU CAN WARN THE ASTRONAUTS

[00:04:29.298]
TO AVOID SPACE WALKS AND TO ENTER
SPECIALLY SHIELDED STORM SHELTERS.

[00:04:32.368]
IS THERE ANYTHING THAT CAN HELP
THE BODY HANDLE THE EFFECTS

[00:04:35.248]
OF RADIATION EXPOSURE?

[00:04:36.658]
NASA'S LOOKING AT HOW
A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE,

[00:04:38.608]
INCLUDING DIETARY
VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS,

[00:04:40.378]
MIGHT PROVIDE PROTECTION.

[00:04:41.518]
THEY ARE ALSO LOOKING AT
THE ROLE THAT AGE, GENDER,

[00:04:43.578]
AND/OR GENETIC FACTORS PLAY
IN HOW THE BODY RESPONDS.

[00:04:46.948]
WOW.

[00:04:47.988]
IF RADIATION IS SUCH A PROBLEM
FOR ASTRONAUTS, WHY DON'T WE HAVE

[00:04:51.098]
TO WORRY ABOUT IT ON EARTH?

[00:04:52.308]
WE DO HAVE RADIATION ON EARTH, BUT
WE'RE PROTECTED FROM MOST OF IT

[00:04:54.958]
BY SOMETHING THE ASTRONAUTS
DON'T HAVE: AN ATMOSPHERE.

[00:04:57.328]
YES, I LEARNED IN MY SCIENCE CLASS
THAT OUR OZONE LAYER BLOCKS A LOT

[00:05:01.518]
OF THE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
FROM GETTING TO EARTH.

[00:05:02.938]
THAT'S CORRECT, AND IT ALSO ABSORBS
A LOT OF X-RAYS, GAMMA RAYS,

[00:05:06.358]
AND HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES.

[00:05:07.498]
CHARGED PARTICLES LIKE
COSMIC RAYS AND PROTONS

[00:05:09.578]
FROM THE SUN ARE DEFLECTED
BY EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD,

[00:05:12.058]
AND EARTH ITSELF ACTS
LIKE A SHIELD.

[00:05:13.758]
I'M GLAD THAT WE HAVE
SOME PROTECTION.

[00:05:15.758]
RADIATION SOUNDS PRETTY SERIOUS.

[00:05:17.888]
YES, IT IS, SO DON'T FORGET:
YOU SHOULD ALWAYS WEAR SUNSCREEN

[00:05:20.478]
WHEN YOU'RE WORKING
OR PLAYING OUTSIDE.

[00:05:22.158]
DON'T WORRY, I WILL.

[00:05:23.608]
THANKS, MR. WEYLAND.

[00:05:24.558]
YOU'VE BEEN A BIG HELP.

[00:05:25.858]
YOU'RE WELCOME, CATHERINE,
AND GOOD LUCK.

[00:05:28.078]
[00:05:31.158]
HI, GUYS.

[00:05:33.388]
IT LOOKS LIKE YOU'VE BEEN WORKING
HARD ON THE UNMANNED MISSIONS.

[00:05:36.028]
ALONG WITH RESEARCH, WE'VE
BEEN WORKING WITH LEGO

[00:05:38.268]
TO BUILD POSSIBLE MARS EXPLORERS.

[00:05:40.148]
OF COURSE WE READ ALL YOUR
REPORTS ON THE INTERNET.

[00:05:42.788]
HAVING ACCESS TO THE
INTERNET IS A WONDERFUL THING.

[00:05:46.178]
SPEAKING OF THE INTERNET, YOU
CAN ALWAYS FIND GREAT TOOLS

[00:05:48.688]
FOR RESEARCH ON THE
NASA SCI FILES WEBSITE.

[00:05:51.788]
ARE YOU READY TO GO
TO THE NEXT LEVEL?

[00:05:53.528]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

[00:05:54.378]
WELL, WE'VE BEEN WORKING ON
DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF SPACE TRAVEL,

[00:05:56.778]
BUT THERE'S ONE AREA
WE HAVEN'T EXPLORED.

[00:05:58.858]
LIKE WHAT?

[00:05:59.838]
DR. HERB WAITE FROM THE UNIVERSITY

[00:06:01.298]
OF CALIFORNIA-SANTA BARBARA
JUST SENT US AN EMAIL.

[00:06:03.948]
DOESN'T HE RESEARCH
BIOINSPIRED NANOTECHNOLOGY?

[00:06:06.658]
RIGHT, HE REFERRED
US TO MS. DANA NOVAK.

[00:06:08.698]
SHE'S HELPING HIM IN HIS RESEARCH.

[00:06:10.618]
HERE SHE IS NOW.

[00:06:11.858]
HI, YOU MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:06:14.458]
DR. WAITE SAID YOU WOULD CALL.

[00:06:16.178]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU?

[00:06:17.188]
WE ARE RESEARCHING SPACE
TECHNOLOGY TO LEARN MORE

[00:06:19.398]
ABOUT THE FUTURE OF
SPACE EXPLORATION.

[00:06:22.128]
WHAT DOES BIOINSPIRED MEAN?

[00:06:24.248]
WELL, IT SIMPLY REFERS TO ANY
TECHNOLOGY INSPIRED BY BIOLOGY.

[00:06:28.748]
FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN GEORGE DE MESTRAL
TOOK HIS DOG FOR A WALK ONE DAY,

[00:06:32.638]
HE SAW THAT THEY BOTH
HAD BURRS STUCK TO THEM.

[00:06:35.068]
HE LOOKED AT A BURR UNDER A
MICROSCOPE AND SAW HOOKS AND LOOPS.

[00:06:38.918]
THAT INSPIRED HIM TO INVENT VELCRO.

[00:06:40.508]
WHAT A GREAT INVENTION.

[00:06:41.628]
I USE VELCRO ALL THE TIME.

[00:06:44.458]
WHAT PLANTS OR ANIMALS DO
YOU LOOK AT FOR INSPIRATION?

[00:06:47.118]
RIGHT NOW, WE'RE INVESTIGATING
MUSSEL THREADS

[00:06:49.778]
AND BLOODWORM AND CLAMWORM JAWS.

[00:06:52.128]
UH, MUSSELS, CLAMWORMS,
AND BLOODWORMS?

[00:06:56.288]
SOUNDS INTERESTING, BUT WHY
EXACTLY ARE YOU INTERESTED

[00:06:59.308]
IN WORM JAWS AND MUSSELS?

[00:07:01.698]
IF WE'RE GOING TO EXPLORE
THE MOON, MARS, AND BEYOND,

[00:07:05.158]
THEN WE NEED NEW ADVANCED
AND SELF-HEALING MATERIALS

[00:07:08.478]
FOR SPACECRAFT CONSTRUCTION.

[00:07:10.348]
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY SELF-HEALING?

[00:07:12.178]
THINK ABOUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
YOU ACCIDENTALLY CUT YOURSELF.

[00:07:14.898]
IT'S AMAZING TO WATCH HOW QUICKLY
YOUR BODY ACTS TO MEND THE WOUND.

[00:07:18.868]
LIKE THIS MODEL, WE'RE
TRYING TO UNDERSTAND HOW

[00:07:21.518]
TO GIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS
THOSE SAME QUALITIES.

[00:07:24.168]
THIS MODEL DEMONSTRATES HOW
TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF BONDS

[00:07:27.488]
WITHIN A MATERIAL WORK
TOGETHER TO SELF-HEAL.

[00:07:30.108]
AND WHY IS THAT IMPORTANT?

[00:07:32.038]
ONE WEAKNESS OF CURRENT COMPOSITE
MATERIALS IS THAT THEY TEND

[00:07:35.278]
TO FORM TINY HAIRLINE
CRACKS, WHICH CAN LEAD

[00:07:37.948]
TO MAJOR DAMAGE OVER TIME.

[00:07:40.308]
IN LONG-DISTANCE SPACE
EXPLORATION, REPAIRS WON'T BE EASY.

[00:07:44.308]
RIGHT, THERE WON'T BE A
SPARE-PARTS STORE WE COULD STOP

[00:07:46.858]
AT WHILE IN SPACE.

[00:07:47.938]
NOPE, THERE WON'T.

[00:07:49.758]
HOWEVER, WITH NEW
HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS

[00:07:53.128]
SUCH AS THE SELF-HEALING MATERIALS,

[00:07:54.948]
WE WILL BE TAKING THE FIRST STEP
IN BUILDING SPACECRAFT CAPABLE

[00:07:59.078]
OF TRAVELING MILLIONS OF MILES
FROM EARTH THAT CAN FIX THEMSELVES.

[00:08:03.028]
THAT'S AWESOME, BUT I STILL
DON'T UNDERSTAND WHAT MUSSELS

[00:08:06.328]
AND WORM JAWS HAVE TO DO WITH IT.

[00:08:08.018]
NATURE SPECIALIZES IN HOW
TO PUT MATERIALS TOGETHER

[00:08:11.318]
IN THE MOST EFFECTIVE
AND EFFICIENT WAYS.

[00:08:14.298]
WE LOOK AT THE MUSSEL THREADS
BECAUSE THEY'RE VERY STRONG,

[00:08:17.098]
YET THIN AND LIGHTWEIGHT.

[00:08:18.718]
IT'S AMAZING HOW MUCH WE CAN
LEARN JUST BY LOOKING AT NATURE.

[00:08:22.188]
WE CAN LEARN HOW TO MAKE MATERIALS
THAT RECOVER QUICKLY FROM STRESS.

[00:08:25.408]
THINK ABOUT WHEN YOU
BUY A SIX-PACK OF SODA.

[00:08:27.988]
WHEN YOU TAKE THE CAN OUT OF THE
PLASTIC LOOP, THE PLASTIC STRETCHES

[00:08:31.888]
BUT IS DIFFICULT TO BREAK.

[00:08:32.978]
NATURE INFLICTS DAMAGE

[00:08:34.838]
ON THE MUSCLE THREADS JUST
LIKE YOU DO ON THE PLASTIC.

[00:08:37.708]
WE CALL THIS DAMAGE CREEP,
AND IT IS UNDESIRABLE.

[00:08:41.158]
HOWEVER, IN NATURE, MANY MATERIALS
THAT EXPERIENCE CREEP RECOVER

[00:08:45.798]
FROM IT, AND WE'RE STUDYING THE
MUSCLE THREADS TO LEARN HOW.

[00:08:49.018]
WHAT ABOUT THE BLOOD-
AND CLAMWORM JAWS?

[00:08:51.658]
THE JAWS APPEAR TO BE JUST AS
RESISTANT TO ABRASION AS THE TILES

[00:08:56.018]
ON THE SPACE SHUTTLE, YET THEY
HAVE ONLY HALF THE WEIGHT PER

[00:08:59.628]
EQUAL VOLUME.

[00:09:01.078]
WE LEARNED IN THE CASE
OF THE CHALLENGING FLIGHT

[00:09:02.848]
THAT WEIGHT IS A VERY
IMPORTANT FACTOR.

[00:09:05.058]
THE LIGHTER THE AIRPLANE OR
SPACECRAFT, THE LESS FUEL IT NEEDS.

[00:09:08.038]
THAT'S RIGHT, AND WE HOPE
TO LEARN NOT ONLY HOW

[00:09:10.948]
TO MAKE VERY LIGHTWEIGHT
SPACECRAFT MATERIALS,

[00:09:13.818]
BUT ALSO TOUGHER ONES.

[00:09:15.578]
WHY DO THE MATERIALS
NEED TO BE TOUGHER?

[00:09:17.548]
THE MATERIALS USED FOR SPACECRAFT
ARE SUBJECTED TO ENORMOUS STRESS,

[00:09:21.878]
SO IT'S CRUCIAL THAT THEY BE
TOUGH AS WELL AS SELF-HEALING.

[00:09:25.868]
SOUNDS LIKE THIS RESEARCH
IS EXCITING.

[00:09:28.238]
THANKS, MS. NOVAK.

[00:09:29.528]
YOU'RE WELCOME.

[00:09:30.638]
KEEP UP THE INVESTIGATION
AND CALL ME BACK

[00:09:32.798]
IF YOU HAVE ANY OTHER QUESTIONS.

[00:09:34.698]
BYE.

[00:09:35.608]
THAT WAS IMPRESSIVE.

[00:09:36.868]
NEVER THOUGHT STUDYING MUSSELS
AND WORMS COULD HELP US LEARN

[00:09:39.198]
ABOUT TRAVELING THROUGH SPACE.

[00:09:40.748]
BUT I'M STILL TRYING TO FIGURE
OUT HOW WE'RE GOING TO DO IT.

[00:09:43.128]
I MEAN, WHAT WILL OUR FUTURE
SPACE VEHICLES LOOK LIKE?

[00:09:45.658]
I'M NOT SURE.

[00:09:46.258]
MAYBE BIANCA CAN HELP US.

[00:09:48.898]
SHE'S BEEN TRAINING
DOWN AT SPACE CAMP,

[00:09:50.478]
BUT I DON'T THINK THEIR PROGRAM
INCLUDES FUTURE SPACECRAFT.

[00:09:53.208]
NO, BUT THEY ARE CLOSE TO NASA
MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.

[00:09:55.998]
I EMAILED HER LAST NIGHT.

[00:09:57.658]
SHE WROTE BACK AND SAID SHE
WAS MEETING WITH MR. COOK.

[00:10:00.318]
WAY TO GO, CATHERINE.

[00:10:01.628]
HAVE YOU HEARD FROM DR. D YET?

[00:10:02.928]
NO-- WASN'T HE WORKING
WITH YOU AND TONY?

[00:10:05.248]
WELL, WE TALKED TO
HIM A COUPLE DAYS AGO,

[00:10:07.078]
BUT WE HAVEN'T HEARD FROM HIM.

[00:10:09.028]
MAYBE BIANCA GAVE HIM A NEW
FITNESS PROGRAM TO WORK ON TOO.

[00:10:12.338]
WELL, IF SO, MAYBE WE
SHOULD CALL HIS HOUSE.

[00:10:14.618]
HE MAY NEED SOME HELP.

[00:10:16.448]
[00:10:18.758]
MR. COOK AGREED TO MEET ME AT
NASA MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER,

[00:10:22.608]
WHERE THEY TEST ROCKET
ENGINES FOR SPACECRAFT.

[00:10:25.178]
THEY CALL IT THE PROPULSION
SYSTEM COMPONENT TESTING FACILITY.

[00:10:28.728]
OF COURSE, I HAD LOTS OF QUESTIONS.

[00:10:31.418]
SO HOW IS NASA RESEARCHING
NEW SPACECRAFT FOR THE FUTURE?

[00:10:35.178]
ONE WAY IS THROUGH PROPULSION.

[00:10:36.758]
WITH THE NEW EXPLORATION VISION,
WE WILL NEED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

[00:10:40.098]
THAT WILL BE LOW COST AND
WILL ENABLE RAPID, SAFE,

[00:10:43.468]
AND RELIABLE ACCESS
TO, IN, AND FROM SPACE.

[00:10:47.148]
SO WHY DO WE NEED NEW
PROPULSION SYSTEMS?

[00:10:49.488]
AREN'T THE OLD ONES GOOD ENOUGH?

[00:10:50.948]
MOST U.S. PROPULSION SYSTEMS ARE
BASED ON 1950S AND '60S TECHNOLOGY.

[00:10:55.318]
THEY ARE HIGH-RISK AND EXPENSIVE.

[00:10:57.428]
RIGHT NOW, IT COSTS
$10,000 PER POUND

[00:11:00.348]
TO PUT PAYLOAD INTO EARTH'S ORBIT.

[00:11:02.268]
WOW, THAT'S A LOT OF MONEY.

[00:11:04.598]
EXACTLY!

[00:11:05.488]
SO FOR US TO CARRY OUT
THE EXPLORATION VISION,

[00:11:07.898]
THE MISSIONS MUST BE AFFORDABLE,
THE RELIABILITY MUST BE INCREASED,

[00:11:11.098]
AND WE MUST FIND A WAY TO RAPIDLY

[00:11:13.118]
AND SAFELY TAKE US
BEYOND EARTH'S ORBIT

[00:11:15.608]
TO THE MOON, MARS, AND BEYOND.

[00:11:17.358]
WELL, WHAT TYPES OF PROPULSION
SYSTEMS ARE BEING RESEARCHED?

[00:11:20.238]
THE PRIMARY ONES FOR EXPLORATION
ARE CHEMICAL, LIKE THESE HERE,

[00:11:24.128]
NUCLEAR, ELECTRIC, AND
PROPELLANTLESS PROPULSION SYSTEMS.

[00:11:27.268]
WHAT'S A PROPELLANTLESS
PROPULSION SYSTEM?

[00:11:29.938]
ONE TYPE IS A SYSTEM
THAT USES SOLAR SAILS.

[00:11:32.608]
THESE ARE SAILS MUCH LIKE
THOSE FOUND ON A SHIP.

[00:11:35.348]
SOLAR SAILS ARE MADE
FROM THIN LAYERS OF MYLAR

[00:11:37.538]
AND ACT LIKE A VERY LARGE MIRROR.

[00:11:38.998]
AS PHOTONS OF SUNLIGHT STRIKE
THE SAIL AND BOUNCE OFF,

[00:11:42.728]
THEY GENTLY PUSH THE SAIL ALONG.

[00:11:44.558]
HOW DOES ELECTRICAL
PROPULSION WORK?

[00:11:46.918]
YOU CAN'T HAVE AN
EXTENSION CORD IN SPACE.

[00:11:49.418]
NO, IT USES ELECTRICAL
ENERGY FROM A SOLAR ARRAY

[00:11:53.108]
TO ACCELERATE A PROPELLANT.

[00:11:54.938]
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF ELECTRIC
PROPULSION SYSTEMS: ELECTROTHERMAL,

[00:11:58.398]
WHICH USES ELECTRICAL
HEAT; ELECTROMAGNETIC,

[00:12:01.368]
WHICH CREATES THRUST USING A
MAGNETIC FIELD; AND ELECTROSTATIC,

[00:12:05.188]
WHICH USES CHARGED PARTICLES
IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD.

[00:12:07.918]
DON'T WE CURRENTLY
USE CHEMICAL ROCKETS?

[00:12:10.368]
YES, THEY HAVE BEEN THE PRIMARY
MEANS FOR TRANSPORTATION IN SPACE

[00:12:13.628]
BECAUSE OF THE LARGE AMOUNTS
OF THRUST THEY GENERATE

[00:12:15.938]
THAT ARE NEEDED TO
OVERCOME EARTH'S GRAVITY.

[00:12:17.948]
AS FUELS BECOME MORE ADVANCED,
CHEMICAL PROPULSION WILL CONTINUE

[00:12:21.238]
TO PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN
SPACE TRANSPORTATION.

[00:12:23.468]
THEY ALL SOUND GREAT, BUT ISN'T
ONE PROPULSION SYSTEM BETTER

[00:12:26.398]
THAN THE OTHER?

[00:12:26.698]
WELL, THERE ARE PROS
AND CONS TO EACH SYSTEM.

[00:12:29.808]
THE CHOICE OF PROPULSION SYSTEM
DEPENDS ON THE ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

[00:12:32.728]
OF THE MISSION, ITS
DURATION AND DESTINATION,

[00:12:35.548]
AND WHETHER IT IS ROBOTIC OR HUMAN.

[00:12:37.198]
I CAN'T WAIT TO TRAVEL
THROUGH SPACE.

[00:12:39.308]
IT'S SO EXCITING.

[00:12:40.688]
YES, IT IS, SO KEEP STUDYING
YOUR MATH AND SCIENCE.

[00:12:43.298]
DON'T WORRY; I WILL.

[00:12:44.938]
OH, BY THE WAY, DR. D CALLED.

[00:12:46.718]
HE SAID HE WANTED TO MEET YOU OVER
AT THE NEUTRAL BUOYANCY LABORATORY.

[00:12:49.798]
DR. D AT SPACE CAMP?

[00:12:51.938]
THAT'S STRANGE.

[00:12:53.718]
WELL, IT IS DR. D.

[00:12:56.378]
[00:12:58.118]
ATTACH STABILIZER INTO
POSITION ON BOTH THE ARRAY

[00:13:02.498]
AND ABOVE THE AUXILIARY POWER
PANEL AND LOCK INTO PLACE.

[00:13:11.498]
[00:13:14.968]
ROGER.

[00:13:18.138]
FULLY DEPLOY ARRAY BY ROTATING
HANDLES COUNTERCLOCKWISE.

[00:13:27.138]
[00:13:32.568]
ROGER.

[00:13:34.768]
DR. D, IS THAT YOU?

[00:13:38.428]
YOU BET.

[00:13:39.228]
I'M TRAINING FOR A
SPACE WALK WORKING

[00:13:41.448]
ON THIS UNDERWATER SOLAR ARRAY.

[00:13:44.068]
OF COURSE.

[00:13:44.968]
WE LEARNED FROM DR. UTLEY IN THE
CASE OF THE INHABITABLE HABITAT

[00:13:49.238]
THAT ASTRONAUTS LEARN TO WORK
IN THE WEIGHTLESSNESS OF SPACE

[00:13:52.228]
BY DIVING INTO A HUGE
TANK OF WATER CALLED THE:

[00:13:55.778]
THAT'S CORRECT.

[00:13:56.478]
IT TAKES A LOT OF PRACTICE
TO PREPARE FOR SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:13:59.338]
THAT'S WHAT I LOVE
ABOUT SPACE CAMP.

[00:14:02.888]
WE GET TO PRACTICE, THEY EMPHASIZE
THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK,

[00:14:07.598]
AND OF COURSE, I'M LOOKING
FORWARD TO THE SIMULATORS.

[00:14:12.618]
SIMULATORS ARE GREAT.

[00:14:13.188]
THEY ALLOW YOU TO EXPERIENCE
WHAT SPACE IS REALLY LIKE.

[00:14:14.538]
LET'S GO CHECK 'EM OUT.

[00:14:15.668]
THIS IS THE SPACE SHOT.

[00:14:17.248]
GREAT.

[00:14:17.988]
IT SIMULATES LIFTOFF.

[00:14:20.158]
[00:14:21.778]
DOESN'T LIFTOFF MAKE
ASTRONAUTS FEEL HEAVY?

[00:14:32.128]
[00:14:34.028]
WE'LL SEE.

[00:14:38.428]
YOU JUST EXPERIENCED FOUR
TIMES THE FORCE OF GRAVITY,

[00:14:40.738]
JUST LIKE THE APOLLO
ASTRONAUTS AT LIFTOFF.

[00:14:43.288]
CAN WE DO IT AGAIN?

[00:14:45.588]
SURE.

[00:14:45.768]
THREE, TWO, ONE.

[00:14:49.038]
[00:14:59.658]
DR. D, I ALSO FELT WEIGHTLESS
FOR A FEW SECONDS AT THE TOP.

[00:15:03.058]
WAS BECAUSE YOU WERE
FREELY FALLING.

[00:15:05.548]
[00:15:09.438]
IT'S NOT QUITE FREEFALL,
BUT IF YOU GO TO THE MOON,

[00:15:11.938]
YOU WILL ONLY WEIGH 1/6 OF
WHAT YOU DO ON THE EARTH.

[00:15:14.418]
THAT'S A GREAT WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM.

[00:15:17.488]
LET'S SEE HOW YOU DO,
WEIGHING ONLY SLIGHTLY MORE

[00:15:20.058]
THAN TWO GALLONS OF MILK.

[00:15:26.538]
[00:15:28.968]
BUZZ ALDREN SAID THAT GALLOPING
LIKE A HORSE WAS EASIER

[00:15:31.878]
THAN JOGGING.

[00:15:33.298]
BUT WHY DON'T YOU
TRY THE BUNNY HOP?

[00:15:35.688]
AWESOME.

[00:15:35.818]
TRAINING LIKE THIS BEFORE GOING
TO THE MOON IS A GREAT IDEA.

[00:15:44.818]
[00:15:49.028]
NOW THAT YOU'VE EXPERIENCED WALKING
ON THE MOON, YOU NEED TO TRAIN

[00:15:55.938]
FOR REENTRY INTO THE
EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE.

[00:15:58.848]
[00:16:02.188]
THIS IS THE MULTI-AXIS TRAINER,
AND TRAINERS LIKE THIS WERE USED

[00:16:05.318]
BY OUR COUNTRY'S FIRST ASTRONAUTS
IN THE MERCURY PROGRAM TO PREPARE

[00:16:08.418]
FOR THE POSSIBILITY OF A
TUMBLE SPIN DURING REENTRY.

[00:16:11.158]
OH, I ALMOST FORGOT: YOU'VE GOT

[00:16:12.448]
TO CONTACT THE OTHER
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:16:14.858]
THEY DON'T KNOW WHERE YOU ARE.

[00:16:16.478]
OH, THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:16:17.168]
I DIDN'T TELL THEM.

[00:16:18.318]
I'LL GET ON IT RIGHT AWAY, JUST
AFTER I BECOME DISORIENTED.

[00:16:21.018]
AAHHH!

[00:16:22.228]
[00:16:26.958]
"DEAR TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES:
"SORRY ABOUT THE QUICK DEPARTURE.

[00:16:30.258]
"HAD SOME IMPORTANT WORK
TO DO AT SPACE CAMP.

[00:16:32.798]
"I SAW BIANCA.

[00:16:33.748]
I'M SURE SHE WILL FILL YOU IN."

[00:16:34.738]
LOOKING GOOD.

[00:16:38.868]
MAYBE JUST A LITTLE
LONGER IS ALL I CAN HANDLE.

[00:16:44.988]
SO WHAT'S UP?

[00:16:45.628]
WILL BIANCA SURVIVE
THE RIGORS OF TRAINING?

[00:16:47.668]
WHO WILL BE THE NEXT GENERATION
OF EXPLORERS TO GO TO MARS?

[00:16:50.908]
WOULD YOU LIKE TO
WALK ON MARS SOMEDAY?

[00:16:53.168]
STAY TUNED FOR THE EXCITING
CONCLUSION OF THE CASE

[00:16:56.798]
OF THE GREAT SPACE EXPLORATION.

[00:16:58.738]
[00:00:00.227]
DON'T FORGET TO LOOK
FOR THE ANSWERS

[00:00:02.127]
TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:
WHAT IS THE X-PRIZE?

[00:00:06.317]
[00:00:07.407]
WHY ARE AVIATION AND
SPACE CONTESTS IMPORTANT?

[00:00:11.877]
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF
SIMULATING MARS' HABITAT ON EARTH?

[00:00:16.057]
[00:00:31.437]
DOING ALL RIGHT?

[00:00:31.777]
READY TO GO FOR THIS THING?

[00:00:34.077]
ALL RIGHT.

[00:00:35.367]
TODAY I TESTED OUT AT
THREE GS IN THE CENTRIFUGE.

[00:00:38.017]
IT WAS A VERY INTENSE
EXPERIENCE, AS THE CENTRIFUGE SPUN

[00:00:42.217]
AROUND TO SIMULATE THE
HEAVINESS OF A ROCKET LAUNCH.

[00:00:43.767]
IT WAS REALLY DIFFICULT TO MOVE MY
ARMS AND LEGS FOR SUCH A LONG TIME.

[00:00:49.197]
[00:00:50.657]
I'VE BEEN HERE AT SPACE
CAMP FOR ALMOST A WEEK NOW,

[00:00:52.947]
AND I FEEL REALLY PREPARED
FOR MY LAST MISSION.

[00:00:55.287]
WISH ME LUCK.

[00:00:56.897]
[00:01:03.327]
EXERCISE HAS REALLY
CHANGED MY LIFE.

[00:01:05.337]
I THINK I CAN FEEL MYSELF GETTING
HEALTHIER EVERY TIME I RUN.

[00:01:08.597]
MAYBE YOU SHOULD VOLUNTEER FOR
AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH PROJECT.

[00:01:11.937]
DO THEY GIVE PRIZES OR MONEY?

[00:01:13.527]
IF THEY DO, DON'T TELL TONY,
'CAUSE WE'LL FIND OURSELVES

[00:01:16.357]
UNDER STRICT OBSERVATION IN THE
TREE HOUSE FOR THE NEXT SIX MONTHS.

[00:01:19.607]
I'VE SPENT A FEW DAYS HERE BEFORE.

[00:01:21.247]
IT'S NOT THAT BAD.

[00:01:22.347]
WELL, SPEAKING OF PRIZES,
TONY SENT US AN EMAIL.

[00:01:24.587]
IT SAID TO BE SURE TO
CHECK OUT THE X-PRIZE.

[00:01:27.597]
THERE MUST BE MONEY INVOLVED.

[00:01:29.477]
$10 MILLION.

[00:01:31.287]
WHAT?

[00:01:32.167]
SIGN ME UP.

[00:01:33.087]
WHAT DO YOU HAVE TO DO
TO WIN THE $10 MILLION?

[00:01:35.407]
I'M NOT SURE, BUT TONY SAID
TO CONTACT MR. ERIK LINDBERG.

[00:01:39.297]
I WONDER IF HE'S RELATED
TO CHARLES LINDBERG.

[00:01:41.647]
AS A MATTER OF FACT,
HE'S HIS GRANDSON.

[00:01:43.767]
HERE HE IS NOW.

[00:01:45.497]
HI, YOU MUST BE THE
TREE HOUSE DETECTIVES.

[00:01:47.857]
I GOT TONY'S EMAIL.

[00:01:49.147]
HOW CAN I HELP YOU GUYS?

[00:01:50.237]
HI, MR. LINDBERG.

[00:01:52.347]
WE WANT TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT THE X-PRIZE.

[00:01:54.367]
WHAT KIND OF CONTEST IS IT?

[00:01:56.377]
IT'S A $10 MILLION
PRIZE TO BE AWARDED

[00:01:58.737]
TO THE FIRST PRIVATELY FUNDED
SUBORBITAL SPACE LAUNCH.

[00:02:02.117]
THAT DOESN'T SOUND TOO HARD.

[00:02:04.247]
WELL, TO WIN THE PRIZE, YOU HAVE
TO BE ABLE TO CARRY THREE PEOPLE

[00:02:07.627]
TO AN ALTITUDE OF 100 KILOMETERS,
OR 62 MILES, RETURN SAFELY--

[00:02:12.137]
THAT'S IMPORTANT-- AND DO
IT AGAIN WITHIN TWO WEEKS.

[00:02:15.157]
OKAY, MAYBE THAT'S A LITTLE HARDER.

[00:02:17.197]
WHY WAS THE X-PRIZE CREATED?

[00:02:20.197]
THE MISSION OF THE X-PRIZE
IS TO CREATE A FUTURE

[00:02:22.637]
IN WHICH THE PUBLIC CAN
PERSONALLY PARTICIPATE

[00:02:25.247]
IN SPACE TRAVEL AND ITS BENEFITS.

[00:02:27.287]
I'M THERE.

[00:02:28.817]
JUST TELL ME WHERE
AND WHEN I CAN GO.

[00:02:30.857]
HOW SOON CAN TOURISTS
GO INTO SPACE?

[00:02:33.257]
WHOA, HOLD ON A MINUTE.

[00:02:34.797]
NO ONE'S WON THE PRIZE YET, BUT
WHEN SOMEONE DOES WIN THE PRIZE,

[00:02:38.017]
IT'LL PROBABLY TAKE A YEAR

[00:02:39.117]
OR TWO BEFORE THE PAYING PUBLIC
CAN GO AND FLY INTO SPACE.

[00:02:42.527]
WHO STARTED THE X-PRIZE?

[00:02:44.917]
PETER DIAMANDIS WAS READING
MY GRANDFATHER'S BOOK,

[00:02:47.447]
THE SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS, WHEN A
LIGHTBULB WENT ON IN HIS MIND,

[00:02:51.127]
AND HE THOUGHT, "THAT'S IT.

[00:02:52.997]
"WE NEED A PRIZE FOR SPACE TRAVEL.

[00:02:55.097]
THAT'S HOW I'M GONNA GET TO SPACE."

[00:02:57.007]
IN 1996, WE LAUNCHED THE X-PRIZE
UNDER THE ARCH IN ST. LOUIS.

[00:03:02.587]
DIDN'T YOUR GRANDFATHER, CHARLES
LINDBERG, WIN THE ORTIEG PRIZE

[00:03:05.757]
IN 1927 FOR BEING THE
FIRST PERSON TO FLY SOLO

[00:03:08.487]
ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN?

[00:03:10.117]
VERY GOOD.

[00:03:10.827]
YOU KNOW YOUR HISTORY.

[00:03:12.187]
PEOPLE OFTEN FORGET THAT
AVIATION WAS DEVELOPED BY CONTESTS

[00:03:15.477]
AND PRIZES LIKE THE ORTIEG
PRIZE AND THE BENDIX PRIZE,

[00:03:18.607]
AND WE HOPE TO DO THE SAME THING
FOR SPACE TRAVEL WITH THE X-PRIZE.

[00:03:22.367]
WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO NASA IF WE
HAVE COMMERCIAL SPACEFLIGHT?

[00:03:26.667]
WELL, PRIVATE INDUSTRY CAN
OFTEN OPERATE MORE EFFICIENTLY

[00:03:29.617]
THAN GOVERNMENT, AND PRIVATE
ENTERPRISE WILL ALLOW NASA

[00:03:32.697]
TO CONCENTRATE ON THEIR CORE
MISSION OF SCIENCE AND EXPLORATION

[00:03:36.297]
WITHOUT HAVING TO OPERATE A
SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.

[00:03:39.887]
I GUESS NASA DOESN'T
OPERATE THE AIRLINES TODAY,

[00:03:42.477]
EVEN THOUGH IN THE EARLY YEARS,
WHEN IT WAS NACA, IT WAS IMPORTANT

[00:03:45.407]
TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL AVIATION.

[00:03:47.097]
THAT'S RIGHT.

[00:03:48.237]
AND THE MORE PEOPLE WHO HAVE THE
OPPORTUNITY TO FLY INTO SPACE

[00:03:51.737]
AND LOOK AT OUR PLANET

[00:03:52.897]
AND EXPERIENCE WHAT THOSE
ASTRONAUTS ARE TELLING US IS A

[00:03:56.687]
LIFE-CHANGING EXPERIENCE, THE
MORE THEY'LL WORK HARDER TO TRY

[00:04:00.527]
TO SAVE OUR PLANET AND THE
QUALITY OF LIFE THAT WE KNOW

[00:04:03.997]
FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS.

[00:04:06.037]
NOW, THIS IS TRULY EXCI